News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



H. Close Combat Light

Those experimenting today will lead modernized units tomorrow.

Togo D. West, Jr.
Secretary of the Army

1. Introduction

In light of the changing threat, the Army is placing increased emphasis on developing a more flexible, combat–ready military force that can respond quickly to any crisis situation and that is capable of deterring aggression and, should deterrence fail, defeating the enemy throughout the operational continuum. The cornerstone of this flexible force is the Army’s light forces. The light forces comprise combat, combat support, and combat service support units that participate in and support the close battle. Their mission is to defeat threat forces in a low–intensity conflict, while retaining a capability for employment in mid– to high–intensity conflicts and OOTW.

Light forces, as well as all other elements of future land combat forces, must be highly deployable, able to execute missions outside the operational envelope of opposing forces, and survive against myriad lethal antiarmor weapons and other nontraditional, nonlethal weapons. Light forces are the option of choice for peacetime engagement and conflict prevention. They must show the advantage of new technologies and field equipment that is more lethal, survivable, maintainable, smaller, lighter weight, and easily transportable.

2. Relationship to Operational Capabilities

It may be necessary for light forces to conduct military operations under a variety of conditions generated by a wide range of threats. We must, therefore, continue to leverage technology in the following key areas to ensure our capabilities exceed those of our current and potential threats:

Integrate digitization.
Provide smaller, lighter, precision firepower.
Facilitate mobility and maneuver.
Maximize leadership and training.
Increase protection.

A major Army initiative, designed and geared toward achieving U.S. light forces superiority, is the RFPI ACTD. This ACTD explores new tactics and technologies via a system–of–systems approach providing a path to an air–deployable, early entry light force that is significantly more capable of destroying a heavy armored threat beyond traditional direct fire weapons range. The RFPI concept includes a variety of advanced sensors (air and ground, manned and unmanned); several precision–guided, non–line–of–sight weapons; responsive command and control mechanisms; and automated targeting. Target handover will be facilitated by tactical digital data transfer systems now being developed as part of the U.S. ABCS program. Specifically, this ACTD will provide the opportunity to explore the integration of new technologies with modified tactics, technologies, and procedures to improve the survivability of our early entry forces.

The light forces are key elements of the U.S. forward–deployed, crisis–response, and reinforcing forces. Light forces provide versatility in two ways: they are rapidly deployable and they are most suited for fighting in close terrain. These characteristics enable light forces to be used in all of the Army’s roles and missions. Some examples of these are:

Initial forward deployment and the timely reinforcement of forces. This has deterrent value and sends a message of resolve in a crisis situation, yet is not perceived as escalatory.

Contingency crisis situations, where a rapid and decisive deployment can forestall or limit hostilities. In an area where no infrastructure exists, a forced entry and subsequent rapid build–up of force may be required.

Nation building/military operations other than war. Nations involved in low–intensity conflicts may require economic and social–political solutions. Light forces are ideally suited for the role of providing security and promoting the political and social development of nations. Their inherent characteristic of low equipment density does not create an impact on a developing country, yet it provides a widespread sense of security.

Counterterrorism can be used both domestically and internationally. It may require special nontraditional methods.

Table III–15 represents close combat light S/SU/ACs capabilities and their relationship to the Army modernization objectives. This table also provides highlights of capabilities provided by other Army modernization programs discussed in detail throughout this chapter.

3. Modernization Strategy

The Combat Maneuver annex to the AMP, of which close combat light is a part, reviews the requirements placed on the light forces over the entire spectrum of potential future conflicts and is the Army’s strategy for modernization of its strategically flexible light forces. The close combat light modernization strategy focuses on new materiel that increases lethality, mobility, and survivability while correcting deficiencies and providing the necessary "tailorability" across the spectrum of conflict. Priority is given to equipment that significantly increases flexibility and survivability.

Early entry forces will gain increased lethality and survivability against heavy forces through application of the hunter–standoff–killer concept—use of advanced forward sensors (hunters) and standoff weapons (killers) that will be demonstrated in a system–of–systems engaging enemy forces at ranges beyond their ability to counter.

Close combat light extracts those portions of all other modernization plans and mission areas that are applicable to light forces, examines them from the perspective of the light forces roles and missions, and ensures that the light forces are provided adequate resources.

