News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



I. Soldier

Our warfighting edge is the combined effect of quality people, trained to razor sharpness, outfitted with modern equipment, led by tough competent leaders, structured into appropriate forces and employed according to up–to–date doctrine . . . I am certain the most important factor is the soldier.

General Gordon Sullivan
Former Army Chief of Staff

1. Introduction

The Army soldier modernization effort is a comprehensive, multifaceted program designed to maximize the operational capabilities of the soldier as a "battlefield system" capable of executing a full range of military operations by enhancing command and control, lethality, survivability, sustainability, and mobility. The soldier system is generically defined as the individual soldier and everything he/she wears, consumes, or carries for individual use in a tactical environment.

Over the past several years, the systems approach to modernizing the soldier has been implemented and demonstrated very successfully. The current thrust is focused on optimizing the soldier’s effectiveness through (1) the synergy that results from effective integration of technologies at the systems level; and (2) the proper integration of soldier systems across a diverse spectrum of operations. Using the approach and the focus mentioned, the basis of the future human platform has a firm foundation, wherein the soldier is the focal point of a revolutionary vision. In this vision, technology is driven and designed around the "human element," knowing that each soldier is different. However, all must perform the mission or task adequately, as required by doctrine, regardless of size and gender.

To date, the soldier’s effectiveness has increased and will continue to improve at a rate that is greater than the sum of the individual parts. Additionally, the benefits derived from developing the soldier system like other major weapon systems by applying a systems approach will result in accelerated product development cycles, lowered acquisitions costs, and reductions in overall size, weight and power requirements. The bottom line is that the lethality, predictability, flexibility, capability, and "smartness" of a lightweight soldier system is critical to DoD’s future warfighting and peacekeeping capabilities. The application of this synergy and integration at the system level are delineated in the demonstrations identified throughout this chapter.

2. Relationship to Operational Capabilities

The five major soldier system operational capabilities are command and control (C2), lethality, survivability, sustainability, and mobility.

Command and control is the soldier’s ability to direct, coordinate, and control personnel, weapons, equipment, information, and procedures necessary to accomplish the mission. Command, control, and communications have combined–arms–compatible systems providing total situational awareness. This is supported by the aggregated capabilities of the soldier’s radio and computer (using the Army’s emerging architecture), integrated with digital head–mounted displays, combat identification, and navigation aids. Improvements will focus on individual communications, computer control systems, position navigation, information fusing and management, visual and aural enhancement (including image capture and transmission), and situational enhancement.

Lethality is the soldier’s ability to detect, recognize, and destroy the enemy targets. Lethality systems will enhance individual, crew, and personal combat weapons with improved effectiveness. The Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW) ATD is the lethality component of the soldier system and will provide the capability to attack fortified, non–line–of–sight targets and targets that have gone to ground. The land warrior (LW) capabilities will provide accurate, rapid, automated target handover to indirect fire support, enhancing the lethality of the total force.

Survivability is the ability to protect oneself against weapon impacts and environmental conditions. The primary requirement for survivability is a "capability to place accurate fire on the enemy without exposing oneself to fire," which will be accomplished through the integration of the OICW fire control and the LW system. Survivability systems will integrate multiple threat protection against ballistic, flame/thermal, chemical/biological, directed energy, surveillance, and environmental hazards. Combat identification capabilities will be integrated into soldier systems to minimize fratricide. Exploitation of the digital net, coupled with inherent enhancements, will significantly improve the survivability of the individual soldier and the entire force through increased controlled dispersion and a common picture of the battlefield.

Sustainability is the ability to maintain the force in a tactical environment. Sustainability systems will be adaptable to all levels of operations on the dynamic battlefield. Features include advanced quality field A–rations, nutritional tailoring to enhance physical and mental performance, a capability to eat on the move, individual purification of all water sources, and improvements in field feeding and field services. Sustainability also includes individual soldier power sources for low–power–draw tactical system components (e.g., computer/radio, helmet system, fire control).

