H. Close Combat Light
Those experimenting today will lead modernized units tomorrow.
Togo D. West, Jr.
Secretary of the Army
In light of the changing threat, the Army is placing increased emphasis on developing a more flexible, combatready military force that can respond quickly to any crisis situation and that is capable of deterring aggression and, should deterrence fail, defeating the enemy throughout the operational continuum. The cornerstone of this flexible force is the Armys light forces. The light forces comprise combat, combat support, and combat service support units that participate in and support the close battle. Their mission is to defeat threat forces in a lowintensity conflict, while retaining a capability for employment in mid to highintensity conflicts and OOTW.
Light forces, as well as all other elements of future land combat forces, must be highly deployable, able to execute missions outside the operational envelope of opposing forces, and survive against myriad lethal antiarmor weapons and other nontraditional, nonlethal weapons. Light forces are the option of choice for peacetime engagement and conflict prevention. They must show the advantage of new technologies and field equipment that is more lethal, survivable, maintainable, smaller, lighter weight, and easily transportable.
2. Relationship to Operational Capabilities
It may be necessary for light forces to conduct military operations under a variety of conditions generated by a wide range of threats. We must, therefore, continue to leverage technology in the following key areas to ensure our capabilities exceed those of our current and potential threats:
A major Army initiative, designed and geared toward achieving U.S. light forces superiority, is the RFPI ACTD. This ACTD explores new tactics and technologies via a systemofsystems approach providing a path to an airdeployable, early entry light force that is significantly more capable of destroying a heavy armored threat beyond traditional direct fire weapons range. The RFPI concept includes a variety of advanced sensors (air and ground, manned and unmanned); several precisionguided, nonlineofsight weapons; responsive command and control mechanisms; and automated targeting. Target handover will be facilitated by tactical digital data transfer systems now being developed as part of the U.S. ABCS program. Specifically, this ACTD will provide the opportunity to explore the integration of new technologies with modified tactics, technologies, and procedures to improve the survivability of our early entry forces.
The light forces are key elements of the U.S. forwarddeployed, crisisresponse, and reinforcing forces. Light forces provide versatility in two ways: they are rapidly deployable and they are most suited for fighting in close terrain. These characteristics enable light forces to be used in all of the Armys roles and missions. Some examples of these are:
Initial forward deployment and the timely reinforcement of forces. This has deterrent value and sends a message of resolve in a crisis situation, yet is not perceived as escalatory.
Contingency crisis situations, where a rapid and decisive deployment can forestall or limit hostilities. In an area where no infrastructure exists, a forced entry and subsequent rapid buildup of force may be required.
Nation building/military operations other than war. Nations involved in lowintensity conflicts may require economic and socialpolitical solutions. Light forces are ideally suited for the role of providing security and promoting the political and social development of nations. Their inherent characteristic of low equipment density does not create an impact on a developing country, yet it provides a widespread sense of security.
Counterterrorism can be used both domestically and internationally. It may require special nontraditional methods.
Table III15 represents close combat light S/SU/ACs capabilities and their relationship to the Army modernization objectives. This table also provides highlights of capabilities provided by other Army modernization programs discussed in detail throughout this chapter.
3. Modernization Strategy
The Combat Maneuver annex to the AMP, of which close combat light is a part, reviews the requirements placed on the light forces over the entire spectrum of potential future conflicts and is the Armys strategy for modernization of its strategically flexible light forces. The close combat light modernization strategy focuses on new materiel that increases lethality, mobility, and survivability while correcting deficiencies and providing the necessary "tailorability" across the spectrum of conflict. Priority is given to equipment that significantly increases flexibility and survivability.
Early entry forces will gain increased lethality and survivability against heavy forces through application of the hunterstandoffkiller conceptuse of advanced forward sensors (hunters) and standoff weapons (killers) that will be demonstrated in a systemofsystems engaging enemy forces at ranges beyond their ability to counter.
Close combat light extracts those portions of all other modernization plans and mission areas that are applicable to light forces, examines them from the perspective of the light forces roles and missions, and ensures that the light forces are provided adequate resources.
This plan is the result of a thorough examination of the threat, the nature and imperatives of the future battlefield, a recognition of the need to reduce significantly the time required to develop and field advanced technology systems, and the recognition of timeconstrained resources. The plan uses technology and systems that will make a significant contribution to the deterrent value of light forces or provide leapahead capabilities. The objective is to ensure that the Army light forces meet the future battlefield requirements of increased firepower, flexibility, mobility, survivability, and sustainability.