This plan is the result of a thorough examination of the threat, the nature and imperatives of the future battlefield, a recognition of the need to reduce significantly the time required to develop and field advanced technology systems, and the recognition of time–constrained resources. The plan uses technology and systems that will make a significant contribution to the deterrent value of light forces or provide leap–ahead capabilities. The objective is to ensure that the Army light forces meet the future battlefield requirements of increased firepower, flexibility, mobility, survivability, and sustainability.

4. Roadmaps for Close Combat Light

Table III–16 is a summary of close combat light demonstrations and systems.

Because close combat light is primarily an integration plan, the applicable S/SU/ACs, along with the majority of appropriate ATDs and TDs that provide capabilities to the close combat light mission, are shown on the existing roadmaps throughout the rest of Chapter III and are not repeated here.

The RFPI, however, is unique to close combat light and is displayed in Figure III–9. It depicts the Army ATDs and technology demonstrations that support the RFPI ACTD in the form of capabilities provided by systems or system upgrades.

In addition to the RFPI demonstrations, there are other technology demonstrations that are unique to the close combat light mission. These are shown in the roadmap on Figure III–10.

Table III–15.  Close Combat Light System Capabilities

System/
System Upgrade/
Advanced Concept
Function

Patterns of Operation

System/
System Upgrade
Capability

Advanced Concept
Capability

  Project the Force Protect the Force Gain Information Dominance Decisive Operations Shape the Battlespace Sustain the Force    
AVIATION             Light attack/armed reconnaissance

Day/night and adverse weather

Antiarmor/air to air

Automatic target recognition

Advanced survivability

Self deployability

Ground maintenance associate

Increased payload

Advanced transmission

Man–machine interface

Increased lethality

All–weather NOE pilotage

Multirole/versatility

Automatic target recognition

Signature control

Advanced maneuverability/agility

Advanced propulsion

Integrated flight/fire control

Precision navigation

NOE sling load operations

System            
RAH–66 Comanche

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System Upgrade            
AH–64D Apache Longbow

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Advanced Concept            
Improved Cargo Helicopter

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Enhanced AH–64D Apache

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Joint Transport Rotorcraft

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MULE

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MRMAAV  

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C4             Distributed processing and databases

Integrated system management

Gateways and multilevel security

Jam resistant capability

High mobility and survivability

Expert system planning aids

Battlefield visualization

Assured communications

Enhanced situation awareness

Synchronized battle management

Voice input/output

Seamless, transparent communication

Secure multimedia

Automated network management

C2 on the move

Integrated sensor weapon C3

System Upgrade            
Communications—
Wide, Local, Mobile

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Advanced Concept            
Force XXI/Vision 2010

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INTELLIGENCE & ELECTRONIC
WARFARE
            Manpack/vehicle for surveillance/targeting

Penetration and standoff IEW

Automated terrain identifier

ELINT, COMINT, and EA radar multisensor package

Automated weather decision aids

Man–portable sensor to detect, track, and classify vehicle and personnel

Integrated system of sensors and collectors

Multispectral

Advanced processing

Information dissemination

Multiechelon

Closed–loop target handover

Intelligence analysis and assessment

System            
Ground–Based Common Sensor—Light*  

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UAV Tactical Intelligence Package  

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System Upgrade            
Integrated Meteorological System

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Meteorological Measuring Set

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Advanced QUICKFIX  

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ASAS  

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Advanced Concept            
Distributed IEW Fusion  

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Profiler

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CLOSE COMBAT LIGHT             Dismounted infantry combat power

Increased capability of vehicle–mounted support weapons

Increased self–protection

Higher altitude personnel parachute opening capabilities

Improved glide ratio for personnel parachutes

Lower ground impact velocities for airborne soldiers

Increased payload

Increased lethality

Enhanced situation awareness

Integrated system of sensors

Improved probability of hit

IR/TV sensor

Lightweight

Ability to accurately deliver supplies/equipment from offset distances

Increased delivery accuracy

Covert, day/night, and limited visibility airdrop capability

System            
Objective Crew–Served Weapon  

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Objective Sniper Weapon

 

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System Upgrade            
Advanced Precision Airborne Delivery System

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Advanced Personnel Airdrop Technologies

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Advanced Concept            
Precision Offset High Glide Aerial Delivery of Munitions and Equipment

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SOLDIER             Optimal food mix—quality and amount

