News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



D. Aviation

Comanche is the centerpiece of the digital battlefield.

Brigadier General Orlin L. Mullen, USA (Ret.)

1. Introduction

In support of the Army’s five strategic modernization objectives, Army aviation showcases the development of the RAH–66 Comanche and AH–64D Apache Longbow helicopters. The armed reconnaissance Comanche will be the centerpiece of the digital battlefield and the Apache Longbow will provide all–weather attack capability. Battlefield commanders will quickly realize the advantages gained through the instantaneous transfer of digital reconnaissance data to the airborne shooters with their three–dimensional (3D) maneuverability/agility to control the ever–changing battlefield tempo. As the threat proliferates and increases, the probability of regional and third–world conflicts and the need for expanded aviation capabilities for deployability, lethality, versatility, and expansibility will continue to be critical.

Consistent with the AMP, the S&T program focuses on projects vital to Army Aviation’s fulfillment of its future military role in meeting the emerging requirements of Joint Vision 2010 and Army After Next (AAN). The Army Aviation S&T program will make major contributions to the Army’s battle laboratory warfighting capabilities, Force XXI, the nation’s rotorcraft industry, and NASA’s rotorcraft programs. It is postured to support the development of a joint transport rotorcraft (JTR) that has the potential to fulfill both military and commercial needs. The JTR, as well as other concept studies under investigation, examines the feasibility of using robotic air vehicles for cargo transport and the viability of a multirole/mission adaptable air vehicle, harmonizing joint user requirements for next–generation rotorcraft.

2. Relationship to Operational Capabilities

Force XXI is the Army’s near–term effort to modernize and the first step toward meeting the obligations associated with Joint Vision 2010. Force XXI focuses on gaining information dominance via digitization of the battlefield, with minimal hardware upgrades in this initial phase of modernization. Army’s contribution to Joint Vision 2010 operational concepts is identified in Army Vision 2010 as the "land component" of Joint Vision 2010. This focuses on the ability of the Army to "conduct prompt and sustained operations on land throughout the entire spectrum of the crisis." It serves as the linchpin between Force XXI and the emerging long–term vision of AAN to "ensure land force dominance across the full spectrum of military operations."

Army aviation acts as a critical element of a joint, combined, or multinational force in future operations with the ability to operate in all dimensions of the battlespace as a dominant force multiplier. Aviation’s flexibility and agility is essential for the joint force commander to gain situational awareness, protect the deploying force, and strike the enemy throughout the width and depth of the battlespace.

As a member of the joint team, the Army must compete with a wide variety of programs from other services to reach the goals of Joint Vision 2010 and AAN. The Army modernization strategy emphasizes highly leveraged R&D, leading–edge technology enhancements, and best use of available resources. This strategy will be used to develop the Army’s linkage to Joint Vision 2010 operational concepts of project and protect the force, shape the battlespace, decisive operations, sustain the force, and gain information dominance.

To meet the varied challenges of the 21st century, Army aviation envisions the family of S/SU/ACs listed in Table III–3. This table presents the correlation between the S/SU/ACs and relevant TRADOC battlefield dynamics. This large, diverse group of dynamics illustrates aviation’s ability to support a wide range of combat

Table III–3.  Aviation System Capabilities

System/
System Upgrade/
Advanced Concept
Function

Patterns of Operation

System/
System Upgrade
Capability

Advanced Concept
Capability

  Project the Force Protect the Force Gain Information Dominance Decisive Operations Shape the Battlespace Sustain the Force    
SCOUT/ATTACK             Day/night and adverse weather

Integrated cockpit for reduced crew workload

Automatic target recognition

Second–generation FLIR

EO/MMW radar

Expert system/processor

Antiarmor capability

Laser/RF Hellfire

Air–to–air capability

Advanced fire control

Stinger missiles

High rate of fire cannon

Area target capability

Hydra–70 rockets

Low–cost, precision–kill, 2.75–inch guided rockets (air to ground/ground to ground)

Survivability

Signature reduction

Advanced flight controls

Fly by wire/light

Secure NOE communications data transfer

Self deployable

Crashworthiness

Cockpit air bags

Advanced propulsion

Advanced maneuverability/agility

Integrated flight/fire control

All–weather nap of the earth (NOE) pilotage

Computer–aided low–altitude flight

Advanced weapons

Automatic target acquisition

Mission planning and rehearsal

Advanced man–machine integration

Situational awareness

Artificial intelligence (AI)/cognitive decision aiding

Precision navigation

Battalion and below command and control operational doctrine status

Secure communications–jam resistant

Multimodal command understanding

NBC sensors and overpressure

NBC/directed energy/ballistic protection

Survivability/vulnerability

Susceptibility–signature control

Diagnostics/prognostics/embedded training

Fault–tolerant/AI processing

Ground maintenance associate

Self–deployable

Crashworthiness

Two–level/paperless maintenance

System            
RAH–66 Comanche

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System Upgrade            
AH–64D Apache Longbow

