News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



E. Command, Control, Communications, and Computers

We must strive to reap the benefits of the ongoing technology explosion, and to gain greater efficiencies in warfighting.

General John Shalikashvili
Former Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff

1. Introduction

The Army’s command, control, communications, and computers (C4) modernization and strategic planning efforts are an integral part of Force XXI and are critical to achieving Joint Vision 2010. C4 modernization will support Force XXI by exploiting leap–ahead information transport, processing, and security technologies designed to provide commanders with overwhelming decision cycle superiority. The essential elements that ensure dominance of Force XXI C4 are global, theater, and tactical area transport systems, a tactical internet and battle command mobile platforms, and seamless, secure, adaptable information architectures.

The Army’s C4 S&T program is directed toward providing the technologies, architectures, protocols, standards, algorithms, and software for integrating communications assets throughout the battlefield. The emphasis is placed on establishing a C4 substructure of the digitized battlefield to provide mission planning with optimal use of resources throughout the task force. Electronic maps, resource data, intelligence information, and operational procedures are used to achieve highly automated operational planning, rehearsal, and execution with real–time command and control.

The synchronization of C4 modernization through Force XXI, Joint Vision 2010, and the battle laboratories/battlefield dynamics will allow America’s Army to be the best in the world—trained and ready for victory.

2. Relationship to Operational Capabilities

Table III–6 shows detailed C4 system capabilities, noting whether they are near term (system upgrade capabilities) or far term (advanced concept capabilities). Command and control (force level and lower echelon) and communications (mobile, local, wide, and range extension), along with computing and software, are the pillars of C4 modernization.

3. Army C4 Modernization Strategy

Army C4 modernization efforts support all of the Army’s modernization objectives as defined in the 1996 Army Modernization Plan. The objectives represent a combined modernization strategy that improves or enhances existing capabilities and leverages commercial investment in information technologies.

Army modernization considers Force XXI as the Army’s corporate goal of what it must become to remain the lethal force of decision through the early decades of the 21st century. It embraces the tenets of doctrinal flexibility; strategic mobility; tailorability and modularity; joint, multinational, and interagency connectivity; and versatility. The warfighter information network (WIN), in conjunction with the battlefield information transmission system (BITS) and the wireless interworking testbed (WIT), will provide the communications infrastructure for Army C4 modernization. The goal is to provide an integrated "foxhole to sustaining base" warfighter information network consisting of communications and information services that support Force XXI requirements well into the 21st century. Significant emphasis is being placed on leveraging and adapting commercially available information technology.

Table III–6.  C4 System Capabilities

System/
System Upgrade/
Advanced Concept
Function

Patterns of Operation

System/
System Upgrade
Capability

Advanced Concept
Capability

  Project the Force Protect the Force Gain Information Dominance Decisive Operations Shape the Battlespace Sustain the Force    
COMMAND & CONTROL             Integrated force and execution management

Forecasting, planning, and resource allocation

Platform embedded C2

Distributed, relational database (large area, low resolution)

Automatic situation map update

Replicated databases

Intel order generation

Nodal security

Software bridge between different systems

Automatic communications interface

Expert system battle planning

Resource allocation

Concept of operation

Expert system information correlation and fusion

Distributed database with real–time updating

Interface with Army battle command system (ABCS)

Adaptive distributed processing

Voice input/output

Battlefield planning

3D mission planning

Consistent battlespace understanding

Distributed situation assessment

Knowledge–based information presentation

Distributed empowerment

Interoperability with joint assets

Flexible hierarchical database for multiresolution, multiscales

Multimodal command understanding

Intel message preparation

Expert systems

Decision aids, management system

Wargaming/simulation

Distributed processing/databases

Multimedia storage and retrieval

Multimedia presentation and interface

Multilevel security

Built–in training

Interoperability to lower echelons

C2 on the move (OTM)

Enhanced situation awareness

Fault–tolerant processing at critical nodes

Synchronized battle management

Sensor integration

Distributed processing

Integrated position/navigation (POS/NAV)