4. Roadmaps for Close Combat Light
Table III16 is a summary of close combat light demonstrations and systems.
Because close combat light is primarily an integration plan, the applicable S/SU/ACs, along with the majority of appropriate ATDs and TDs that provide capabilities to the close combat light mission, are shown on the existing roadmaps throughout the rest of Chapter III and are not repeated here.
The RFPI, however, is unique to close combat light and is displayed in Figure III9. It depicts the Army ATDs and technology demonstrations that support the RFPI ACTD in the form of capabilities provided by systems or system upgrades.
In addition to the RFPI demonstrations, there are other technology demonstrations that are unique to the close combat light mission. These are shown in the roadmap on Figure III10.
Table III15. Close Combat Light System Capabilities
Patterns of Operation
|Project the Force||Protect the Force||Gain Information Dominance||Decisive Operations||Shape the Battlespace||Sustain the Force|
|AVIATION||Light attack/armed reconnaissance
Day/night and adverse weather
Antiarmor/air to air
Automatic target recognition
Allweather NOE pilotage
Automatic target recognition
Integrated flight/fire control
NOE sling load operations
|AH64D Apache Longbow|
|Improved Cargo Helicopter|
|Enhanced AH64D Apache|
|Joint Transport Rotorcraft|
|C4||Distributed processing and databases
Integrated system management
Gateways and multilevel security
Jam resistant capability
High mobility and survivability
Expert system planning aids
Synchronized battle management
Seamless, transparent communication
Automated network management
C2 on the move
Integrated sensor weapon C3
Wide, Local, Mobile
|Force XXI/Vision 2010|
|Manpack/vehicle for surveillance/targeting
Penetration and standoff IEW
Automated terrain identifier
ELINT, COMINT, and EA radar multisensor package
Automated weather decision aids
Manportable sensor to detect, track, and classify vehicle and personnel
system of sensors and collectors
Closedloop target handover
Intelligence analysis and assessment
|GroundBased Common SensorLight*|
|UAV Tactical Intelligence Package|
|Integrated Meteorological System|
|Meteorological Measuring Set|
|Distributed IEW Fusion|
|CLOSE COMBAT LIGHT||Dismounted infantry combat power
Increased capability of vehiclemounted support weapons
Higher altitude personnel parachute opening capabilities
Improved glide ratio for personnel parachutes
Lower ground impact velocities for airborne soldiers
Enhanced situation awareness
Integrated system of sensors
Improved probability of hit
Ability to accurately deliver supplies/equipment from offset distances
Increased delivery accuracy
Covert, day/night, and limited visibility airdrop capability
|Objective CrewServed Weapon|
Objective Sniper Weapon
|Advanced Precision Airborne Delivery System|
|Advanced Personnel Airdrop Technologies|
|Precision Offset High Glide Aerial Delivery of Munitions and Equipment|
|SOLDIER||Optimal food mixquality and amount
Improved soldier and crew protection
Improved accuracy, effects, and logistics
Battery unit/engine fuel cells, lightweight power source
Thermal weapon sight to detect mansized targets
Increased accuracy, probability of hit, and range
Minimization of system power
Lifecycle cost reduction
Improved system fightability
|Objective Family of Small Arms|
Objective Sniper Weapon
|Force XXI Land Warrior|
|Army Field Feeding Future|
|Objective Individual Combat Weapon|
|Objective CrewServed Weapon|
|NCB||Decontamination downtime reduced
Detection and ID of all CB threat agents
Low bulk, lowcost CB protective mask
Multispectral smoke material to defeat enemy RSTA assets
Defeat or degrade enemy armored targets
enemy threat equipment (i.e., trucks, tanks)
Closein fire support for SOF and MOUT
Increased firstkill capability of hardened targets
Large area defeat of enemy threat equipment
Improved lethality against helicopters
|Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC3)|
|Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle|
|Stinger Block II|
|ENGINEER AND MINE WARFARE||Advanced staring FPA
Lightweight airborne standoff detection
Neutralized antitank mines
Counter threat thermal IR sensors
Integrated, cooperative, controllable twoway minefield
Detect mines with large lethal radii
|Lightweight Airborne Multispectral CM Detector|
|Ground Standoff Mine Detection|
|LowCost, LowObservable Technologies|
|Digital Topographic Support System/Quick Response Multicolor Printer|
|FIRE SUPPORT||Improved range, agility, and RAM
Extended range kill
Increased sensor accuracy
155mm range from a lightweight system
Precision guidance capability
Lightweight, deployable, long range
Increased lethality and accuracy
Reduced fire mission duration
Reduced logistic burden
|Lightweight 155mm Towed Howitzer|
|Multimode Airframe Technology|