Mobility is the ability to move about the battlefield with accompanying load to execute assigned missions. In the far term, it is envisioned that combat load handling devices will be employed to reduce the combat load of the dismounted soldier. Future mobility systems will allow accurate rapid air insertion for personnel, supplies, and equipment from ultra–high to very low altitudes at maximum airspeeds. Enhancing dismounted operations in snow and ice and at night will also be addressed. Advanced mobility sensors, coupled with the navigational aids (e.g., GPS, digital maps/overlays), greatly enhance the speed and accuracy of night maneuverability of the individual and unit.

The Army’s soldier modernization strategy calls for the demonstration, development, and integration of a series of systems and system upgrades. Soldier S/SUs have their greatest impact in the functional areas of dismounted battlespace, battle command, combat service support, and early entry. New operational capabilities that will be afforded in each of these functional areas are listed in Table III–17.

3. Soldier Systems Modernization Strategy

The goal of soldier systems modernization is to develop a fully integrated modular system that will allow the Army to field multiple configurations by tailoring software and hardware for specific unit missions and locations on the battlefield. Modularity will allow commanders and individual soldiers to perform their missions better by carrying only the required components, consistent with mission, enemy, troops, terrain, and time (METT–T).

To support planned materiel development programs for the soldier, the Army’s S&T community continues to explore and demonstrate a full range of state–of–the–art technologies. This will maximize the soldier’s battlefield capabilities.

The Land Warrior system is operationally focused on the U.S. Army Infantry, the U.S. Marine Corps (infantry), and the U.S. Special Operations Forces. This sytem will be the link into the digitized force of the future using the Army’s emerging technical architecture. The result will be enhanced survivability, situational awareness, and lethality at both the individual and the unit level. To ensure that the future dismounted infantry soldier is the best equipped in the world, the Force XXI Land Warrior (FXXI LW) S&T program was established. FXXI LW S&T strategy is responsible for ensuring future battlefield dominance of all dismounted infantry. Advanced technologies in microelectronics, weaponry, and protection will be systematically

Table III–17.  Soldier System Capabilities

System/
System Upgrade/
Advanced Concept
Function

Patterns of Operation

System/
System Upgrade
Capability

Advanced Concept
Capability

  Project the Force Protect the Force Gain Information Dominance Decisive Operations Shape the Battlespace Sustain the Force    
LETHALITY             Laser market, 300–m viewing range

Interface to mini eye–safe laser IR observation set

Thermal weapon sight, 550–m range to detect man–sized targets

Increased accuracy, Ph, and range

Lightweight system

Increased Ph and Pi

1000–m viewing range for aim light

Increased range and effectiveness of munitions

Decisive violent target effects

High Pk

Lightweight two–man weapons

Immediate incapacitation

 
System            
Objective Family of Small Arms

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Objective Sniper Weapon

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System Upgrade            
Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW)

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Objective Crew Served Weapon (OCSW)

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Force XXI Land Warrior

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Integrated sight—FLIR integrated with laser rangefinder, compass, aim light, and daylight camera

Integrated combat ID—interrogator with laser pointer and training laser

Enhanced weapon interface to reduce weight and complexity of LW weapon system

System weight reduction

Minimization of system power and energy

System life–cycle cost reduction

Improved system fightability

COMMAND &
CONTROL
            Computer/soldier radio system with GPS (5 lb)

Computer/secure squad radio/soldier radio system with handheld flat panel display and GPS (7 lb)

Monochrome HMD

GPS locator

Color overlays and maps on palm–top display

Automated reporting software

Interactive embedded training

Video capture and transfer (single frame)

NBC monitoring

Integrated high–capacity tactical computer with extended range radio (=23 lbs)

High–resolution flat–panel HMD

SINCGARS improvement program (SIP) gateway to higher echelons (e.g., CAC2) at platoon

GPS plus self–contained navigation

Computer input by voice or "free screen"

Color video capture and transfer (single frame plus modem)

Automated medical and NBC monitoring

Immediate incapacitation

 
System            
Land Warrior

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System Upgrade             Enhanced soldier radio to increase link margin and range

System voice control for voice activation of all LW computer/radio functionality

 
Force XXI Land Warrior

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MOBILITY             Integrated navigation for accurate geolocation when GPS is unavailable