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Advanced Concept            
Enhanced AH–64D Apache

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Airborne Manned/Unmanned System Technology

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Modular Unmanned Logistics Express    

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Multirole Mission–Adaptable Air Vehicle

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CARGO/UTILITY               Range

Advanced propulsion/ airfoils
Self–deployable

Lift (advanced transmission)

Maximize load carrying
Minimum noise/vibration

Cargo handling

Increased payload, internal/external
All–weather/day/night, reduced time

NOE sling load operations

Precision navigation/hover
Active load stabilization

Man–machine integration

Interactive displays/AI

Diagnostics/prognostics/embedded training

Reduced signatures

Forward arming and refueling

Ground maintenance associate

Advanced Concepts            
Improved Cargo Helicopter

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Joint Transport Rotorcraft

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operations. Army aviation is an integral part of all battlefield dynamics. Table III–3 also shows the projected S/SU/ACs capabilities for the aviation functional missions.

Army aviation will continue to be versatile and deployable. It will combine speed, mobility, and firepower in the attack/reconnaissance and assault forces, while moving and sustaining combat power at decisive points on the battlefield with its cargo/utility helicopters. With the evolution of combined arms operations, Army aviation will be even more important in the faster paced battles of the future.

3. Modernization Strategy

The aviation annex to the AMP provides a blueprint for equipping our aviation forces well into the next century with a modern, cost–effective, warfighting fleet able to meet the challenges of low–, mid–, and high–intensity conflicts. The AMP calls for the following major improvements:

Complete procurement of AH–64D Apache Longbow, complete development and procurement of RAH–66 Comanche, and complete improved cargo helicopter (ICH).

Support advanced concepts: JTR and Airborne Manned/Unmanned System Technology (AMUST).

Current and future threats to Army aircraft are many and varied. The range of new and emerging technologies available to our adversaries further increases the threat. Many such technologies are intended to improve the effectiveness of air defense systems against low–flying helicopters, while other technologies strive to strengthen the protection of ground systems against attack by air. Undoubtedly, these technologies will become available on the international arms market, resulting in an even more robust capability for our potential adversaries. Our own warfighting concept and modernization requirements are predicated on the need to counter both known and emerging threats.

4. Roadmap for Army Aviation

Table III–4 presents a summary of S/SU/ACs and demonstrations in the Army Aviation S&T program that support the AMP. The roadmap for Aviation (Figure III–2) portrays the Army’s use of TDs and ATDs to support the development of its future aviation systems, and dual–use technology for the nation’s rotorcraft industry. The Aviation S/SU/ACs are shown at the top of the figure. The lower part of the figure shows the substantial block of Aviation TDs that support the S/SU/ACs and provide the opportunity for technology upgrades of fielded systems. These demonstrations are designed to establish a proof of principle (i.e., to serve as a testbed, validate feasibility, and reduce cost and risk for entering engineering and manufacturing development (EMD)). The roadmap shows two technology insertion windows that offer opportunities for technology application to aircraft S/SU/ACs. Technology insertions that may occur through modification programs for fielded systems, such as AH–64D Apache, UH–60 Blackhawk, CH–47 Chinook, OH–58D Kiowa Warrior, and special operations aircraft (SOA), are not shown.

The following subsections provide descriptions of the aviation demonstrations categorized on the roadmap as mission equipment, advanced platforms, propulsion, and logistics/maintenance.

a. Mission Equipment

Rotorcraft Pilot’s Associate (RPA) ATD (1993–99). The primary thrust of the aviation S&T mission equipment area is the RPA ATD. The objective of this program is to establish revolutionary improvements in combat helicopter mission effectiveness through the application of artificial intelligence for cognitive decision aiding and the integration of advanced pilotage sensors, target acquisition, armament and fire control, communications, cockpit controls and displays, navigation, survivability, and flight control technologies. Next–generation mission equipment technologies will be integrated with high–speed data fusion processing and cognitive decision–aiding expert systems to achieve maximum effectiveness and survivability for our combat helicopter forces.

This increased system effectiveness will enable Army aviation to be more responsive to battle commanders at all levels. RPA will expand aviation’s freedom of operation, improve response time for quick–reaction and mission redirect events, increase the precision strike capability for high–value/short–dwell–time targets, and increase day/night, all–weather operational capability. RPA will contribute greatly to the pilot’s ability to see and assimilate the battlefield in all conditions; to rapidly collect, synthesize, and disseminate battlefield information; and to take immediate and effective actions. These developments will enable the full use of the crew’s perceptual, judgmental, and creative skills to capitalize on their own strengths and to exploit the adversary’s weaknesses.

