News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



G. Mounted Forces

The violence unleashed during Desert Storm only foreshadows our future capabilities. Lethality also comes from the ability to generate combat power—the combination of leadership, protection, maneuver, and firepower—in synchronization so that the effect is devastating.

General Carl E. Vuono
Former Army Chief of Staff

1. Introduction

The greatest S&T challenge in the mounted forces mission is to make our most capable mounted forces lighter, more lethal, and more deployable at reduced cost, so as to react to regional conflicts in the post–cold–war era better, while improving their mobility, lethality, C4I capability, survivability, and sustainability.

Mounted forces require expanded capabilities to acquire and kill the array of threat targets in all weather, on the move, day/night, in cluttered environments, and at long ranges with increased probability of destruction out to the extent of the commander’s battlespace. S&T programs must focus on warfighter needs for future systems or system upgrades. Investments are being made to apply technology horizontally across multiple combat and tactical systems.

2. Relationship to Operational Capabilities

Mounted forces SU/ACs address the progress of the Army’s desired operational capabilities, as they relate to the patterns of operation shown in Table III–12. A direct correlation exists between the SU/ACs listed and the six patterns of operation.

3. Modernization Strategy

Dominate the maneuver battle is one of the Army’s modernization objectives. The mounted forces section of Annex NO TAG, "Combat Maneuver," in the 1996 Army Modernization Plan annex supports this objective by providing an assessment of the mounted forces strengths and weaknesses. The annex also outlines a modernization program to correct deficiencies and exploit strengths. It calls for the following major improvements to continue our modernization program: increase target acquisition, digitize the battlefield, increase lethality, increase survivability, and improve force structure.

Six integrated concept teams (ICTs) have been formed to address solutions to user–defined requirements. For each ICT, an S&T director has been appointed. S&T directors are technology program managers chartered to oversee and integrate those relevant S&T activities. These ICTs, along with their primary focus, are as follows:

Abrams ICT (current fleet modernization). S&T activities will target technology transfer to M1A2 Abrams upgrades. The insertion of required technology will be facilitated by ongoing electronic upgrades.

Future Scout and Cavalry System (FSCS) ICT. This ICT developed the FSCS program with a goal of equipping the first unit in 2007. Specific attention is being given to stealth, a wide array of sensor capability, connectivity to the digitized battlefield, and survivability.

Future Combat System (FCS) ICT. The FCS ICT devised a program to develop and field a leap–ahead combat program to be fielded between 2015 and 2020.

Suite of Survivability Enhancements System (SSES) ICT. The SSES ICT will coordinate the development of a suite of survivability enhancements for ground combat vehicles. This technology will protect the mounted force from known enemy threats.

Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2). The FBCB2 ICT will conduct a concept review of C2 functions and will define required operational capabilities within Armor Center proponency for combined arms command and control (CAC2) at brigade and below.

Table III–12.  Mounted Forces System Capabilities

System/
System Upgrade/
Advanced Concept
Function

Patterns of Operation

System/
System Upgrade
Capability

Advanced Concept
Capability

  Project the Force Protect the Force Gain Information Dominance Decisive Operations Shape the Battlespace Sustain the Force    
System Upgrade             Increased situational awareness

Compliant with digital battlefield

Positive hostile identification

Threat warning sensors

Increased target acquisition

Increased target acquisition

Increased threat detection

Increased survivability

 
M1A2 Abrams Soldier Enhancement Program  

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Abrams P3I Program  

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M2A3 Bradley

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Advanced Concept               Leap ahead lethality

Extended range

Indirect and direct fire modes

Rapid rearm

Reduced crew size

Reduced crew workload

Improved situational awareness

Extended range sensors

Digital battlefield compliant

Reduced battlefield signature

Silent watch operation

Increased dismounted squad transportability

Land warrior compatible

Improved situational awareness

Improved lethality

Future Combat System  

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Future Scout and Cavalry System    

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Future Infantry Vehicle  

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Future Infantry Vehicle (FIV). The FIV ICT has developed a program plan to support the acquisition cycle, investigate technologies, develop S&T programs, demonstrate technology integration, and help define operational tactics. Results of the ICT will be used to field an FIV with an optimal mix of survivability, mobility, lethality, training, and C4I capabilities. The FIV program will support the dismounted force with a first unit equipped in the 2012 timeframe.

