News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



3. Computer and Information Sciences

Computers and information systems are pervasive in virtually all military systems and operations and are essential to maintaining the present leading position of U.S. military capabilities. Table E–25 summarizes international research capabilities for each major subarea.

Table E–25.  International Research Capabilities—Computer and Information Sciences

Technology

United Kingdom

France

Germany

Japan

Asia/Pacific Rim

FSU

Other Countries

Theoretical Computer Science 2s.gif (968 bytes) 2s.gif (968 bytes) 2s.gif (968 bytes) 2s.gif (968 bytes) India

4s.gif (949 bytes)

Russia

3s.gif (977 bytes)

Sweden, Netherlands

2s.gif (968 bytes)

Formal Methods for Software Engineering 2s.gif (968 bytes) 2s.gif (968 bytes) 2s.gif (968 bytes) 2s.gif (968 bytes) India

4s.gif (949 bytes)

Russia

3s.gif (977 bytes)

Sweden, Finland, Netherlands

2s.gif (968 bytes)

Software Prototyping, Development, & Evolution 2s.gif (968 bytes) 2s.gif (968 bytes) 2s.gif (968 bytes) 1s.gif (931 bytes) India

4s.gif (949 bytes)

Russia

3s.gif (977 bytes)

Sweden, Hungary, Netherlands

2s.gif (968 bytes)

Knowledge base & Database Sciences 1s.gif (931 bytes) 4s.gif (949 bytes) 4s.gif (949 bytes) 4s.gif (949 bytes)   Russia

5s.gif (958 bytes)

Netherlands

1s.gif (931 bytes)

Natural Language Processing 1s.gif (931 bytes) 2s.gif (968 bytes) 1s.gif (931 bytes)   Russia

5s.gif (958 bytes)

Netherlands, Sweden, Hungary

1s.gif (931 bytes)

Note: See Annex E, Section A.6 for explanation of key numerals.

The computer and information sciences research area addresses fundamental issues in understanding, formalizing, acquiring, representing, manipulating, and using information. The advanced systems, including the software engineering environments and new computational architectures, facilitated by this research will often be interactive, adaptive, sometimes distributed or autonomous, and frequently characterized as intelligent.

a. Theoretical Computer Science

Theoretical computer science is directed at extending the state of the art of HPCs, an enabling technology for modern tactical and strategic warfare. Research in this area includes development of formal models underlying computing technology, optimization of input/output communication, and design of new computing architectures and parallel systems. Though the United States is the world leader in most aspects of theoretical computer science, many other nations show strong capabilities, including the U.K., Germany, Japan, Netherlands, France, Russia, and Sweden. India is beginning to develop a strong research base in these fields.

b. Software Engineering and Database Sciences

Formal methods of software engineering and knowledge–based database science are the software parallels to improving the computer hardware addressed in computer studies. U.S. software development has been a driving force in enhancing the overall tactical and strategic capabilities of the U.S. armed forces. The United States has been the world leader in computer science and most areas of software development. However, a number of countries have world–class capabilities in various aspects of the overall science. The U.K. is a leader in most areas, with extensive capabilities in knowledge–based database science. Japan has world–class capabilities in software prototyping, as well as being very active in most other areas. India is becoming strong in software prototyping, development, and evolution by virtue of knowledge transfer by U.S. companies employing Indian subsidiaries for software development. Other countries have niche capabilities (e.g., Sweden and Finland). Russia’s previously strong capabilities in all areas of computer and information sciences are gradually declining due to budget constraints and aging hardware.

c. Natural Language Processing

Natural language processing has taken on an increased importance with the use of multinational/multilanguage forces in the field. The need for rapid communication between such forces is essential to the efficient and safe military cooperation between various national forces. Germany has numerous universities engaged in natural language processing, making it the most active country in the world outside the United States involved in this particular field. The U.K. also is a leader in most areas of natural language processing, with many universities having advanced research programs. Various universities in Sweden, in addition to the Royal Institute of Technology, have programs relating to natural language translation. France, Hungary, and the Netherlands are also quite advanced and have active programs in language processing.

The following highlights a few selected examples of specific facilities engaged in computer and information sciences research:

Germany–Hungary—Darmstadt University of Technology and Technical University of Budapest. This joint collaborative project combines the dialogue modeling paradigm with natural language generation and speech synthesis in an information retrieval system. This is implemented in SPEAK!, a prototype system that combines a knowledge–based dialogue manager with text generation and speech synthesis components in an integrated framework. It uses a speech synthesizer developed by the Speech Research Technology Laboratory of the Technical University of Budapest.

United Kingdom—Center for Speech Technology Research (CSTR), University of Edinburgh. CSTR does research in the areas of linguistics, speech synthesis, speaker verification, speech technology, speech signal processing, speech recognition, and phonetics. It has worked in areas such as speech synthesis, speech recognition, speaker identification and the characterization of vocal pathologies. Work in automatic speech recognition is concerned with building systems that can convert speech into words. Typically this involves performing signal processing on digitized speech and using sophisticated pattern analysis techniques to match the speech with previously trained models of sounds or words. Speech synthesis research is concerned with producing speech by machines. Often this takes the form of a text–to–speech system, whereby unrestricted text is transformed into speech.

Sweden—Department of Numerical Analysis and Computing Science (NADA), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). NADA is responsible for the research at KTH and Stockholm University in computer science and numerical analysis. Research in computer science has been established in a number of groups. The Interaction and Presentation Laboratory was established as an interdisciplinary group of researchers and research students in computing science, linguistics, psychology, sociology, and design, with common interest in human–computer interaction. Another group focuses on studies of artificial neural systems. The scope of its research ranges from the design and evaluation of ANN algorithms to realistic modeling of biological neuronal networks.

Hungary—Technical University of Budapest. Computer science and engineering research is diffused over several departments including the Department of Automation where work is done in operating systems, databases, and computer architecture. Most of the research in this department is concentrated in areas related to control and computer engineering. Research in the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science is concentrated on the mathematical and statistical aspects of computation, including information theory and statistical image processing. In addition, the Department of Telecommunications has programs in performance modeling.

United Kingdom—Computer Laboratory, Cambridge University. Research in Great Britain in computer and network security is very broad, including cryptography, network protocols, computer artifact fingerprinting, communications reliability, computer fraud detection, computer security management, and computer privacy policy. The laboratory has a relatively large group exploring various issues associated with network and computer security. They have developed considerable insight into how to engineer secure computing systems, especially security protocols. The computer security group is currently working on techniques for altering smart cards used for electronic transactions. The laboratory’s long–term research in network security protocols, cryptographic algorithms, and digital signatures contributes to the maturing of good engineering practices in the development of secure computing systems.

Click here to go to next page of document