Artillery (ERA) Projectile
|Precision Guided Mortar Munition|
Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System
|LOGISTICS||Shelfstable ration components
Enhanced rations performance and flexibility
Improved quality of life
Improved precisionguided delivery of munitions
Improved food, nutrition, and readiness
Lower O&S costs
delivery of supplies/equipment from offset distances
Increased delivery accuracy via an autonomous GPSbased guidance and navigation system
Covert day/night and limited visibility airdrop capabilities
|Army Field Feeding Future|
|Rapid Deployable Food Service for Force Projection|
|ReformD/Emergency Petroleum Quality|
|Electric Power Generation|
|Precision Offset, HighGlide Aerial Delivery|
|TRAINING||Joint services training
Component training strategies
Combined arms training
Battle command training
Upgrade of multiple integrated laser engagement system equipment
Special operations training
Contingency mission training
|Distributed Interactive Simulation|
|Combined Arms Training Strategy|
Combat Training Centers
|Nonsystem Training Devices|
|Range Instrumentation Targetry Devices|
|Combined Arms Tactical Trainer|
Mission readiness estimation
Behaviorally accurate semiautomated forces
|Distributed Models/Simulation for Joint/Theater Exercises|
Innovative SimulationBased Training Strategies
|Advanced Assessment Technologies|
|SPACE||Realtime warning to theater forces
Pager warning to troops
|Joint Tactical Ground Station|
|Eagle Vision II|
|Surveillance Targeting and Reconnaissance Satellite|
|System Upgrade||DBC terminal upgrades
Improved situational awareness
Improved pointing accuracy
|Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities|
on the move
Highcapacity voice/data/video transmission
|Advanced Image Collection and Processing|
Reduced crew size and workload
Silent watch operation
Increased squad size
|M1A2 Abrams SEP|
|Future Combat System|
|Future Scout and Cavalry System|
|Future Infantry Vehicle|
|COMBAT HEALTH SUPPORT||Protection against blood and tissue stages of malaria
Protection against Shigella
Forward diagnostic test kits
Protective vaccines against encephalomyelitis, botulium toxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), anthrax, plague, Brucella, and ricin
Improve blood storage duration
Localize antibiotic administration
Enhance monitoring and diagnosis farforward
Performanceenhancing nutritional supplements
Reduction and prevention of deployment stress
against malaria using a combined vaccine
Combined oral vaccine for protection against diarrheal disease
CAD, molecular fingerprinting, and molecular biologybased drug discovery
Multiagent protection with single vaccination
Medical diagnostics and communications for casualty care enhancements
Sleep and alertness enhancement
|Infectious Diseases of Military Importance|
|Medical Chemical and Biological Defense|
|Combat Casualty Care|
|Army Operational Medicine|
|Provides significant capability Provides some capability * Contains communication jamming capability|
Table III16. Close Combat Light Demonstration and System Summary
Advanced Technology Demonstration
Guided MLRS (see Fire Support)
Enhanced FiberOptic Guided Missile
Aerial Scout Sensor Integration
CCL Unique Demonstrations
Objective CrewServed Weapon
(For additional information, see Volume II, Annex B.)
System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept
Advanced Precision Airborne Delivery System
Precision Offset, High Glide Aerial Delivery of Munitions and Equipment
Figure III-9. Roadmap - Close Combat Light for Rapid Force Projection Initiative ACTD
Click on the image to view enlarged version
a. RFPI Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration
RFPI ACTD (199500). The RFPI ACTD will demonstrate a highly
lethal, survivable, and rapidly airdeployable enhancement to the early entry task
force. This enhancement will provide automated target transfer from forward sensors to an
indirectfire weapon system with the capability to engage highvalue targets
beyond traditional directfire ranges. The ACTD provides an opportunity for extensive
user interaction with the new RFPI hunterstandoff killer concept and its emerging
technologies. A selected light, air assault, or airborne unit from forces command
(FORSCOM) will demonstrate the RFPI ACTD concept, and will retain selected equipment for
at least a 2year extended demonstration period to provide residual capabilities and
allow arrangements for longterm retention. The ACTD leverages maturing RFPI sensor
technologies and an advanced command and control element. The ACTD includes automated fire
control system (FCS) for selected howitzers, EFOGM nonlineofsight weapon
system, and HIMARS. It encourages user exploration of a variety of baseline procedures to
optimize utility of the new hunterstandoff killer concept. Supports: RFPI.