Improved soldier and crew protection

Improved accuracy, effects, and logistics

Battery unit/engine fuel cells, lightweight power source

Thermal weapon sight to detect man–sized targets

Soldier computer

Increased accuracy, probability of hit, and range

Lightweight system

System weight reduction

Minimization of system power

Life–cycle cost reduction

Improved system fightability

System            
Objective Family of Small Arms  

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Land Warrior

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Objective Sniper Weapon

 

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System Upgrade            
Force XXI Land Warrior

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Army Field Feeding Future

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Objective Individual Combat Weapon  

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Objective Crew–Served Weapon  

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NCB             Decontamination downtime reduced

Detection and ID of all CB threat agents

Low bulk, low–cost CB protective mask

Multispectral smoke material to defeat enemy RSTA assets

Defeat or degrade enemy armored targets

Improve entry/exit

Defeat/immobilize enemy threat equipment (i.e., trucks, tanks)

Close–in fire support for SOF and MOUT

Increased first–kill capability of hardened targets

Large area defeat of enemy threat equipment

Counter–counter battery

Target marking

System/
System Upgrade/
Advanced Concept
           
Individual Protection

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Collective Protection

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Chemical Detectors  

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Biological Detectors  

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Smoke/Obscurants  

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Decontamination

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AIR DEFENSE               IR counter–countermeasures

Improved lethality against helicopters

360–degree coverage

System Upgrade            
Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC3)

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Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle

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Advanced Concept            
Stinger Block II

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ENGINEER AND MINE WARFARE             Advanced staring FPA

Advanced sensors

Lightweight airborne standoff detection

Advanced ATR

Neutralized antitank mines

Detection avoidance

Counter threat thermal IR sensors

Integrated, cooperative, controllable two–way minefield

Detect mines with large lethal radii

 
System            
Lightweight Airborne Multispectral CM Detector  

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Ground Standoff Mine Detection  

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System Upgrade            
Mine Hunter–Killer  

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Low–Cost, Low–Observable Technologies  

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Digital Topographic Support System/Quick Response Multicolor Printer

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FIRE SUPPORT             Improved range, agility, and RAM

Extended range kill

Increased sensor accuracy

Decision aids

Smart weapons

155–mm range from a lightweight system

Mobile long–range capability

Improved targeting

Precision guidance capability

Lightweight, deployable, long range

Increased lethality and accuracy

Reduced fire mission duration

Reduced logistic burden

System            
Crusader

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Lightweight 155–mm Towed Howitzer

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System Upgrade            
Firefinder P3I  

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Multimode Airframe Technology

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Extended Range Artillery (ERA) Projectile—
XM982

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Advanced Concept            
Precision Guided Mortar Munition

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Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System

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LOGISTICS             Shelf–stable ration components

Enhanced rations performance and flexibility

Reduced manpower

Improved quality of life

Improved precision–guided delivery of munitions

Improved morale

Improved food, nutrition, and readiness

Lower O&S costs

Accurate delivery of supplies/equipment from offset distances

Increased delivery accuracy via an autonomous GPS–based guidance and navigation system

Covert day/night and limited visibility airdrop capabilities

System Upgrade            
Aerial Delivery

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Army Field Feeding Future

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Rapid Deployable Food Service for Force Projection

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ReformD/Emergency Petroleum Quality

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Electric Power Generation

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Munitions Survivability

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Advanced Concept            
Precision Offset, High–Glide Aerial Delivery

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Containerized Kitchen

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TRAINING             Joint services training

Component training strategies

Combined arms training

Battle command training

Upgrade of multiple integrated laser engagement system equipment

Synthetic battlefield

Special operations training

Contingency mission training

Range modernization

 
System Upgrade            
Distributed Interactive Simulation

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Combined Arms Training Strategy

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Combat Training Centers

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Nonsystem Training Devices

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Range Instrumentation Targetry Devices  

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Combined Arms Tactical Trainer

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Advanced Concept               Joint mission training

Mission rehearsal

Mission readiness estimation

Behaviorally accurate semiautomated forces

Distributed Models/Simulation for Joint/Theater Exercises

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Innovative Simulation–Based Training Strategies

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Advanced Assessment Technologies

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SPACE             Real–time warning to theater forces

Pager warning to troops

 
System            
Joint Tactical Ground Station

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Eagle Vision II

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Surveillance Targeting and Reconnaissance Satellite