The Defense Simulation Internet (DSI), through the Army’s Battlefield Distributed Simulation–Developmental (BDS–D) program capabilities, will be utilized in the RPA program to perform measures of performance (MOPs)

Table III–4.  Aviation Demonstration and System Summary

Advanced Technology Demonstration

Technology Demonstration

Rotorcraft Pilot’s Associate

Battlefield Combat Identification (see C4)

Multispectral Countermeasures

Air/Land Enhanced Reconnaissance and Targeting

Mission Equipment
Advanced Helicopter Pilotage Phase I/II
Low–Cost Aviator’s Imaging Multispectral Modular Sensors
Image Intensification/FLIR Fusion Package
Survivability/Lethality Advanced Integration in Rotorcraft
Autonomous Scout Rotorcraft Testbed
Airborne Manned/Unmanned System Technology
Low–Cost Precision Kill
Low–Cost Precision Kill Guided Flight
Low–Cost Precision Kill Airborne
Rotorcraft Air Combat Enhancement
Brilliant Helicopter Advanced Weapons
Full–Spectrum Threat Protection
Covert NOE Pilotage System
Integrated Sensors and Targeting
Integrated Countermeasures
Future Missile Technology Integration
ATR for Weapons Technology
Fourth–Generation Crew Station
Subsystems Technology for IR Reductions

Advanced Platforms
Advanced Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Technologies
Rotary–Wing Structures Technology
Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission
Helicopter Active Control Technology
Third–Generation Advanced Rotors Demonstration
Aircraft Systems Self–Healing
Multirole Mission Adaptable Air Vehicle
Structural Crash Dynamics Modeling and Simulation

Propulsion
Integrated High–Performance Turbine Engine Technology Joint Turbine Advanced Gas Generator
Alternate Propulsion Sources

Logistics/Maintenance
On–Board Integrated Diagnostics Systems
Survivable, Affordable, Repairable Airframe Program
Subsystems Technology for Affordability and Supportability

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

System
RAH–66 Comanche

System Upgrade
AH–64D Apache Longbow Modernization
Improved Cargo Helicopter

Advanced Concept
Survivable Armed Reconnaissance on the Digital Battlefield
Joint Transport Rotorcraft
AMUST
Modular Unmanned Logistics Express


Figure III-2. Roadmap - Aviation
Figure III-2. Roadmap - Aviation
Click on the image to view enlarged version

validation. The RPA ATD will achieve the following quantitative MOPs relative to Comanche–like performance during 24–hour, all–weather battlefield conditions: 30 to 60 percent reduction in mission losses, 50 to 150 percent increase in targets destroyed, and 20 to 30 percent reduction in mission timelines. Flight test experiments conducted during the RPA program will provide a measure of simulation validation, evaluate the impact of real–world stimulus, and provide the confidence that technologies are ready to transition into systems, system upgrades, and advanced concepts. Supports: Comanche, Apache, SOA, Army Airborne Command and Control System (A2C2S), and dual–use potential.

Advanced Helicopter Pilotage (AHP) TD (1994–98). The AHP TD supports the RPA ATD. The AHP TD will develop and demonstrate a night and adverse weather pilotage system to visually couple the aircrew to the terrain flight environment using advanced thermal imaging and image intensifier sensors and a very wide field–of–view, helmet–mounted display. The AHP display system will provide current and future Army aircraft with increased safety and situational awareness, reduced pilot cognitive workload, increased mission launch rates, and enhanced terrain flight operations. Supports: RPA, Comanche, Apache, and SOA.

Battlefield Combat Identification (BCID) ATD (1993–98). The BCID ATD will demonstrate target ID techniques together with situational awareness information that will minimize fratricide during ground–to–ground and air–to–ground engagements. It is discussed in detail in Section III–E, "Command, Control, Communications, and Computers." Supports: Scout and Attack Aircraft, ACT/JTR, and ICH.

Multispectral Countermeasures (MSCM) ATD (1997–99). The purpose of the MSCM ATD is to develop prototype hardware for an advanced technology, low–cost coherent jammer to protect Army helicopters from imaging infrared surface–to–air missiles. The integration of a missile detector, a high–accuracy point/track subsystem, and an IR laser with fiber optic coupling and advanced expendables will be demonstrated. A multiline or wavelength–agile source will be used to improve its effectiveness against missiles with counter–countermeasures and to develop a capability against IR imaging seekers. Supports: All fielded aircraft and ICH.

Integrated Sensors and Targeting (ISAT) TD (1999–02). This program will develop a leap–ahead targeting upgrade to the suite of integrated RF countermeasures (AN/ALQ–211) and suite of integrated IR countermeasures (AN/ALQ–212). Apache Longbow AH–64D aircraft will have precision geolocation and targeting of emitters on the battlefield. Using its integrated variable message format (VMF) interface to on–board communications systems, Apache Longbow will be capable of providing friend or foe classification of radar emitters on the battlefield. Supports: Upgrades to the AN/ALQ–211 and AN/ALQ–212, AH–64D Apache Longbow, Integrated Countermeasures, and common air/ground electronic combat suite (CAGES).