4. Roadmap for Mounted Forces Modernization

Table III–13 presents a summary of demonstrations and technologies. The roadmap in Figure III–8 portrays the progression of the Mounted Forces program to include TDs, ATDs, andSU/ACs.

Figure III-8. Roadmap - Mounted Forces
Figure III-8. Roadmap - Mounted Forces
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a. Lethality Technology Demonstrators

Compact Kinetic Energy Missile (CKEM) TD (1996–99). This TD will develop a lightweight miniature (35–40 kg) hypervelocity kinetic energy (KE) missile, compatible with the line–of–sight antitank (LOSAT) target acquisition and tracking system and could be compatible with the fire control system for close combat and short–range air defense missions. It will demonstrate increased flight maneuverability against close–in airborne targets with continuous control actuation for significantly reduced minimum range and increased missile platform adaptability. Demonstration of this miniature hypervelocity missile concept will provide capability for a significant increase in lethality, survivability, and mobility of a dual–role close combat and short range air defense KE weapon system that is easily stowable on tracked combat vehicles. Supports: HMMWV, FCS, and FIV.

Direct Fire Lethality ATD (1996–01). This ATD will demonstrate promising technologies to enhance the hit and kill capabilities of armored vehicles while reducing O&S costs. Technologies must be explored that provide a quantum leap in performance with little or no weight/volume burden on the vehicle. Emphasis will be placed on defeat of advanced appliqué armors utilizing KE novel penetrators and axial/radial thrusters to compensate for jump errors from the ammunition launch package after muzzle exit. Technologies such as distributed direct (gearless) drives, optical fiber muzzle reference system, and modern digital servo control will be incorporated into the turret and main gun to eliminate system errors and compensate for terrain and firing disturbances experienced by ground combat vehicles during dynamic firing scenarios, thus increasing the probability of hit and kill. Supports: Abrams, FSCS ATD, and FCS.

Table III–13.  Mounted Forces Demonstration and System Summary

Advanced Technology Demonstration

Technology Demonstration

Direct Fire Lethality
Battlefield Combat Identification*
Target Acquisition
Battlespace Command and Control*
Multifunction Staring Sensor Suite
Future Scout and Cavalry System
Composite Armored Vehicle
Compact Kinetic Energy Missile
Tank Extended Range Munition
Fuze Technology
Future Combat System Armament
Advanced Light Armament for Combat Vehicles
Full–Spectrum Active Protection
Intravehicle Electronics Suite
Advanced Electronics for Future Combat System
Ground Propulsion and Mobility
Propulsion Demonstration for Future Combat System
Future Combat System Integrated Demonstration
Future Infantry Vehicle
Lightweight Chassis/Turret Structures

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

System Upgrade

M1A2 Abrams SEP
Abrams P3I
M2A3 Bradley

Advanced Concept

Future Combat System
Future Scout and Cavalry System
Future Infantry Vehicle

* See section on C4 (above).

Tank Extended Range Munitions (TERM) TD (1998–02). This TD will demonstrate a fully integrated tube–launched 120–mm precision munition for the Abrams tank capable of defeating high–value threats, advanced armor threats equipped with explosive reactive armor, or active protection systems out to 8–km line of sight and non–line of sight. TERM will demonstrate the synergy at the tactical level of targeting information available from forward observers (e.g., FSCS) through Army digitization efforts, and the lethality capability provided to the Abrams utilizing TERM. Supports: Abrams and FCS.