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System Upgrade             DBC terminal upgrades

SATCOM paging

Improved situational awareness

Improved targeting

Improved pointing accuracy

 
SCAMP Terminals

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Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities

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Advanced Concept               SATCOM on the move

High–capacity voice/data/video transmission

Communications Transport

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Advanced Image Collection and Processing

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MOUNTED FORCES               Leap–ahead lethality

Hypermobility

Reduced crew size and workload

Situational awareness

Silent watch operation

Increased squad size

Improved lethality

System Upgrade            
M1A2 Abrams SEP  

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Abrams P3I  

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M2A3 Bradley

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Advanced Concept            
Future Combat System

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Future Scout and Cavalry System  

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Future Infantry Vehicle

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COMBAT HEALTH SUPPORT             Protection against blood and tissue stages of malaria

Protection against Shigella

Forward diagnostic test kits

Protective vaccines against encephalomyelitis, botulium toxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), anthrax, plague, Brucella, and ricin

Improve blood storage duration

Localize antibiotic administration

Enhance monitoring and diagnosis far–forward

Performance–enhancing nutritional supplements

Reduction and prevention of deployment stress

Protection against malaria using a combined vaccine

Combined oral vaccine for protection against diarrheal disease

CAD, molecular fingerprinting–, and molecular biology–based drug discovery

Multiagent protection with single vaccination

Medical diagnostics and communications for casualty care enhancements

Performance optimization

Sleep and alertness enhancement

Physiological models

System/System Upgrade/Advanced
Concept
           
Infectious Diseases of Military Importance

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Medical Chemical and Biological Defense

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Combat Casualty Care

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Army Operational Medicine

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Table III–16.  Close Combat Light Demonstration and System Summary

Advanced Technology Demonstration

Technology Demonstration

Precision Guided Mortar Munition

Guided MLRS (see Fire Support)

Enhanced Fiber–Optic Guided Missile

RFPI Demonstration

Aerial Scout Sensor Integration
Integrated Acoustic System
Future Missile Technology Integration
High Mobility Rocket System
155–mm Automated Howitzer (see Fire Support)
Multimode Airframe (see Fire Support)

CCL Unique Demonstrations

Objective Crew–Served Weapon
Counter Active Projection System
Precision Offset, High Glide Aerial Delivery of Munitions and Equipment
Objective Sniper Weapon
Advanced Personnel Airdrop (see Soldier)
Advanced Cargo Airdrop (see Logistics)
ATR for Weapons (see Aviation)

Advanced Concept
Technology Demonstration

 
Rapid Force Projection Initiative

(For additional information, see Volume II, Annex B.)

 

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

System

Objective Crew–Served Weapon
Objective Sniper Weapon

System Upgrade

Advanced Precision Airborne Delivery System
Advanced Personnel Airdrop Technologies

Advanced Concept

Precision Offset, High Glide Aerial Delivery of Munitions and Equipment


Figure III-9. Roadmap - Close Combat Light for Rapid Force Projection Initiative ACTD
Figure III-9. Roadmap - Close Combat Light for Rapid Force Projection Initiative ACTD
Click on the image to view enlarged version

a. RFPI Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration

RFPI ACTD (1995–00). The RFPI ACTD will demonstrate a highly lethal, survivable, and rapidly air–deployable enhancement to the early entry task force. This enhancement will provide automated target transfer from forward sensors to an indirect–fire weapon system with the capability to engage high–value targets beyond traditional direct–fire ranges. The ACTD provides an opportunity for extensive user interaction with the new RFPI hunter–standoff killer concept and its emerging technologies. A selected light, air assault, or airborne unit from forces command (FORSCOM) will demonstrate the RFPI ACTD concept, and will retain selected equipment for at least a 2–year extended demonstration period to provide residual capabilities and allow arrangements for long–term retention. The ACTD leverages maturing RFPI sensor technologies and an advanced command and control element. The ACTD includes automated fire control system (FCS) for selected howitzers, EFOGM non–line–of–sight weapon system, and HIMARS. It encourages user exploration of a variety of baseline procedures to optimize utility of the new hunter–standoff killer concept. Supports: RFPI.