Integrated Countermeasures (ICM) TD (1999–02). This program will develop and demonstrate a leap–ahead integrated RF, EO, IR countermeasures system upgrade for theAN/ALQ–211 and AN/ALQ–212 systems for both conventional and reduced signature aircraft with horizontal technology integration (HTI)–to–ground survivability. This program will counter such future threats as multispectral RF, IR missile seekers, and air defense systems using integrated radar, laser, and FLIR target acquisition and tracking, to include special reduced detection jamming nodes for reduced signature platforms. This integrated approach will permit a multispectral countermeasures attack on enemy weapon systems during their acquisition, tracking and homing phases, to include jamming of proximity fusing. Supports: Upgrades to the AN/ALQ–211 and AN/ALQ–212, Integrated Countermeasures, and CAGES.

Air/Land Enhanced Reconnaissance and Targeting (ALERT) ATD (1997–00). This ATD will demonstrate automatic target acquisition and enhanced target identification via a second–generation FLIR/multifunction laser sensor suite for rapid wide area surveillance and targeting. ALERT will leverage ongoing Air Force and DARPA developments for search on–the–move ATR. Second–generation FLIR and multifunction laser data will be fused to allow large search areas to be covered with high targeting accuracy while at low depression angles and high platform motion. Range profiling of the highest priority targets will provide target identification. Supports: Comanche and Apache Improvements.

Low–Cost Aviator’s Imaging Multispectral Modular Sensors TD (2000–02). This effort will develop and demonstrate multispectral pilotage sensors that leverage state–of–the–art technologies for sensors and displays, including FLIR, image intensifier, obstacle detection sensors, and wide field–of–view (40 90 degrees) optics. The program will develop a core suite of modules with high–resolution performance and low–light–level capabilities required for pilotage sensors to achieve HTI across the aviation fleet to include attack, reconnaissance, utility, and cargo aircraft. The approach will improve aviators’ safety–of–flight, situational awareness, and pilotage capabilities under night battlefield, adverse weather, and military operations in urban terrain (MOUT) conditions. Supports: Attack, Reconnaissance, Utility/Cargo Aircraft, Air Warrior, and Mounted Battlespace.

Image Intensification (I2)/FLIR Fusion Pilotage TD (2000–03). This TD will demonstrate image fusion upgrades to the baseline Comanche dual–spectrum (I2/IR) pilotage system to increase mission effectiveness and survivability for future high–performance rotorcraft. Knowledge–based image fusion algorithms will significantly enhance image resolution and will support concurrent demonstration of aided NOE pilotage technology. Supports: Future Comanche/Apache Upgrades.

Future Missile Technology Integration (FMTI) TD (1994–98). The FMTI TD will demonstrate the integration on the Bradley fighting vehicle of a lightweight, fire–and–forget, multirole missile system for air–to–air and air–to–ground engagements. It includes the integration of command guidance, control, propulsion, airframe, and warhead technologies capable of performing in high–clutter/obscurants, adverse–weather environments and under countermeasure conditions. Missile flight control and guidance system technology will explore capabilities such as lock–on–before/lock–on–after launch, fire–and–forget, command guidance, signal and image processing, and secure wideband data links. Demonstrated missile system performance (i.e., weight, range, kill ratio, speed, and lethality) will be optimized to exceed current baseline parameters of air–to–ground Hellfire and ground–to–ground tube–launched, optically tracked, and wire command–link guided TOW. Supports: HWMV, M2 Bradley, Follow–On to TOW (FOTT), Hellfire III, RAH–66 Comanche, and AH–64 Enhanced Apache.

Survivability/Lethality Advanced Integration in Rotorcraft (SLAIR) TD (2000–04). The SLAIR TD will integrate, simulate, and flight demonstrate the next–generation mission equipment technologies necessary for attack and scout helicopters to fight effectively and survive in Force XXI. Candidate technologies under development by many research, development, and engineering centers (RDECs) include advanced weapon technology (lethal and nonlethal), ATR/combat identification, advanced fire control, survivability, C3, and the next generation of cognitive decision aiding beyond the RPA. The SLAIR TD will synergistically demonstrate the capabilities of combat versatility, tailorable kill levels, reduced engagement timelines, increased survivability, and reduced fratricide. Supports: AH–64D Apache Longbow Modernization, RAH–66 Comanche, potential improvement to Marine AH–1W Super Cobra, and dual–use potential (nonlethal).