Figure III-10. Roadmap - Demonstrations Unique to Close Combat Light
Click on the image to view enlarged version
b. RFPI Sensor Demonstrations
Aerial Scout Sensor Integration TD (199598). This TD will demonstrate technology to provide light forces with accurate, timely, "overthehill" reconnaissance, surveillance, and battle damage assessment capability through use of aerial sensors enhanced with ATR and smart workstation technologies. A variety of imaging sensors will be used on a surrogate aerial platform as well as a groundbased image exploitation workstation. Candidate sensors include FLIR, IR line scanner, day TV, and MTI radar. The goal is to demonstrate a reduction in data timelines, from tasking to output of tactical information. Supports: RFPI ACTD.
Integrated Acoustic System (IAS) TD (199699). This TD will demonstrate acoustic sensor technology in both handemplaced and airdroppable variants. Advanced acoustic sensor efforts from the Intelligent Minefield ATD (completed in FY97; see the section on Technology Transition Strategy (above), which will provide the handemplaced system. The airdeployable acoustic sensor (ADAS) system will be developed to provide a helicopterdeployable variant. Both systems will be demonstrated during the RFPI ACTD largescale field experiment. Supports: RFPI ACTD.
c. RFPI Weapons Demonstrations
The RFPI largescale field experiment includes several advanced concepts that will demonstrate the systemofsystems concept of hunters and standoff killers. During this timeframe, the newly configured and upgraded EFOGM, HIMARS, and 155mm automated howitzer (with automated fire control system) will be demonstrated. Other new hunter or killer technologies will be considered during this phase.
Enhanced FiberOptic Guided Missile (EFOGM) ATD (199499). This ATD will develop and demonstrate a remotely directed (fiber optically guided) missile system (EFOGM), modified with an imaging IR (I2R) seeker, inertial navigational system, and other datalink modifications. It will defeat armor out to ranges of 15 km and permit the operator, through a fiberoptic guidance link to the missile seeker, to search for targets in the extended close battle area. The system has the unique ability to operate from defilade and to engage targets that are also in defilade. Friendly target recognition capability and fratricide avoidance is enhanced with a gunner operator in the loop. The EFOGM ATD will provide the advanced, nonlineofsight weapon to be demonstrated under the RFPI ACTD. This ACTD will integrate light force organic weapons, the EFOGM, RFPI sensors, other RFPI standoff killers, and C2. Supports: RFPI and JPSD Precision/Rapid Counter MRL ACTDs.
155mm Automated Howitzer TD (199400). The program will develop an advanced digital fire control system for towed artillery. See Section IIIN "Fire Support" for more detailed information. Supports: RFPI ACTD.
PrecisionGuided Mortar Munition (PGMM) ATD (199401). The ATD will demonstrate, through live fire and simulation, the ability of a guided mortar munition to defeat armored as well as highvalue point targets. It will also demonstrate longer range, more accurate and more timely response to requests for fire through the integration of a lightweight fire control system. As part of the RFPI, the PGMM and fire control will be an advanced concept standoff killer in the RFPI ACTD. The ATD program consists of a 120mm PGMM capable of finding and defeating enemy armor and other highpriority targets in an autonomous role, and a lightweight fire control to improve the accuracy and response time of fielded mortar systems. An initial test bed is being integrated on a HMMWV, with a followon effort to reduce the size and weight of the components. The program will focus on the azimuth reference unit and the software required to integrate the components completely and fire a PGMM against moving targets. Supports: RFPI ACTD.
Guided MLRS ATD (199598). This ATD is discussed in detail in the section on Fire Support.
High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS) TD (199599). The HIMARS TD will provide a lightweight, C130 transportable version of the M270 multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) launcher. Mounted on a 5ton family of medium tactical vehicles (FMTV) truck chassis, it will fire any rocket or missile in the MLRS family of munitions. The HIMARS uses the same command, control, and communications, as well as the same crew, as the MLRS launcher but carries only one rocket or missile pod. It will roll on and off a C130 transport aircraft and, when carried with a combat load, will be ready to operate within minutes of landing. Supports: RFPI ACTD and MLRS Family of Munitions.