Voice control for hands–free operation

Head orientation sensor

Higher altitude personnel parachute opening capabilities

Improved glide ratio for personnel parachutes

Lower ground impact velocities for airborne soldiers

 
System Upgrade            
Force XXI Land Warrior  

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Advanced Personnel Airdrop Technologies

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SURVIVABILITY             HMD (fix weapon without self–exposing)

Body armor

Laser detector

Combat ID functionality to positively ID friendly forces both LW and non–LW

SINCGARS SIP+ capability to provide air–to–ground combat ID

 
System            
Land Warrior  

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System Upgrade            
Force XXI Land Warrior  

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SUSTAINABILITY             Lightweight, low–volume, shelf–stable rations

Optimized acceptance/consumption

Improved operational flexibility

Performance enhances/around the clock

 
System Upgrade            
Army Field Feeding Future

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applied to the individual soldier, marine, and special operators to augment their operational capabilities to achieve maximum synergy between human and equipment performance.

4. Soldier System Modernization Roadmap

Table III–18 presents the demonstrations and systems that are part of the soldier systems modernization roadmap (see Figure III–11).

a. Command and Control Demonstrations

Force XXI Land Warrior (FXXI LW) TD (1996–99). The primary objectives of FXXI LW are to:

Demonstrate candidate advanced technology upgrades to the LW system.

Develop a revolutionary technology path to support future development of an ultra–lightweight, low–power, dismounted warfighter system resulting from scientifically based operational analyses.

Provide linkage with MOUT ACTD, small unit operations (SUO), and other warfighter technology programs.

This project addresses the critical Army need to enhance the performance, lethality, survivability, and sustainment of the individual soldier. This project is the Land Warrior S&T program. In the near term, the FXXI LW efforts will focus on the evolutionary technology insertions to the LW system. These technologies include an enhanced weapon and sensor interface to increase reliability, reduce weapon weight, and increase usability; an integrated navigation component that will provide soldiers with accurate geolocation information when GPS is not available; an enhanced soldier radio that will provide a better link margin for the soldier radio and increased radio range; system voice control that will provide voice control of essential LW functions without the use of a hand–controlled device; combat identification functionality that will provide positive identification of friendly LW and non–LW combatants; low power helmet electronics that will reduce the overall power requirements of the LW helmet system; and a head orientation sensor, which, in combination with weapon–mounted sensors, will provide a rapid target acquisition capability when switching between the image intensifier and the weapon sight. Another FXXI LW component is the Integrated Sight TD that will demonstrate a lighter, fully integrated

Table III–18.  Soldier Demonstration and System Summary

Advanced Technology Demonstration

Technology Demonstration

Objective Individual Combat Weapon Force XXI Land Warrior
Integrated Sight
Advanced Personnel Airdrop
Dynamic Ration Tailoring System
Performance Enhancing Demonstrations
Objective Personal Weapon
Objective Sniper Weapon
Objective Crew–Served Weapon

Advanced Concept
Technology Demonstration

 
Military Operations in Urban Terrain  

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

System

Land Warrior (EMD)
Objective Family of Small Arms
Objective Sniper Weapon

System Upgrade

Force XXI Land Warrior
Army Field Feeding Future
Objective Individual Combat Weapon
Objective Crew–Served Weapon
Advanced Personnel Airdrop Technology


Figure III-11. Roadmap - Soldier System Modernization
Figure III-11. Roadmap - Soldier System Modernization
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weapon sensor (thermal, laser pointer, laser rangefinder, digital compass, daylight camera), with integrated target handover functions.