Low–Cost Precision Kill (LCPK) Concept TD (1996–98). This effort will demonstrate, through hardware–in–the–loop (HITL) simulation, at least two approaches to a low–cost, standoff range, precision guidance and control retrofit package for the 2.75–inch rocket. In current operations, large numbers of unguided 2.75–inch rockets would be required to achieve high probability of kill against point and nonheavy targets at standoff ranges, resulting in unacceptable collateral damage and creating a significant logistics burden. With the addition of a retrofit guidance and control package, accuracy comparable to current guided munitions can be obtained. This greatly improved accuracy will reduce the number of rockets required to defeat nonheavy armor point targets by up to two orders of magnitude, thereby providing a 4:1 increase in stowed kills at one third the cost compared to current guided missiles. Supports: AH–64 Apache, OH–58D Kiowa Warrior, Hydra–70 Improvement, and Special Operations Forces (SOF).

ATR for Weapons TD (1998–01). Conventional weapon systems seek to extend their range through various technology approaches to facilitate a more favorable loss–exchange ratio on the battlefield. Coupled with this extended range is a requirement or a stated need for fire–and–forget conventional weapon systems. This technology demonstration will explore the missile–based weapon systems’ autonomous target recognition through the use of passive moving target indication (MTI), rapidly retrainable pattern recognition algorithms, and techniques for rapid downloading from the platform to the weapon. Comparison of synthetic discriminant function (SDF) performance capability with other techniques, such as those already in use with laser radar (LADAR) data, and the quantifying of the computing requirements for all the algorithms to determine what is most appropriate for the close combat scenario will be demonstrated using realistic battlefield environments to include, for example, smoke and countermeasures. ATR has the potential to provide the soldier with a weapon that has true lock–on–after–launch (LOAL) fire–and–forget capability at extended ranges with the added benefits of reacquisition of targets after loss of lock, friendly avoidance, and optimum aimpoint selection for increased warhead effectiveness. Supports: Hellfire III, Brilliant Antitank (BAT) P3I, Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Smart Tactical Rocket (MSTAR), Enhanced Fiber Optic Guided Missile (EFOGM), Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), and extended range fire–and–forget that demands LOAL, Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV), Avenger, FOTT P3I, Javelin, Stinger, and Future Missile Technology Integration (FMTI).

LCPK Guided Flight TD (1999–00). This program will demonstrate, through ground–launched guided flight tests, at least two approaches to a low–cost, standoff range, precision guidance, and control retrofit package for the 2.75–inch rocket. LCPK risk reduction technologies and approaches, including strapdown semiactive laser (SAL) and Scatterider seekers, guidance section decoupling from rolling rocket motor, two–axis canard controls, and small low–cost inertial devices will be evaluated. Supports: AH–64D Apache, RAH–66 Comanche, Kiowa Warrior OH–58D, SOF, Hydra–70 Improvement Program, and potentially Navy/Marine Corps AH–1W.

LCPK Airborne TD (1900–01). This effort will flight demonstrate the helicopter integration of the best 2.75–inch guided rocket system obtained from the LCPK Guided Flight TD. The LCPK system will be evaluated from a helicopter system perspective to ensure aircraft compatibility and performance effectiveness. Supports: AH–64D Apache, RAH–66 Comanche, Kiowa Warrior OH–58D, SOF, Hydra–70 Improvement Program, and potentially Navy/Marine Corps AH–1W.

Brilliant Helicopter Advanced Weapons (BHAW) TD (1906–10). The BHAW TD will integrate and demonstrate, through simulation and ground/flight test, future combined arms interoperable advanced aviation weapons, target acquisition and fire control technologies, and aviation platforms and will quantify resulting increases in aviation mission effectiveness. Full spectrum lethality will be demonstrated from "less than lethal" tailorable up to conventional lethal kill mechanisms. Technology candidates for the BHAW TD include:

Low–cost precision kill weapons with low collateral damage, including brilliant missile technology with immunity to countermeasures.
Innovative less than lethal kill mechanisms, such as directed–energy techniques, that immobilize or disrupt personnel, vehicles, or other equipment.
Advanced auto cannon technologies (e.g., cased–telescoped, bursting munitions, electrochemical and electromagnetic propulsion, electrostatic proximity fuses, closed–loop fire control).
Automatic target acquisition, recognition, and covert identification that uses multidata/sensor fusion of advanced on– and off–board distributed target acquisition concepts.
Intelligent fire and flight control, 360–degree aircraft aspect that provides quick reaction precision kill with tailorable lethality level and selectable automatic engagement feature.

Supports: Comanche and Apache.

Rotorcraft Air Combat Enhancement (RACE) TD (2000–04). The probability is increasing that Army helicopters will encounter airborne threats in future conflicts. There is a need to develop an air–to–air capability for Army aviation to defeat the threat and protect itself and friendly forces. The RACE TD will develop, integrate, and airborne demonstrate the technologies necessary for the Army’s existing and future helicopters to meet the need. Technology candidates include improvements to gun, rockets/missiles, target acquisition and fire control systems, and other aircraft system technology necessary to achieve an air–to–air system solution. Supports: AH–64D Apache Longbow Modernization and RAH–66 Comanche.