Fuze Technology TD (2000–03). This TD will demonstrate promising fuze technologies for improved performance/reliability and dramatic reduction in life–cycle cost through low unit production cost (UPC) and component applications across DoD. The TD will demonstrate low–energy electronic safe and arm (ESA) devices in a 1–cubic–inch, $50 configuration, suitable for missiles, smart and brilliant munitions. Develop and demonstrate appropriate fuze sensors for counter active protective system (APS) munitions/missiles to detect correct standoff distance from threat vehicles and the launch of active protection system countermunitions. Supports: Counteractive Projection System (CAPS) Fuzing—FOTT, Javelin, TOW upgrades, Abrams Sustainment, FCS, ESA–PEO Tactical Missiles, Tank Extended–Range Munitions, Sense and Destroy Armor (SADARM) upgrades, Area Denial Systems, and Remote Activation Munitions System (RAMS).

Future Combat System Armament TD (2000–04). Develop and demonstrate moderate risk armament system technologies capable of meeting the direct and indirect fire high–probability–of–kill lethality requirements of an FCS vehicle; conduct hardstand demonstration of components; and transition all hardware to the Tank–Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) FCS integrated TD for vehicle integration activities. The FCS armament TD will demonstrate gun, ammunition, fire control, and ammunition handling technologies. Supports: All antiarmor weapon platforms—Abrams, FCS, KE/chemical energy (CE) Missiles, FSCS ATD, FIV, and USMC amphibious assault vehicles.

Advanced Light Armament for Combat Vehicles TD (2001–03). Leverage and integrate state–of–the–art U.S. and foreign technologies in bursting munitions, novel penetrators, and propulsion systems into mature medium–caliber ammunition configuration for application to Bradley, FSCS, and FIV. Effectiveness goals to be demonstrated will be 75–100 percent greater than standard point detonating rounds and 20–40 percent improvement over KE and foreign bursting rounds. Detailed ammunition designs will be based upon results of an Armaments Research, Development, and Engineering Center (ARDEC)/ARL technology programs. Supports: FIV, Bradley, FSCS, and Longbow Modernization.

b. Survivability Technology Demonstrations

Full–Spectrum Active Protection (FSAP) TD (2001–05). The objective is to deliver an integral configured active protection (AP) countermeasure for engineering and manufacturing development that provides general vehicles protection against tube–launched KE and high–explosive antitank (HEAT) munitions. FSAP will exploit, adapt, and develop/leverage technologies from tri–service, industrial, and foreign programs. FSAP will provide protection against all threats, reducing the probability of kill to 0.2. The TD is a single low–cost countermeasure for protection against large top attack, hit–to–kill ATGM, and especially tube–launched KE and HEAT threats. Supports: Current Fleet, Abrams, Bradley, M113, FSCS, FIV, FCS, Crusader, and Grizzly.

c. Vehicle Electronics Technology Demonstrations

Battlefield Combat Identification ATD (1993–98). This ATD focuses on fratricide reduction and is discussed in the section on C4 (above).

Target Acquisition ATD (1995–98). This ATD will demonstrate automated wide–area search and target acquisition, prioritization, and tracking at extended ranges. Automation of these capabilities will reduce crew workload, shorten timelines to acquire targets, and as a result effectively direct fire. The ability to acquire and hand over targets automatically supports the design of a combat vehicle with fewer crew members that is more lethal and more deployable with improved situational awareness through the digitized battlefield.

The Target Acquisition ATD will be composed of a second–generation thermal imaging sensor, an MMW radar with MTI capability, a multifunctional laser (rangefinding, laser designating, and high–density profiling mode), and a day television. The sensors will be complemented by the inclusion of ATR algorithms and a high–density processor that will run the algorithms. Supports: FCS, FSCS, FIV, and Abrams.

Intravehicle Electronics Suite TD (1996–00). This effort will develop crew interface and vehicle architecture technologies to enable the soldier to take advantage of the data generated on the digitized battlefield. These technologies will increase in overall crew efficiency while reducing crew size. System performance will increase while the cost ratio of electronics/software upgrades for system upgrades is reduced. Significant challenges to meeting crew efficiency goals include driving a vehicle without direct vision and using nonphysical interfaces, such as voice and audio, in a combat vehicle. Supports: FSCS ATD, Open Systems Joint Task Force, Army C4I Technical Architecture, FCS, FIV, Abrams, Bradley, and Crusader.