In FY99, the FXXI LW program will perform an early user test (EUT) to validate the improvement of advanced technologies for the Land Warrior system. This EUT will demonstrate the improved individual and small–unit operational effectiveness afforded by the modular integration of advanced components onto the LW platform. These results will be utilized to ensure that future LW procurements are upgraded with current technology advancements. Other emerging technology base components from ongoing (DTO, ATD, STO, and DARPA) efforts will also be considered as candidates for technology insertion onto the LW platform. FXXI LW will also pursue a variety of future technology developments for upgrading the LW platform. This effort will chart a course for future LW modernization with a focus on technologies available for fielding in the FY05–08 timeframe. The focus of these improvements will be system weight reduction, minimization of system power and energy requirements, system life–cycle cost reduction, and improved system fightability. This program will leverage the commercial microelectronics and telecommunications industries as well as other ongoing DoD programs, such as DARPA’s SUO program, to achieve lightweight, miniaturized components.

This program will make extensive use of IPPD to ensure that all critical manufacturing processes are developed in parallel to the design of the technical components. As such, each product will be developed in an integrated product team environment. This approach will ensure a viable, affordable, and producible product that will perform as expected in the field.

This strategy will accelerate the fielding of technology upgrades and ensure that the United States maintains a global technology overmatch for dismounted warrior combat systems. Supports: MOUT ACTD and SUO.

b. Lethality Demonstrations

The lethality demonstrations will focus on weapons, munitions, and target detection and acquisition.

Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW) ATD (1994–99). The OICW, as defined in the Joint Service Small Arms Master Plan (JSSAMP) and the approved mission need statement (MNS), is the next–generation individual weapon envisioned to replace some of the current inventory of small arms weapon systems. Two OICW concepts are being developed by competing contractor teams. Both concepts include kinetic energy (5.56 mm) and airburst (20 mm) munitions. A significant new capability afforded by OICW will be the ability to defeat targets that are in defilade, using bursting munitions. This ATD will demonstrate the potential of the OICW to provide an overmatch against threat infantry soldiers, as required in the JSSAMP. It will involve realistic operational assessments with troops and key on the soldier’s ability to acquire and defeat targets. The performance potential of the OICW will be assessed against the baseline M16A2/M203 and the modular weapon. Measures of effectiveness include probability of hit, probability of incapacitation, kills per combat load, and cost per kill. The significant potential of the OICW in an urban environment will be demonstrated in the MOUT ACTD. The technologies exploited to achieve the overmatch capability include high–strength, ultra lightweight materials, high–technology miniaturized fuzes, high–explosive–air–bursting projectiles, electronic ranging, ballistic computation, reticle displacement, video sighting, and sophisticated fire control devices. Supports: OICW and MOUT ACTD.

The Objective Crew–Served Weapon (OCSW) TD (1996–01). Part of the objective family of small arms, the OCSW demonstration will support the two–man, crew–served weapon outlined in the JSSAMP. This demonstration will establish the feasibility of a lightweight, two–man–portable crew–served weapon system capable of defeating personnel and light vehicle targets to 2,000 meters. This TD is discussed in further detail in the section on Close Combat Light (above). Supports: MOUT ACTD.

Objective Sniper Weapon (OSW) TD (1997–02). The OSW is the single–sniper weapon that will achieve the required future capabilities of the joint sniper communities, to include conventional military, special operations forces, and law enforcement. Its increased precision and range will enable the sniper to engage targets, humans (protected or unprotected), and light materiel more effectively out to 2,000 meters. Additionally, it will have increased accuracy and hit probability. This lightweight system will be operational day or night, in all weather conditions, and on land, sea, or air and will weigh 10 to 15 pounds. Supports: OSW.

Integrated Sight (IS) TD (1994–98). The IS TD will develop and demonstrate optimum components and integration of a thermal imager, laser rangefinder, electronic compass, and near IR pointer into a compact sighting system. Imagery and data will be output to the LW HMD and soldier’s computer. These technologies will provide the soldier with extended range and automated targeting capabilities. IS also supports advanced weapons, including the OICW and OCSW. Supports: Lightweight Laser Designator/Rangefinder (which incorporates IS technologies or components in their fire control).