Full–Spectrum Threat Protection TD (2002–05). This TD demonstrates balanced integration of rotorcraft survivability for the most effective combinations of active countermeasures and susceptibility reduction features for full spectrum threats (i.e., radar, acoustics, IR, and visual). It will demonstrate survivability against advanced threat sensors and smart weapons and munitions. The survivability codes will be validated and verified by installing equipment on aircraft with known signature and flight testing against various threats. Enhanced survivability and system performance features for aircraft, to include S/SU/ACs and UAVs, will be tailored for specific warfighting situations by minimizing weight and aerodynamic impact while maintaining low–observable cross section, minimizing threat detection of active countermeasures, increasing jammer effectiveness, optimizing mission routes and tactics, and reducing production costs. Supports: TRADOC battle labs, Force XXI, Project Reliance, and multiservice applications.

Covert Nap–of–the–Earth (NOE) Pilotage System TD (2002–05). This TD will demonstrate an advanced, effective, and highly integrated rotorcraft pilotage system to operate covertly NOE and unobtrusively in urban areas with increased survival in hazardous flight environments or emergency situations with reduced crew workload during day, night, and adverse weather. Reduced crew workload, aided precision flightpath control, and increased safety will enable crew members to focus on mission–level functions while maintaining full vehicle and flightpath control. The TD will demonstrate a comprehensive air vehicle management system for pilotage; a large–scale integrated mission equipment suite; automated protection from obstacles, terrain, and other in–flight hazards; an increased capability for rotorcraft operations avoiding and using obstacles, terrain, and threats for military operations; and increased safety for military and commercial rotorcraft operating in hazardous flight environments. Supports: JTR, ICH, Enhanced Apache, and far–term manned and unmanned rotorcraft.

Fourth–Generation Crew Station TD (2004–07). This TD will demonstrate the next generation of air vehicle crew station architecture. The effort will develop and incorporate advanced displays for full glass cockpit/crew station; 3D display technology; selectable touch, cyclic grip cursor, or pupil–tracked cursor information access capability; rapid pilot–reconfigurable information layout on displays; automated AI "advisor" aiding; intelligent, adaptive interfaces; advanced selectable "windowless" cockpit synthetic vision systems; advanced information display symbology, and advanced flight control designs. Displays, AI, and crew station technology from Air Force, Navy, and NASA programs will be incorporated into system design. The TD will demonstrate increased pilot performance and overall mission and reduced pilot susceptibility to injury by laser, directed energy, or other sources in hostile electromagnetic environments. Supports: JTR, ICH, Enhanced Apache, MRMAAV, and advanced ground vehicle crew stations.

Subsystems Technology for Infrared Reductions (STIRR) TD (1997–01). The focus of STIRR is IR technology development, integration, and demonstration to improve the survivability of Army rotary–wing vehicles. The primary goal of increased survivability will be addressed via aggressive efforts to reduce synergistically the thermal emissions from helicopter airframes while developing and improving systems designed to cool plume and engine heat signatures. STIRR will achieve development of advanced, multispectral (visual through far IR) airframe coatings that are compatible with radar absorbing materials/structures and development of state–of–the–art, low–cost, lightweight thermal insulative materials. STIRR will support validation of advanced computational aero/thermo modeling and simulation (M&S) tools that will be used to develop innovative engine IR suppression techniques. Additional quantifiable payoffs of passive signature reduction are direct improvements in active countermeasures performance through increased jamming/signal (J/S) ratios and improved decoy effectiveness. Supports: Current and future rotary–wing system upgrades, JTR, Comanche, USAF, USN, and USMC vertical lift air vehicles, AH–64D, UH–60, RAH–66 upgrades, ICH, and other services’ fleets.

b. Advanced Platforms

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) II TD (1997–00). The ART TD incorporates key emerging material and component technologies for advanced rotorcraft transmissions and makes a quantum jump in the state of the art. The ART–II TD will survey the applicable ART–I (completed in FY92) component technologies and proposed concepts and will integrate the more promising ones into selected transmission/drive subsystem demonstrators. Advanced concepts such as split torque, split path, and single planetary transmissions will be considered with advanced material applications/component designs to demonstrate lighter, quieter, threat–tolerant, more durable, reliable, and efficient drivetrain subsystems. Supports: JTR, ICH, Apache, and dual–use potential.

Helicopter Active Control Technology (HACT) TD (1998–02). The HACT TD will demonstrate a second–generation fly–by–light control system technology and integration of flight control and mission functions into a vehicle management system (VMS). Advanced processing for fault–tolerant systems, individual blade/higher harmonic control, and smart actuation concepts will be considered. It will demonstrate high–bandwidth active control technologies, multimode stabilization, and carefree maneuvering and robust control law design methodologies for affordable high–performance helicopter control systems.