Heads–up display

Automated mission planning

System Upgrade            
Force Level

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Lower Echelon

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Advanced Concept            
Force XXI/Vision 2000

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COMMUNICATIONS             Systems control

Cosite interference reduction

Embedded COMSEC

Frequency management

Gateways between local, wide area, and module systems

Multilevel security

Fiber optic LAN

Data/voice transport

EHF satellite communications

Light satellite

Tactical multinet gateways

RPV communications relay

Internet controller

Surrogate satellite

Enhanced data protocols

Conformal antennas

Mobile satellite connectivity

Personal communications system

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switching

Battlefield information transmission

Universal transaction communications and services

Assured communications

Distributed systems

Dynamics rerouting

Intelligent switches

Controllable signatures

Wireless LAN

Wideband multimedia communications

Integrated COMSEC

User transparent

Cellular satellite systems

Common user/satellite trunking

Airborne relay (surrogate satellite)

Multiband multipurpose radios

Transparent connectivity to local, wide, range external systems

Antijam EHF

OTM Defense Satellite Communications System

Militarized satellite personal communications system

Wideband radio access point OTM SATCOM

DIS–compliant architecture

Real–time OTM planning tools

Comprehensive warfighter information network

System Upgrade            
Mobile

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Wide Area

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Local Area

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Range Extension

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Advanced Concept            
Force XXI/Vision 2010

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4. Roadmap for C4

Table III–7 is a summary of demonstrations and SU/ACs as displayed on the roadmap (Figure III–3) for C4 modernization. The evolution of battlefield C4 into the 21st century begins with current C4 systems as a baseline. In order to preserve current investments, a step–by–step block improvement approach to modernizing legacy systems is utilized. ATDs and ACTDs support the development of SU/ACs. The flow of C4 modernization appears on the roadmap beginning with command and control and communications system upgrades on the far left, followed by specific ATDs, ACTDs, and TDs leading to Force XXI and Vision 2010.

Table III–7.  C4 Demonstration and System Summary

Advanced Technology Demonstration

Technology Demonstration

Battlefield Combat Identification

Digital Battlefield Communications

Battlespace C2

Information Operations C2 Protect and Attack

(See Section III–F, "Intelligence and Electronic Warfare.")

Command and Control

Rapid Force Projection C2
MOUT C4I

Communications

Communications Integration and Cosite Mitigation
Multiband Multimode Radio (MBMMR)
Range Extension
Universal Transaction Communications/Services
Integrated Photonics
SATCOM Technology
Commercial Communication Technology Testbed

Advanced Concept
Technology Demonstration

Rapid Terrain Visualization

(See Volume II, Annex NO TAG, for further information.)

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

System Upgrade

Command and Control—Force Level
Command and Control—Lower Echelon
Communications—Mobile
Communications—Local Area
Communications—Wide Area
Communications—Range Extension

Advanced Concept

Force XXI (Vision 2010)

a. Technology Programs Leading to Command and Control Modernization

The following ATDs and TDs represent the Army’s investment in modernizing its C2 capabilities.

Rapid Terrain Visualization ACTD (1997–01). The goal of this ACTD is to demonstrate capabilities to collect source data and generate high–resolution digital terrain databases quickly to support crisis response and force projection operations within the timelines required by the joint force commander. The commander will be capable of integrating terrain databases with current situation data and can, therefore, manipulate and display the integrated databases, achieve operational objectives, and visualize a desired end state. Source data collection, digital terrain database generation and tailoring, database dissemination, and applications software will be integrated and evaluated. Supports: Joint Precision Strike Demonstration (JPSD)/RFPI, Force XXI, and Vision 2010.

Battlefield Combat Identification (BCID) ATD (1993–98). The goal of the BCID ATD is to solve the combat identification problem that surfaced in Operation Desert Storm. This ATD forms the technical foundation for the Combat Identification ACTD, which will validate the architecture for a comprehensive air–to–ground and ground–to–ground combat identification system. BCID will demonstrate improved situational awareness and various air–to–ground concepts including direct sensing target identification, "don’t shoot me net," and "situational awareness through sight" approaches. Concepts for lightweight combat identification of/for the dismounted soldier will be investigated. A laser, RF– and thermal–based solution for soldier–to–soldier and potentially vehicle–interoperable application will be demonstrated (in both a standalone and integrated version). Supports: BCIS, Land Warrior, Protecting the Force, Battlefield Digitization, Information Warfare, and Force XXI.

