News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



13. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Neural Sciences

Table E–35 summarizes international research capabilities in the four areas recognized by the Army behavioral, cognitive, and neural sciences program: cognitive skills and abilities, perceptual processes, noncognitive skills and abilities, and leadership. Basic research in these areas contributes directly to the ability of a soldier to analyze and act on information presented on a video display terminal (multimodal display systems and iconography), training in virtual and constructed realities, and determining fitness for duty as well as when training goals have been achieved.

Table E–35.  International Research Capabilities—Behavioral, Cognitive, and Neural Sciences

Technology

United Kingdom

France

Germany

Japan

Asia/Pacific Rim

FSU

Other Countries

Cognitive Skills & Abilities 1s.gif (931 bytes) Distributed simulation & constructed reality (U.S. ADS system)

1s.gif (931 bytes) Iconograph compatibility with human user

1s.gif (931 bytes) Vital sign remote

1s.gif (931 bytes) Distributed simulation & constructed reality (U.S. ADS system)

1s.gif (931 bytes) Iconograph compatibility with human user

1s.gif (931 bytes) Distributed simulation & constructed reality (U.S. ADS system)

1s.gif (931 bytes) Iconograph compatibility with human user

1s.gif (931 bytes) Vital sign remote

1s.gif (931 bytes) Iconograph compatibility with human user Taiwan, Malaysia

1s.gif (931 bytes) Distributed simulation & constructed reality (U.S. ADS system)

South Korea, China

1s.gif (931 bytes) Iconograph compatibility with human user

3s.gif (977 bytes) Distributed simulation & constructed reality (U.S. ADS system) Israel,Sweden, Netherlands, Canada

1s.gif (931 bytes) Distributed simulation & constructed reality (U.S. ADS system)

1s.gif (931 bytes) Iconograph compatibility with human user

Perceptual Processes 1s.gif (931 bytes) Multimodal data presentation (couple visual presentation on display panel with auditory display)

1s.gif (931 bytes) Iconographic compatibility with human user

South Korea, China

1s.gif (931 bytes) Iconographic compatibility with human user

3s.gif (977 bytes) Multimodal data presentation (couple visual presentation on display panel with auditory display)

3s.gif (977 bytes) Iconographic compatibility with human user

Netherlands, Canada, Israel

1s.gif (931 bytes) Multimodal data presentation (couple visual presentation on display panel with auditory display)

Noncognitive Skills & Abilities 1s.gif (931 bytes) Neurophysiological measures of human performance

1s.gif (931 bytes) Pharmacological performance sustainers

1s.gif (931 bytes) Stress reduction

1s.gif (931 bytes) Neurophysiological measures of human performance

1s.gif (931 bytes) Pharmacological performance sustainers

1s.gif (931 bytes) Neuropsychological profile

1s.gif (931 bytes) Neurophysiological measures of human performance

1s.gif (931 bytes) Pharmacological performance sustainers

1s.gif (931 bytes) Stress reduction

1s.gif (931 bytes) Neurophysiological measures of human performance

1s.gif (931 bytes) Pharmacological performance sustainers

1s.gif (931 bytes) Neuropsychological profile

South Korea, China, Taiwan

1s.gif (931 bytes) Neurophysiological measures of human performance

1s.gif (931 bytes) Pharmacological performance sustainers

1s.gif (931 bytes) Neuropsychological profile

3s.gif (977 bytes) Pharmacological performance sustainers

3s.gif (977 bytes) Stress reduction

Israel, Sweden, Netherlands, Canada

1s.gif (931 bytes) Neurophysiological measures of human performance

1s.gif (931 bytes) Pharmacological performance sustainers

1s.gif (931 bytes) Neuropsychological profile

Leadership 2s.gif (968 bytes)   1s.gif (931 bytes) Multinational force integration 1s.gif (931 bytes)     Canada

2s.gif (968 bytes)

Note: See Annex E, Section A.6 for explanation of key numerals.

 

a. Cognitive Skills and Abilities

The current era in C2 systems is characterized by acquisition of such large amounts of data simultaneously that processing of the information is limited by perceptual processes of the human mind. To manage this reality, C3 systems have made progress in iconographic representations and in multimodal data presentation by using auditory input to complement visual display systems. Color–coded icons can be used to present complex data in a relatively simple manner. Auditory cues improve the operator’s attentiveness and response to changing incoming data. Nonetheless, as our ability to sense battlefield conditions improves through the use of multiarray sensors, the amount of information to be processed will increase dramatically. The task then is to present the large volume of data in a compressed and comprehensible manner.