Battlespace Command and Control ATD (1997–00). This ATD will demonstrate the capability to integrate, distribute, and graphically display numerous types of digitized command and control information (e.g., terrain, position/navigation (POS/NAV), weather, intelligence to the maneuver commander). For details see the section on C4 (above).

Multifunction Staring Sensor Suite (MFS3) ATD (1998–01). This ATD will demonstrate a modular, reconfigurable MFS3 that integrates multiple advanced sensor components including a staring infrared imager, a multifunction laser, and acoustic arrays. The MFS3 will provide scout/cavalry vehicles and amphibious assault vehicles with a compact, affordable sensor suite for long–range noncooperative target identification, mortar/sniper fire location, and air defense against low signature targets. The infrared imaging system will be configured to accommodate either visible–to–mid IR or far IR FPAs. As single focal planes capable of operating across the full optical spectrum mature, these may be inserted into the assembly. The staring IR sensor will operate at high field rates to allow sniper and mortar detection in addition to the conventional target acquisition functions. Integration of a multifunction, multiwavelength laser system will incorporate ranging, range mapping, target profiling, and laser designation to support target location, target cueing, aided target identification, and target designation. The acoustic array will provide target cueing and location and will assist in automated targeting functions. Supports: FSCS, FIV, FCS, and USMC Advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle.

Advanced Electronics for Future Combat System TD (2000–04). This effort will provide an integrated electronics package and crewstation technologies to the FCS integrated demonstrator. The program will transition crewstation technologies and architecture developments from Vetronics Intravehicle Electronics TD into the FCS integrated demonstration. Technologies developed under this TD support high–power electronic devices, devices that will require such power include electromagnetic gun, electromagnetic armor, and electric drive. Additional soldier–machine interface technologies that will be developed include helmet–mounted displays, head trackers, panoramic displays, cognitive decision aids, load management algorithms, and automated route planning. Testing, demonstration, and validation of the advanced architecture and crew station technologies will be performed in a high–power electronics vehicle systems integration laboratory (VSIL) prior to integration on the FCS integrated demonstration. Supports: FCS, FSCS, FIV, Abrams, Bradley, and Crusader.

d. Mobility Technology Demonstrations

Ground Propulsion and Mobility TD (1997–01). Ground vehicle mobility advances for the 2001 combat vehicle fleet will be achieved through smaller and lighter systems with improved weapon stabilization, improved ride and agility, and reduced acoustic/IR signatures. These advantages will be the result of development of several advanced component systems such as band track, semiactive suspension with an active track tensioner, and electric drives. Band track will be developed for vehicles as heavy as 30 tons, providing weight savings and quiet operation. Semiactive suspension will be developed incorporating a track tensioning system that will provide improved fuel economy and better track retention. Electric drive development will center on incorporation of running gear technology such as motors and generators being developed through cooperative efforts by government agencies (Army, DARPA, DOE, USMC) and industry. Supports: FSCS and FIV.

Propulsion Demonstration for Future Combat Systems (2002–06). This effort will define the complete FCS propulsion configuration and will complete much of the detail design of all major components. An FCS engine will demonstrate power, fuel economy, heat rejection, and critical temperatures within 20 percent of target values. By FY06, a fully active electromechanical suspension for a future combat system weight (>40 ton) class vehicle will be demonstrated. By FY06, TARDEC will complete integrated track and suspension mobility demonstration. The Electric Drive Technology Development Hardware Demonstration Program will be funded primarily by DARPA and managed by the Army. Subsequently the DARPA program technology will transition to the Army for integration in future vehicles. Supports: FCS, Abrams, and Crusader.

e. Systems Integration Technology Demonstrations

Future Scout and Cavalry System (FSCS) ATD (1998–01). The FSCS ATD will demonstrate the feasibility and operational potential of an advanced lightweight vehicle chassis integrating scout–specific and advanced vehicle technologies developed in other technology–based programs. The effort will be fabricated and tested in virtual and real environments to evaluate and validate sensors/situational awareness capabilities and to develop scout tactics.