The HACT will provide enhanced night/adverse weather mission effectiveness during confined or terminal area operations capability, reduced workload, and improved crew endurance. It will maximize ability of the flight crew to exploit inherent vehicle performance, maintain safety and reliability while improving affordability and operations and support (O&S) costs, simplify maintenance, and reduce fleet attrition. Supports: Comanche, Apache, JTR, and ICH.

Third–Generation Advanced Rotor Demonstration (3rd GARD) TD (2001–04). The 3rd GARD TD will demonstrate advanced rotors and rotor concepts to enhance current performance ceilings through high lift airfoils/devices, tailored platforms and tip shapes, elastic/dynamic tailoring methods, active on–blade control methods, acoustic signature reduction techniques, and integration of advanced rotors and rotor concepts with advanced active control systems. 3rd GARD technology will provide for increased survivability via reduced acoustic signature and increased maneuverability/agility, increased rotorcraft speed capability, increased range and payload, and reduced O&S cost via reduced vibration and loads. Supports: Far–term advanced rotorcraft concepts.

Aircraft System Self–Healing (ASSH) TD (2005–07). The ASSH TD will demonstrate a self–healing flight control system for rotorcraft that automatically reconfigures remaining air vehicle lift, control, and applicable mission equipment assets to compensate for the degradation of vehicle control when caused by battle, obstacle strike, or premature subsystem or component failure, and will advise the crew for appropriate action. The TD will demonstrate robust fault detection and identification of critical failures through onboard expert system diagnostics, compensation strategies for damaged aircraft subsystems, and smart flight control component technology. ASSH technology improves the survivability of crew and aircraft by providing a return–home capability for damaged aircraft, reduced aircraft losses, increased operational flexibility, productivity during all mission phases, and mobility of damaged assets. Supports: Far–term advanced concepts.

Multirole Mission Adaptable Air Vehicle (MRMAAV) TD (2008–11). The MRMAAV TD will demonstrate the feasibility of using a common airframe and powerplant(s) to conduct multiple primary mission roles with the same aircraft with minimal impact on equipment interchanges (e.g., avionics, weapons, survivability packages). Common dynamics and aeromechanics components would be incorporated to support development of manned and unmanned systems. The MRMAAV concept offers battlefield commanders unprecedented mission flexibility to reconfigure aircraft in the field for various mission roles. Fewer numbers of aircraft and crews will be required to perform multiple missions. Supports: Far–term advanced concepts.

Structural Crash Dynamics Modeling and Simulation (SCDMS) TD (1997–00). SCDMS will establish a structural crash dynamics M&S capability from a single selected off–the–shelf computer code that can satisfy the need for a design and performance evaluation tool to be optimized for helicopter crashworthy systems or materials, and for scenarios common to helicopter crashes. A uniform standard approach to computer modeling of global helicopter crash dynamics will be established. SCDMS will utilize the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), the Virtual Simulation Directorate, and NASA Langley Research Center modeling and testing expertise in support of the four–phase effort, evaluating state–of–the–art M&S codes to determine strengths and weaknesses and to select code with the most strengths. Supports: ICH.

Rotary–Wing Structures Technology (RWST) TD (1997–01). RWST will fabricate and demonstrate advanced lightweight, tailorable structures, and ballistically tolerant airframe configurations that incorporate state–of–the–art computer design and analysis techniques, improved test methods, and affordable fabrication processes. The technology objectives are to increase structural efficiency by 15 percent, improve structural loads prediction accuracy up to 75 percent, and reduce costs by 25 percent without adversely impacting airframe signature. Supports: Battle laboratories, JTR, ICH, UH–60 upgrades, and collaborative technology.

Advanced Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Technologies (ARCAT) TD (1997–00). ARCAT will develop and demonstrate critical technologies in rotorcraft aeromechanics to contribute to enhanced warfighting needs for fielded and next–generation systems. Research and development will be conducted to achieve technical objectives by increasing maximum blade loading, increasing rotor aerodynamic efficiency, reducing adverse forces, reducing aircraft loads and vibration loads, reducing acoustic radiation, increasing inherent rotor lag damping, and increasing rotorcraft aeromechanics predictive effectiveness. Achievement of aeromechanics technology objectives will contribute to rotorcraft system payoffs in range, payload, cruise speed, maneuverability/agility, reliability, maintainability and reduced research, development, test, and engineering (RDT&E), procurement, and O&S costs. Supports: Battle labs and Force XXI.