Figure III-3. Roadmap - Command, Control, Communications, and Computers
Figure III-3. Roadmap - Command, Control, Communications, and Computers
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Rapid Force Projection Command and Control (RFP C2) TD (1995–98). This program will develop the command and control element for the RFPI ACTD. It consists of a reconfigurable light tactical operation center testbed (LT2) and multiple communications interfaces. Digitized systems will link all battlefield elements from the individual soldier through the brigade and at the same time prevent communications systems information overload. The RFP C2 demonstration will provide real–time to near–real–time integration of ACTD task force "hunters," "killers," and organic weapons; commanders; and battlefield functional area (BFA) battlefield operating systems (BOS) (i.e., All–Source Analysis System (ASAS) and Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS)). The LT2 will support target analysis, weapon–target pairings, engagement control, EFOGM fire direction, organic sensor management, commander’s situation awareness, battle damage assessment, hunter/killer mission planning, near–real–time data fusion, vertical integration of command levels, and horizontal integration with other functional elements (i.e., intelligence, field artillery, air defense, armor, and dismounted soldier). Supports: Force XXI.

Battlespace Command and Control (BC2) ATD (1997–01). The BC2 ATD and its associated follow–on efforts will develop and demonstrate information– and knowledge–based technology. It will provide a common, integrated situation display with selectable detail and resolution, providing battlefield visualization and supporting systems architectures. BC2 comprises intelligent agents for information retrieval, filtering, and deconfliction; intelligent products to support decision making; and development of systems architecture. Tri–service C2 sources will be partitioned and distributed automatically across an integrated network of communications and computer media to provide real–time targeting, target handover, mission planning, route planning, and friendly and enemy pictures. A multiservice system architecture will interoperate with multiechelon joint/allied assets to provide faster, more accurate, intuitive, and tailored battlespace information to the mobile strike force and Force XXI. This ATD is also an integral part of the Defense Technology Objectives (DTOs) for consistent battlespace understanding; forecasting, planning, and resource allocation, and integrated force and execution management. Supports: Force XXI and Rapid Battlefield Visualization (RBV) ACTD.

Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) C4I TD (1996–00). The goal of this TD is to demonstrate robust, scalable C4I and advanced sensor capabilities that provide commanders and warfighters with seamless, nonhierarchical adaptive networks for multimedia communications in a highly dynamic MOUT environment. The objective is to evolve an integrated communications infrastructure that leverages commercial protocols, formats, waveforms, and standards to achieve global tri–service interoperability through integration of mobile Internet protocol (IP) tactical networks into global infrastructure. MOUT C4I will demonstrate near–real–time vertical and horizontal C2 from the battalion down to the individual combatant. Supports: Force XXI Land Warrior.

Information Operations C2 (IOC2) Protect and Attack ATD (1998–02). This ATD will demonstrate the ability to launch effective C2 attacks against threat information systems and protect the Army’s tactical information systems from modern network attacks. See Section III–F, "Intelligence and Electronic Warfare," for details on this program. Supports: Integrated Countermeasures, Tactical Internet (TI) C2 Components, and Networks.

b. Technology Programs Leading to Communications Modernization

Communications, specifically seamless communications, facilitates command and control. C2 would be impossible without the ability to communicate (i.e., transmit and receive strategic, tactical, and operational information in a timely manner to and from the commander and associated staff). Several 6.2 programs are under way to facilitate and implement Army 6.3 communications efforts, including a personal communications system (PCS), antennas for communication across the spectrum, and advanced modeling and simulation (see Chapter NO TAG for details on 6.2 programs). The following ATDs and TDs reflect the Army’s current strategic plan for communications modernization.