The FSCS ATD will develop and demonstrate scout–specific mobility components such as electric drive, semi–active and fully active suspension, and band track. Other specific technologies that may be integrated into the scout platform include MFS3, advanced lightweight structural materials and armors, advanced crew stations, advanced C2, medium–caliber weapon, and advanced survivability systems. This effort will validate the inherent signature reduction of advanced mobility technologies. The FSCS ATD will fast track in FY02 to the EMD phase of the FSCS program. Supports: FSCS, FIV, and FCS.

Future Combat System (FCS) Integrated TD (2000–06). This effort will demonstrate the maturity of the FCS candidate’s revolutionary technologies in the vehicle configuration required for operation in the Army After Next. Leap–ahead lethality in vehicles 50 percent lighter is required to employ strategic mobility throughout the AAN vision. Critical issues to be addressed are the acceptance of two–crew–vehicle operation, leap–ahead mobility (60 mph cross country), nontraditional survivability (replacing ballistic protection with signature management, countermeasures, and active protection), and indefensible lethality (both direct and indirect fire). Virtual prototypes will be constructed and evaluated, and a system integration laboratory (SIL) will be implemented with laboratory hardware to validate electronics integration. Supports: FCS, FIV, and FCS ICT.

Future Infantry Vehicle (FIV) TD (2001–06). This effort will demonstrate, in both real and virtual environments, the feasibility and operational potential of a FIV by integrating FIV–specific technologies with complementary advanced vehicle technologies. Requirements to be achieved in the FIV are increasing the crew capabilities through automation and crew enabling remote stations for vision as well as armament and vehicle operation. Survivability will be increased by 33–50 percent using a combination of improved armor protection, hit avoidance, and signature management. On–board training/battle rehearsal will increase 100 percent by eliminating technical manuals, having on–board simulators and embedded training. All systems’ advanced diagnostics/prognostics will be demonstrated. Full dismount squad size will increase from 7 to 11. Mobility will be improved to be equal to the FCS. Lethality will be improved through the integration of an advanced medium caliber weapon, fire–and–forget FOTT P3I missile system and the addition of nonlethal devices. Supports: M2/M3 Bradley upgrades, FSCS EMD, FIV EMD, and the combined arms medium class of vehicles.

f. Vehicle Chassis/Turret Structures Technology Demonstrations

Composite Armored Vehicle (CAV) ATD (1994–98). The CAV ATD will demonstrate the feasibility of producing lighter weight ground combat vehicles manufactured from advanced composites. The CAV ATD will consist of an integrated demonstration of advanced composites and advanced lightweight armors on a C–130 air–deployable 22–ton vehicle emphasizing manufacturability, repairability, nondestructive testing, and structural integrity. The vehicle structure and armor will weigh at least 33 percent less than comparable steel or aluminum. CAV’s operational advantages will improve survivability through inherent signature reduction of composite materials on vehicle shaping, and improve agility and deployability by reducing structure and armor weight. Supports: Crusader EMD, FSCS, FCS Demonstrations, and FIV.

Lightweight Chassis/Turret Structures TD (2000–04). This TD will develop and demonstrate a minimum weight structural designs vehicle chassis and turret to achieve the future combat system 40–ton gross vehicle weight. Modular, removable armor for in–country installation will be incorporated. Two hull and turret structures will be built, one for firing and one for the FCS integrated demonstration. Supports: FCS, High Mobility Rocket System (HIMARS), Future Engineer Systems, and Army After Next fleet.

5. Relationship to Modernization Plan Annexes

Table III–14 exhibits the cross–fertilization that exists between SU/ACs and several AMP annexes. All of the SU/ACs, ATDs, and TDs presented in this section support the Army Mounted Forces modernization areas, and many of them support additional modernization areas.

Table III–14.  Correlation Between Mounted Forces S/SU/ACs
and Other AMP Annexes

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

Modernization Plan Annexes

  Fire Support Close Combat Light* IEW C4
System Upgrade M1A2 Abrams SEP

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  Abrams P3I

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Advanced Concept Future Combat System

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  Future Scout and Cavalry System

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  Future Infantry Vehicle

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* See Combat Maneuver Annex.
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