Objective Personal Weapon (OPW) TD (2004–09). The OPW is the sidearm of the future. It will provide increased accuracy and incapacitation for close–in self–defense in last–ditch combat situations, as well as some extended offensive capability in special operations, military police operations, and dignitary protection. The envisioned OPW will employ technically advanced, leap–ahead concepts and technologies that span the entire electromagnetic spectrum, yielding incapacitating mechanisms of a nonconventional nature. It will be capable of immediate incapacitation (target ceases to remain a threat) out to 50 meters against personnel with body armor. It will have substantially increased accuracy, hit probability, and target effects. This lightweight system will not exceed 3 pounds and will be user friendly with hands–free carry. It will provide multiple engagement capability and be operational day or night, in all weather conditions, on land/sea/surf/air. Supports: Objective Family of Small Arms.

c. Mobility Demonstrations

Advanced Personnel Airdrop TD (1998–00). This TD will demonstrate technologies to provide improved performance characteristics and enhanced safety of existing personnel parachute capabilities. Utilizing advanced airfoil and parachute designs, the TD will demonstrate, by the end of FY98, a gliding personnel parachute with a 20 percent increase in maximum jump altitude and a 25 percent increase in glide ratio, when compared to the current Army state–of–the–art MC–4 parachute. By the end of FY99, the TD will demonstrate a nonparachute, soft–landing capability that will reduce descent rates to values below 16 feet/second, utilizing "pneumatic muscle" technologies.

The planned gliding personnel parachute would allow for jump altitudes up to 30,000 feet, with reduced opening shock and a glide ratio of 2.5 to 1. The current MC–4 has a maximum jump altitude of 25,000 feet and roughly a 2 to 1 glide ratio. The planned soft–landing capability will be a nonparachute decelerator that will slow the jumper to a descent rate below 16 feet/second, moments before landing on the drop zone. Supports: STOp–H16 (Airborne Insertion for Operations in Urban Terrain), the Advanced Tactical Parachute System development effort, and Battle Laboratory Future Operational Capabilities (FOCs) (EELS 97–016 and IN 97–301).

d. Other Soldier Systems Demonstrations

Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) ACTD (1998–02). The MOUT ACTD is a joint (Army/Marine Corps) program that encompasses a breadth of technologies ranging from an advanced soldier system, advanced individual precision weapons, combat identification, counter–sniper nonlethal weapons, advanced sensors, situational awareness, and personal protection. The core capability that will be generated via the ACTD is a linkage of a series of advanced systems/components into a MOUT system–of–systems whereby the components are interfaced, integrated, or linked in an architecture to ensure their effective interoperability and functionality in the challenging MOUT environment. The integrated MOUT system–of–systems will provide a robust and enhanced joint operational capability encompassing the areas of urban C4I, engagement, and force projection. Supports: Upgrades to FXXI LW.

Dynamic Ration Tailoring System TD (1998–01). A dynamic ration module selector system will be developed and demonstrated that tailors the calorie–providing and performance–enhancing components to the combat situation and time of the day to ensure a dominant and lethal warfighter in any environment and for any mission. The eat–on–the–move, round–the–clock, ration selection system continually considers the nutritional and energy requirements and specifics, as well as what and when rations are to be consumed for optimal combat performance. Supports: Army Field Feeding Future.

Performance Enhancing Demonstrations TD (1995–98). Special supplemental components containing ingredients to enhance performance under stressful conditions during sustained operations will be developed and demonstrated. These components will supplement the individual combat ration to increase mental acuity and situational awareness, extend endurance, and reduce the effects of high–altitude sickness. Supports: Army Field Feeding Future.

5. Relationship to Modernization Plan Annexes

The Soldier systems S/SU linkages with other AMP annexes are shown in Table III–19.

Table III–19.  Correlation Between Soldier Systems S/SU/ACs and Other AMP Annexes

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

Modernization Plan Annexes

  Mounted Forces* Close Combat Light* Aviation C4 Fire Support Engineer & Mine Warfare* IEW NBC Combat Health Support Training
System Objective Family of Small Arms  

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  Land Warrior (EMD)

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  Objective Sniper Weapon

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System Upgrade Army Field Feeding Future

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  Objective Individual Combat Weapon  

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  Objective Crew–Served Weapon

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  Advanced Personnel Airdrop Technologies  

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  Force XXI Land Warrior

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* See Combat Maneuver Annex.
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