Future Missile Technology Integration (FMTI) TD (199498). This technology demonstration is discussed in detail in Section IIID "Aviation" (above).
Multimode Airframe Technology (MAT) TD (199598). This technology demonstration is discussed in detail in Section IIIN "Fire Support."
d. Close Combat Light Unique Demonstrations
The Objective CrewServed Weapon TD (199601). This TD is part of the objective family of Small Arms described in the section on Soldier and is unique to the Close Combat Light section. It will support the twoman, crewserved weapon outlined in the Army Small Arms Master Plan and the Joint Service Small Arms Master Plan. This demonstration will establish the feasibility of a lightweight, twoman portable, crewserved weapon system with a high probability of incapacitation and suppression out to 2,000 meters against protected personnel targets. It will also have a high potential to damage light vehicles, lightly armored vehicles, water craft, and slow moving aircraft beyond 1,000 meters. The fire control system will include a laser rangefinder, environmental sensors, ballistic computer, day and night channel, and adjusted aimpoint to provide the full ballistic solution. The weapon will fire bursting ammunition to provide decisively violent target effects to overmatch threat systems and will have the ability to defeat defilade or nonlineofsight personnel targets. The fire control system will be modular in design, eliminate the need to estimate range, provide a full solution aimpoint, and include embedded training. This weapon would be utilized by mounted and dismounted combat soldiers. Supports: Objective CrewServed Weapon.
Precision Offset, HighGlide Aerial Delivery of Munitions and Equipment TD (199499). This TD will demonstrate revolutionary technologies for the reliable precisionguided delivery of combat essential munitions and equipment using high glide wing technology and incorporating a low cost, modular GPS guidance and control system. This technology will provide a 6:1 or better glide ratio. A modular GPS guidance package was developed and a precision highglide capability of 500pound payload using semirigid wing technology was demonstrated in FY96. By the end of FY99, the effort will demonstrate precision high glide of a 2,000pound payload, with a goal of a 5,000pound payload, using an advanced guidance package and high glide wing. An optional glide augmentation system will also be demonstrated, providing an offset range of 75 to 300 km. Highglide wing technology will significantly enhance the military aerial delivery capability through substantially higher glide ratios than are possible with ram air parachutes, and will directly benefit the initial deployment of Early Entry Forces. Supports: Depth and Simultaneous Attack (DSA), Maneuver Support Battle Laboratories, and Advanced Precision Airborne Delivery System.
Advanced Personnel Airdrop TD (199800). This effort will demonstrate improved performance characteristics and enhanced safety of existing personnel parachute capabilities. Details can be found in Section IIII, "Soldier." Supports: Airborne Insertion for Operations in Urban Terrain and the Advanced Tactical Parachute System development effort.
Advanced Cargo Airdrop TD (199800). Technologies to provide an improved cargo airdrop capability will be demonstrated. Details can be found in Section IIIO, "Logistics." Supports: Aerial Delivery and Mobility Requirements.
Counter Active Protection Systems (CAPS) TD (199699). The CAPS TD will develop and demonstrate technologies/methods that can be applied to antitank guided weapons (ATGWs) for improving effectiveness against threat armor equipped with APSs.
Current technology development is concentrated in the following three areas:
RF countermeasure (RFCM) technology for jamming or deceiving APS sensors used for detection, acquisition, and tracking.
Supports: Close Combat Antiarmor Weapon System (CCAWS), Advanced Missile SystemHeavy (AMSH), Javelin, and BAT.
Automated Target Recognition for Weapons TD (199801). This technology demonstration is discussed in detail in Section IIID "Aviation" (above).
Objective Sniper Weapon (OSW) TD (200002). The OSW will develop and demonstrate a single, lightweight (x20 pounds), longrange (to 2,000 m) sniper weapon system providing very high incapacitation probabilities (Pi u0.5) and materiel destruction against personnel protected by body armor or in fortifications and light vehicles, vessels, and highvalue materiel. It will demonstrate the ability to achieve objective sniper weapon goals through simulation and analyses, followed by experimentation of critical component technologies. Technical, safety, and troop testing will be conducted to demonstrate operational utility and technical maturity. Supports: Objective Sniper Weapon, U.S. Army Infantry School (USAIS), USMC, and Special Operations Command (SOCOM).
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