c. Propulsion

Integrated High–Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) Program [Joint Turbine Advanced Gas Generator (JTAGG)] TD (1991–03). JTAGG is a tri–service effort that is structured to be compatible with the goals of the IHPTET initiative. IHPTET is a three–phase tri–service/DARPA/NASA effort with major milestones in 1991, 1997, and 2003. The JTAGG I+ was completed in 1994. Specific JTAGG I+ goals included a 25 percent reduction in fuel consumption and a 60 percent increase in power–to–weight ratio. Follow–on JTAGG II and III efforts are addressing the 1997/2003 IHPTET goals. A full engine demonstration of the improvements in gas turbine technology resulting from the JTAGG program will be conducted as required to be compatible with S/SU/AC requirements. Results will be improvements in performance, efficiency, and power–to–weight ratio over current production engines. The demonstration will incorporate advanced materials and materials processing, simulation and modeling, computational fluid dynamics, and manufacturing science. Supports: JTR, ICH, Apache, all rotorcraft, and dual–use potential.

Alternate Propulsion Sources (APS) TD (2004–10). The APS will explore advanced propulsion concepts beyond air–breathing propulsion. This program will consist of proof–of–principle technology demonstrations for propulsion concepts with potential application initially to a UAV with vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) capability. The technology focus will explore the potential of utilizing such power sources as solar energy, high–power microwaves (HPMs), flywheel generators, and hybrids. Supports: UAV application.

d. Logistics/Maintenance

Survivable, Affordable, Repairable Airframe Program (SARAP) TD (2005–08). SARAP will develop, integrate, and demonstrate efforts to provide efficient and affordable airframe structures, diagnostic, and repair concepts that address tolerance to such high–intensity combat threats as NBC, directed–energy weapons (DEWs), mines, and ballistics. The survivability, performance, durability, sustainability, and serviceability of current and future VTOL aircraft will be improved through these efforts. Emerging technologies in materials, smart structures, manufacturing methods, diagnostics, and tools will be used to the fullest to obtain optimum hardening and repairability. SARAP will use integrated product and process development (IPPD), concurrent engineering, virtual prototyping, and synergistically integrated technologies to the maximum extent practicable. Some of the overall enhancements to be realized include a 50 percent improvement in high–intensity conflict survivability, a 30 percent reduction in repair times, and a 60 percent increase in aircraft combat life. Supports: Far–term advanced concepts and material changes to fielded systems.

On–Board Integrated Diagnostic Systems (OBIDS) TD (2000–04). The OBIDS is a showcase platform to demonstrate advanced diagnostics and prognostics. Technologies to measure, track, and analyze aircraft vibrations, stresses, pressures, temperatures, and other critical parameters necessary to assess aircraft and subsystem health and usage will be integrated into the airframe. These improved diagnostic and prognostic capabilities will be measured for O&S cost benefits and enhanced aircraft safety. The man–machine interfaces needed to present data and generate information leading to corrective maintenance and early failure detection will be a principal focus. Technology demonstrations may encompass the design and integration of systems needed to promote the health and proper functioning of structures and dynamic components. Emphasis will be placed on improvements in maintainability and availability. Supports: All aircraft system upgrades and advanced concepts.

Subsystems Technology for Affordability and Supportability (STAS) TD (1997–00). The focus of STAS is on those subsystems technologies directly affecting the affordability and supportability of Army Aviation. It addresses technical barriers associated with advanced, digitized maintenance concepts, and real–time, onboard integrated diagnostics. The expected benefits from STAS are reductions in mean time to repair (MTTR), no evidence of failure (NEOF) removals, and spare parts consumption resulting in overall reductions in system life–cycle cost and enhanced mission effectiveness. Pursuits include onboard as well as ground–based hardware and software concepts designed to assist the maintainer in diagnosing system faults and recording and analyzing maintenance data and information. On–aircraft technologies will include advanced diagnostic sensors, signal processing algorithms, high–density storage, and intelligent decision aids. Shipside diagnostic and maintenance actions will integrate laptop and body–worn electronic aids, advanced displays, knowledge–based software systems, personal viewing devices, voice recognition technologies, and telemaintenance networks. Supports: Battle Laboratories; AH–64D, UH–60, RAH–66 upgrades; ICH, JTR; and other services and civil rotorcraft fleets.

5. Relationship to Modernization Plan Annexes

The versatility and importance of Army aviation as a member of the combined arms team will play a vital role in the Army’s future modernization plans. The linkage of aviation S/SU/ACs to other AMP annexes is shown in Table III–5.

Table III–5.  Correlation Between Aviation S/SU/ACs and Other AMP Annexes

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

Modernization Plan Annexes

  Close Combat Heavy* Close Combat Light* Soldier Space & Missile Defense IEW C4 Fire Support
System RAH–66 Comanche

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System
Upgrade
Apache Longbow Modernization

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  ICH

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Advanced
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  AMUST

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  JTR  

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* See Combat Maneuver Annex.
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