Figure III-10. Roadmap - Demonstrations Unique to Close Combat Light
Figure III-10. Roadmap - Demonstrations Unique to Close Combat Light
Click on the image to view enlarged version

b. RFPI Sensor Demonstrations

Aerial Scout Sensor Integration TD (1995–98). This TD will demonstrate technology to provide light forces with accurate, timely, "over–the–hill" reconnaissance, surveillance,  and battle damage assessment capability through use of aerial sensors enhanced with ATR and smart workstation technologies. A variety of imaging sensors will be used on a surrogate aerial platform as well as a ground–based image exploitation workstation. Candidate sensors include FLIR, IR line scanner, day TV, and MTI radar. The goal is to demonstrate a reduction in data timelines, from tasking to output of tactical information. Supports: RFPI ACTD.

Integrated Acoustic System (IAS) TD (1996–99). This TD will demonstrate acoustic sensor technology in both hand–emplaced and air–droppable variants. Advanced acoustic sensor efforts from the Intelligent Minefield ATD (completed in FY97; see the section on Technology Transition Strategy (above), which will provide the hand–emplaced system. The air–deployable acoustic sensor (ADAS) system will be developed to provide a helicopter–deployable variant. Both systems will be demonstrated during the RFPI ACTD large–scale field experiment. Supports: RFPI ACTD.

c. RFPI Weapons Demonstrations

The RFPI large–scale field experiment includes several advanced concepts that will demonstrate the system–of–systems concept of hunters and standoff killers. During this timeframe, the newly configured and upgraded EFOGM, HIMARS, and 155–mm automated howitzer (with automated fire control system) will be demonstrated. Other new hunter or killer technologies will be considered during this phase.

Enhanced Fiber–Optic Guided Missile (EFOGM) ATD (1994–99). This ATD will develop and demonstrate a remotely directed (fiber optically guided) missile system (EFOGM), modified with an imaging IR (I2R) seeker, inertial navigational system, and other datalink modifications. It will defeat armor out to ranges of 15 km and permit the operator, through a fiber–optic guidance link to the missile seeker, to search for targets in the extended close battle area. The system has the unique ability to operate from defilade and to engage targets that are also in defilade. Friendly target recognition capability and fratricide avoidance is enhanced with a gunner operator in the loop. The EFOGM ATD will provide the advanced, non–line–of–sight weapon to be demonstrated under the RFPI ACTD. This ACTD will integrate light force organic weapons, the EFOGM, RFPI sensors, other RFPI standoff killers, and C2. Supports: RFPI and JPSD Precision/Rapid Counter MRL ACTDs.

155–mm Automated Howitzer TD (1994–00). The program will develop an advanced digital fire control system for towed artillery. See Section III–N "Fire Support" for more detailed information. Supports: RFPI ACTD.

Precision–Guided Mortar Munition (PGMM) ATD (1994–01). The ATD will demonstrate, through live fire and simulation, the ability of a guided mortar munition to defeat armored as well as high–value point targets. It will also demonstrate longer range, more accurate and more timely response to requests for fire through the integration of a lightweight fire control system. As part of the RFPI, the PGMM and fire control will be an advanced concept standoff killer in the RFPI ACTD. The ATD program consists of a 120–mm PGMM capable of finding and defeating enemy armor and other high–priority targets in an autonomous role, and a lightweight fire control to improve the accuracy and response time of fielded mortar systems. An initial test bed is being integrated on a HMMWV, with a follow–on effort to reduce the size and weight of the components. The program will focus on the azimuth reference unit and the software required to integrate the components completely and fire a PGMM against moving targets. Supports: RFPI ACTD.

Guided MLRS ATD (1995–98). This ATD is discussed in detail in the section on Fire Support.

High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS) TD (1995–99). The HIMARS TD will provide a lightweight, C–130 transportable version of the M–270 multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) launcher. Mounted on a 5–ton family of medium tactical vehicles (FMTV) truck chassis, it will fire any rocket or missile in the MLRS family of munitions. The HIMARS uses the same command, control, and communications, as well as the same crew, as the MLRS launcher but carries only one rocket or missile pod. It will roll on and off a C–130 transport aircraft and, when carried with a combat load, will be ready to operate within minutes of landing. Supports: RFPI ACTD and MLRS Family of Munitions.

Future Missile Technology Integration (FMTI) TD (1994–98). This technology demonstration is discussed in detail in Section III–D "Aviation" (above).