Digital Battlefield Communications (DBC) ATD (1995–99). This ATD will exploit emerging commercial communications technologies to support multimedia communications in a highly mobile dynamic battlefield environment, the "digitized battlefield," and split–based operations. Commercial asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) technology will be integrated into actual tactical communications networks to provide bandwidth on demand to support multimedia information requirements. To extend ATM services to forward tactical units, a radio access point (RAP) will be prototyped and tested. The RAP utilizes a high–capacity, OTM trunk radio to feed a variety of mobile subscriber services. Both manned and unmanned aerial platforms will be fitted with wideband relay packages to support OTM tactical operations, supporting bandwidths of up to 155 megabytes per second (MBps). This ATD will conclude in FY99 with the insertion of appropriate technology products (high–capacity digitized communications and split–based operations) in Corps XXI advanced warfighting experiment (AWE). A parallel effort, DBC enhancements (1996–99), includes an earlier demonstration of the direct broadcast satellite (DBS) technology (in support of Joint Warfighter Interoperability Demonstration (JWID) 96 and Task Force XXI). An effort to exploit terrestrial PCS was added to the program at the request of the Army Digitization Office, and will be used to exploit commercial code division multiple access (CDMA) and broadband CDMA (BCDMA) technology as a wireless private branch exchange (PBX) off a mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) switch for command post voice and data subscribers. Multilevel security requirements for Force XXI will be addressed by the insertion of tactical end–to–end encryption device (TEED) hardware. Wideband HF technology will be evaluated, tested in a digital integrated laboratory environment, and inserted into Division XXI AWE. Supports: All Transport Systems, Force XXI, and Future Digital Radio (FDR).

Universal Transaction Communications/Services TD (1996–03). Seamless connectivity and integration across communications media will be demonstrated. The goal is to provide the commander the ability to exchange and understand information unimpeded by differences in connectivity, processing, or systems interface characteristics. It will allow information to flow from wherever it exists, in whatever form, to wherever it is needed, in whatever form it is needed. Attributes include automated interfaces, techniques for enhancing the commercially available signal conditioning, provision of dynamic profiles and adaptive conditioning, and automatic, adaptive addressing to allow connections to users completely independent of any knowledge of location. Supports: All tactical communications, a tactical internet, and Force XXI.

Multiband Multimode Radio (MBMMR) TD (1995–99). The MBMMR is a joint service program to develop the baseline architecture and technology for the objective MBMMR, meeting the requirements of FDR. MBMMR will demonstrate a highly flexible radio architecture, allowing rapid waveform reprogrammability/reconfigurability to support the rapidly changing mission requirement of electronic warfare (EW) threats, interoperability, networking, traffic load, frequency assignment, and general modes of operation. Technology insertion includes the use of advanced digital signal processors (DSPs), programmable four–channel CYPRIS chip information security (INFOSEC) modules, and interference cancellation (cosite) circuitry. The MBMMR will utilize an open (industry releasable) system architecture. A highly software reprogrammable (waveform and INFOSEC) radio will provide four simultaneous MBMMR channels and networking functions, thus minimizing the required number of antennas. Supports: FDR and Force XXI.

Communications Integration and Cosite Mitigation TD (1997–01). The objective of this demonstration is to reduce the size, weight, power, and cosite interference problems that occur when multiple radios in either the same or dissimilar frequency bands are integrated within a communications system. The physical space constraints of mobile platforms cause these problems to be even worse. Technology from ongoing developments will be coupled with new efforts to address the problem within the continuous frequency band from 2 MHz to 2 GHz while also attacking the cosite interference in the HF, VHF, and UHF bands. Development efforts include VHF and UHF multiport antenna multiplexers, ancillary cosite mitigation devices, and wideband linear power amplifiers. Additionally, a multiband communications system will be integrated within a typical Army single integrated command post (SICP) shelter mounted on a high–mobility, multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV), and tests will be performed to evaluate the resultant performance and enhancements. This testbed will be exercised throughout the FY99–FY01 period for evaluation of the individually developed items. Supports: All mobile multiband communications systems and Force XXI.