Research in cognitive skills and abilities concerns data, models, and theories relating to how individuals acquire, process, store, and use information. Wide–ranging programs of basic research on skill acquisition, retention, and transfer are supported by most major universities and research institutions in northern Europe and Canada. In addition, other countries provide opportunities for collaboration on more narrowly defined topics within this area. An example is research in Israel concerning the identification and transfer of basic cognitive skills to military flight training. Another is research on learning and using information from prose text, being carried out in the Netherlands. Iconographic systems are under development in Canada, the EC, and Japan. The Netherlands, Israel, and some Pacific Rim nations also have efforts in this area. The advent of computer–generated auditory and visual data presentation modes led to advanced distributed simulation (ADS) techniques and programs. This allows multiforce operations to be imaged from distributed sites. Such technology facilitates training activities and integration of activities across the services. The software and hardware used in model systems are developed in Japan and the EC.

b. Perceptual Processes

Perceptual processes concern the reception and processing of sensory information. As true in the first research area, basic research on human perception is supported by most major universities and research institutions in northern Europe and Canada. Again, other countries also support perceptual processes on more specific topics within this area. Of particular interest to the Army is research in Israel on methods and technologies for enhancing human perception and attention in complex situations.

c. Noncognitive Skills and Abilities

Researchers in this area examine the debilitating effects of stress on human performance. The effects of physical and psychological fatigue on human performance have been examined in Canada and the U.K.. Another classic topic studied in Canada and northern Europe is the vigilance of attention and performance. Other related subjects include the effects of age on driving performance (the Netherlands) and the information processing in a space environment (Germany).

Unobtrusive measures of vital signs require miniaturized sensors (of blood pressure, respiration, electrical conductivity) and compact, lightweight relay systems. The United States, Japan, the EC (including the Netherlands), and Asia and the Pacific Rim (including Taiwan, South Korea, and Malaysia) have increasing capability in this area. Pharmacological performance sustainers (e.g., melatonin) are being explored for efficacy. Nations with extensive programs in the pharmaceutical area or in processed foods have capabilities here. These include the U.K., Japan, France, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Sweden, and Germany.

d. Leadership

Research in this area has not been as active as in previous decades. More than any of the other three areas, cultural differences among countries may limit collaborative research efforts to those countries that share our basic concepts. For instance, the highly individualistic and aggressive leadership style admired in the United States and other English–speaking countries may not be as relevant to other countries that do not share the same cultural background. An exception, however, is leadership research in Japan, which dates back to just after the end of World War II. For example, Japanese researchers have advanced the concept of performance–maintenance leadership, which has had a substantial impact on U.S. research.

The following highlight a few selected examples of specific research facilities engaged in work in the behavioral, cognitive, and neural sciences:

Israel—Department of Psychology, Hebrew University. The main areas of research include biopsychology, psychophysiology, cognitive psychology, and social psychology. Psychophysiology research includes work on orientation reactions and habituation processes, psychophysiological detection of information, and electrophysiological correlates of cognitive processes. Other work includes efforts to understand and develop methods and technologies for enhancing human perception in complex situations. An example is the research being done on attention and effort.

Canada—Human Performance Laboratory, York University. The laboratory is one of the seven research laboratories in the Institute for Space and Terrestrial Science. Research in the laboratory is concerned with the human visual, auditory, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, as well as with visual–vestibular relationships and sensory motor coordination. Empirical and computational research is conducted at a fundamental level and in relation to human performance in aviation and space. Research includes work on the effects of physical and psychological fatigue on human performance.

Netherlands—The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research–Human Factors Research Institute (TNO–HFRI). TNO–HFRI is a subdivision of TNO Defense Research specializing in knowledge on human factors and its application in the design of human work and of adequate technical aids. The primary mission is to develop and apply human factors research in a high–technology military environment and to promote efficient deployment of personnel and materials. Research thrusts include perception, information processing, skilled behavior, and the work environment. Specific work of interest includes studies on the effects of age on driving performance.

Japan—Department of Human Sciences, Kyushu University. Japanese research in leadership has a strong tradition, dating back to World War II. This work helps to identify the essentials of successful leadership performance and to develop effective training techniques for leadership skills. At Kyushu University, Misumi and his colleagues have developed a concept of performance–maintenance leadership, which has had a substantial impact on worldwide research in the field.

Germany—Unit of Applied Cognitive Research, University of Dresden. This department has active research programs on problems of information processing, including human–computer interaction, attention fixation, visualization of subjective attitudes toward complex scenery and pictures, level–of–processing effects in memory tasks, neuroinformatics, and joint attention effect in communication. The unit employs many experimental techniques, including measurement of eye movements with high–speed and head–free eyetrackers, gaze–dependent image processing and online control of experiments, and analysis of data using ANNs.

Click here to go to next page of document