Multimode Airframe Technology (MAT) TD (1995–98). This technology demonstration is discussed in detail in Section III–N "Fire Support."

d. Close Combat Light Unique Demonstrations

The Objective Crew–Served Weapon TD (1996–01). This TD is part of the objective family of Small Arms described in the section on Soldier and is unique to the Close Combat Light section. It will support the two–man, crew–served weapon outlined in the Army Small Arms Master Plan and the Joint Service Small Arms Master Plan. This demonstration will establish the feasibility of a lightweight, two–man portable, crew–served weapon system with a high probability of incapacitation and suppression out to 2,000 meters against protected personnel targets. It will also have a high potential to damage light vehicles, lightly armored vehicles, water craft, and slow moving aircraft beyond 1,000 meters. The fire control system will include a laser rangefinder, environmental sensors, ballistic computer, day and night channel, and adjusted aimpoint to provide the full ballistic solution. The weapon will fire bursting ammunition to provide decisively violent target effects to overmatch threat systems and will have the ability to defeat defilade or non–line–of–sight personnel targets. The fire control system will be modular in design, eliminate the need to estimate range, provide a full solution aimpoint, and include embedded training. This weapon would be utilized by mounted and dismounted combat soldiers. Supports: Objective Crew–Served Weapon.

Precision Offset, High–Glide Aerial Delivery of Munitions and Equipment TD (1994–99). This TD will demonstrate revolutionary technologies for the reliable precision–guided delivery of combat essential munitions and equipment using high glide wing technology and incorporating a low cost, modular GPS guidance and control system. This technology will provide a 6:1 or better glide ratio. A modular GPS guidance package was developed and a precision high–glide capability of 500–pound payload using semirigid wing technology was demonstrated in FY96. By the end of FY99, the effort will demonstrate precision high glide of a 2,000–pound payload, with a goal of a 5,000–pound payload, using an advanced guidance package and high glide wing. An optional glide augmentation system will also be demonstrated, providing an offset range of 75 to 300 km. High–glide wing technology will significantly enhance the military aerial delivery capability through substantially higher glide ratios than are possible with ram air parachutes, and will directly benefit the initial deployment of Early Entry Forces. Supports: Depth and Simultaneous Attack (DSA), Maneuver Support Battle Laboratories, and Advanced Precision Airborne Delivery System.

Advanced Personnel Airdrop TD (1998–00). This effort will demonstrate improved performance characteristics and enhanced safety of existing personnel parachute capabilities. Details can be found in Section III–I, "Soldier." Supports: Airborne Insertion for Operations in Urban Terrain and the Advanced Tactical Parachute System development effort.

Advanced Cargo Airdrop TD (1998–00). Technologies to provide an improved cargo airdrop capability will be demonstrated. Details can be found in Section III–O, "Logistics." Supports: Aerial Delivery and Mobility Requirements.

Counter Active Protection Systems (CAPS) TD (1996–99). The CAPS TD will develop and demonstrate technologies/methods that can be applied to antitank guided weapons (ATGWs) for improving effectiveness against threat armor equipped with APSs.

Current technology development is concentrated in the following three areas:

RF countermeasure (RFCM) technology for jamming or deceiving APS sensors used for detection, acquisition, and tracking.
Long standoff warheads for shooting from beyond the range of APS fragment–producing countermunitions.
Ballistic hardening of ATGW to reduce vulnerability to fragment impact.

Supports: Close Combat Antiarmor Weapon System (CCAWS), Advanced Missile System–Heavy (AMS–H), Javelin, and BAT.

Automated Target Recognition for Weapons TD (1998–01). This technology demonstration is discussed in detail in Section III–D "Aviation" (above).

Objective Sniper Weapon (OSW) TD (2000–02). The OSW will develop and demonstrate a single, lightweight (x20 pounds), long–range (to 2,000 m) sniper weapon system providing very high incapacitation probabilities (Pi u0.5) and materiel destruction against personnel protected by body armor or in fortifications and light vehicles, vessels, and high–value materiel. It will demonstrate the ability to achieve objective sniper weapon goals through simulation and analyses, followed by experimentation of critical component technologies. Technical, safety, and troop testing will be conducted to demonstrate operational utility and technical maturity. Supports: Objective Sniper Weapon, U.S. Army Infantry School (USAIS), USMC, and Special Operations Command (SOCOM).

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