Range Extension TD (1997–99). This program directly supports the Army C4 modernization "key azimuth" of range extension through the development and integration of a multitude of satellite communications (SATCOM) and related technologies. It will identify and develop key technologies required for airborne applications of a suite of communications packages, design and integrate specific systems, and conduct system tests and demonstrations of intratheater communications range extension at a variety of data rates. Major technology areas to be addressed are airborne payload (including antennas) designs, ground terminal adaptations, interoperability/compatibility, and simulation. These technologies will be used to supplement current (and programmed) SATCOM resources at all frequency bands. SATCOM terminals will be augmented and enhanced to provide the capability of communicating via satellite or airborne platforms. The utility of SATCOM terminals will be extended by improvements to reduce size and weight, increasing throughput and mobility, and implementing emerging techniques such as demand assignment multiple access (DAMA). A super high frequency (SHF) surrogate satellite system will be demonstrated in FY98. In FY99, a UAV–based EHF and airborne battlefield paging capability will be demonstrated. Supports: Joint Project Office (JPO) UAV TIER II Program, Goldenhawk, and Joint Precision Strike.

Integrated Photonics TD (1995–00). This effort will develop integrated photonic subsystems for application to optical control of single–beam phased–array antennas and fiber optic point–to–point links, local area networks, and antenna remoting systems. Subsystems will be developed for optical control of multibeam phased–array antennas. These subsystems will reduce size, cost, and power consumption while increasing the performance of high–speed fiber–optic systems. Demonstration of a photonically controlled, multipanel, phased–array antenna will be conducted during FY00. Supports: SATCOM OTM.

SATCOM TD (2000–02). This technology effort will extend the applications and capabilities of SATCOM terminals by providing higher data rates, improvements in throughput, and reduction in life–cycle costs. Throughput improvement will utilize emerging techniques and architectures, such as DAMA, on a per–call basis. Overall improvements to systems and equipment will reduce size and increase mobility for military and commercial SATCOM terminals. Supports: SATCOM upgrades.

Commercial Communications Technology Testbed (C2T2) TD (2000–03). C2T2 is designed to take advantage of breakthroughs in commercial communications technology and assess their utility for military applications. The objective is successful technology insertion. It provides a means for rapidly evaluating and characterizing commercial products. The most promising candidates are introduced to the battle laboratories and field users for evaluation, then incorporated into warfighting experiments. The three–phase evaluation process includes standalone evaluation, Digital Integrated Laboratory (DIL) integration, and an AWE. Supports: COTS technology insertion.

c. Computer Technology

Computer technology, the fourth "C" in C4, forms the underpinnings of most, if not all, C3 systems today and in the future. The computing and software technology area is focused on novel computer hardware and integrated systems for Army applications. The Army’s computing technology programs include scalable parallel systems and applications, high performance specialized systems and applications, and networks and mobile computing. Details on these programs and more on computing and software technology may be found in Chapter NO TAG, "Technology Development."

5. Relationship to Modernization Plan Annexes

Table III–8 shows the correlation between C4 modernization efforts and other AMP annexes. C4 permeates throughout the other Army mission areas (i.e., aviation, IEW, mounted/dismounted forces, soldier, air defense, theater missile defense (TMD), close combat light, fire support, logistics, training, NBC, space, and combat health support). C4 facilitates the Army’s capability to project, sustain, and protect the force, win the information war, conduct precision strikes, and dominate the maneuver.

The Army’s continued pursuit of emerging C4 state–of–the–art communications–electronics technologies guarantees the stability of the United States’ defense posture and the safety of its most valuable asset, the warfighter.

Table III–8.  Correlation Between C4 S/SU/ACs and Other AMP Annexes

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

Modernization Plan Annexes

  Mounted/Dismounted Forces* Aviation Fire Support Space & Missile Defense* Close Combat Light* IEW Soldier Systems Space Logistics Training NBC Combat Health Support
System Upgrade C2—Force Level

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  C2—Lower Echelon

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  Communications—Mobile

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  Communications—Wide Area

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  Communications—Local Area

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  Communications—Range Ext

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Advanced Concept Force XXI/Vision 2010

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* See Combat Maneuver Annex.
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