News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



L. Air and Missile Defense

Not the cry, but the flight of the wild duck, leads the flock to fly and follow.

Chinese proverb

1. Introduction

As the 21st century approaches, air and missile defense must be ready to meet the challenge of the evolving air and missile threat while continuing to support force projection operations in major regional contingencies, protect the United States in coordination/cooperation with joint air defense systems, and execute military operations other than war missions. The air and missile threat is often the single greatest risk to the successful conduct of force projection operations, particularly during early entry and decisive operations. With many nations acquiring technologically advanced, highly lethal weapons such as ballistic missiles, our air and missile defense force can expect to face a much more diversified threat in the future. Threat capabilities of other nations beyond the year 2000 will require that the air and missile defense force be capable of dominating battlespace to achieve decisive victory by winning quickly with minimal casualties.

The mission of air and missile defense is to protect the force and selected geopolitical assets from aerial attack, missile attack, and surveillance. To meet its mission requirements and counterthreat capabilities, the air and missile defense force must be a strategically deployable, highly mobile, and versatile force, trained and equipped to go to war anywhere in the world on short notice; it must be highly lethal and capable of battlefield survival. The air defense mission includes national missile defense (NMD) of the continental United States and antisatellite defense, as well as theater missile defense (TMD), which protects the force from theater missile attacks. Both NMD and TMD are addressed in Volume II, Annex B.

Successful execution of future operations will require increased emphasis on planning and conducting joint and multinational operations. The capabilities of many weapons and forces must be integrated to achieve the operational commander’s air defense objectives.

2. Relationship to Operational Capabilities

To achieve the required operational capabilities, a balanced materiel development and demonstration strategy must be followed. Multifaceted technology base efforts have been initiated across the full spectrum of tactical through strategic requirements. Initiatives emphasize survivable target acquisition (both passive and active) and positive identification; cost–effective fusion of multiple sensor/processor modules into automated target acquisition and fire control suites; multiple missile guidance modes against the reactive threat; high–energy, insensitive propellants and alternate propulsion concepts; missile seeker upgrades to integrate advanced fuzing techniques and smart focal plane arrays; hit–to–kill technology; mobile, lightweight, and increased firepower; dispersed, distributed, survivable C2 and supporting communications, and an integrated training architecture that fully exploits the materiel capability. Table III–26 shows the correlation between air and missile defense SU/ACs and the Army modernization objectives, and displays in general terms the operational capabilities for air and missile defense SU/ACs.

3. Modernization Strategy

The air and missile defense and TMD modernization plan annexes detail a disciplined approach to providing air and missile defense support to both theater and maneuver forces. The air and missile defense modernization strategy focuses on the following objectives:

Achieve near leakproof TMD this decade.
Address the full threat spectrum.
Respond to warfighting doctrine.
Maintain a technological advantage.

Table III–26.  Air and Missile Defense System Capabilities

System/
System Upgrade/
Advanced Concept
Function

Patterns of Operation

System/
System Upgrade
Capability

Advanced Concept
Capability

  Project the Force Protect the Force Gain Information Dominance Decisive Operations Shape the Battlespace Sustain the Force    
KILL SYSTEMS             Missile defense

High firepower

Expanded engagement envelope

Hit to kill

Increased mobility/survivability

3D surveillance and tracking

Low radar cross section targets

Highly mobile

Target in clutter

 
System Upgrade            
Patriot PAC3

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Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle–Enhanced (Linebacker)

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Advanced Concept               IR CCM

Improved lethality against helicopter

360–degree coverage

Stinger Block II

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4. Roadmap for Air Defense Artillery

Table III–27 presents a summary of demonstrations and systems found in the air and missile defense roadmap (Figure III–18). Modernization of air and missile defense depends upon the development of these key systems for air defense coordination.

Figure III-18. Roadmap - Air Defense Artillery
Figure III-18. Roadmap - Air Defense Artillery
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Table III–27.  Air and Missile Defense Demonstration and System Summary

Advanced Technology Demonstration

Technology Demonstration

Multifunction Staring Sensor Suite (see Mounted Forces)

(See Volume II, Annex B, for additional information)

Guidance Integrated Fuzing
2.75–Inch Antiair
Ducted Rocket Engine
Future Missile Technology Integration
Compact Kinetic Energy Missile
High–Mobility Ground–Launched AIM–120 Advanced Medium–Range Air–to–Air Missile
Armicide
ATR for Weapons

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

System Upgrade

Patriot PAC3
Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle—Enhanced (Linebacker)

Advanced Concept

Stinger Block II

a. Advanced Technology Demonstrations Leading to Modernization of Air Defense Artillery Units

Air defense artillery systems consist of a complementary mix of weapons, sensors, and command and control systems. air and missile defense modernization focuses on SU/AC developments and their associated demonstrations. The MFS3 ATD will have a major impact on the air defense mission. Additionally, the mission area will derive benefits from many other efforts, such as the RFPI ACTD, the Target Acquisition ATD, and the BCID ATD.

Multifunction Staring Sensor Suite (MFS3) ATD (1998–01). The MFS3 ATD will integrate multiple advanced sensor components including staring infrared arrays, multifunction laser, and acoustic arrays. In support of air defense, it will demonstrate the capability for automated surface–to–surface, surface–to–air, and air–to–ground search, acquisition, and noncooperative identification. More detailed information can be found in Section III–G, "Mounted Forces" (above). Supports: Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle—Enhanced (BSFV–E) (Linebacker).

b. Technology Demonstrations Leading to Modernization of Air Defense Artillery Systems

The following are primarily focused on the air and missile defense mission area.

2.75–Inch Antiair TD (1997–99). The objective of the 2.75–Inch Antiair TD is to provide a comprehensive upgrade to the Stinger missile system through the incorporation of an advanced imaging infrared seeker to enable the engagement of hostile helicopters in clutter at extended ranges (two to three times current capabilities). This demonstration will go beyond the current concept development program of a form–factored seeker with commercial breadboard–type signal processing electronics by demonstrating the ability to package the signal processing electronics in 2.75–inch–diameter space. In addition, signal processing algorithms for target detection, tracking, and IR CCM will be developed and demonstrated via hardware in the loop simulations, ground tests, and captive–carry tests. This system will maintain compatibility with existing Stinger launchers and retain Stinger’s excellent capability against fixed–wing aircraft. Supports: Forward–Area Air Defense (FAAD) StingerBlock II and all launch platforms.

Ducted Rocket Engine (DRE) TD (1996–98). This TD is discussed in detail in Section III–N, "Fire Support."

Future Missile Technology Integration (FMTI) TD (1994–98). This technology demonstration is discussed in detail in Section III–D, "Aviation" above.

Compact Kinetic Energy Missile (CKEM) TD (1996–99). This technology is discussed in detail in Section III–G, "Mounted Forces" (above).

ATR for Weapons TD (1998–01). This technology demonstration is discussed in detail in Section III–D, "Aviation" (above).

High–Mobility Ground–Launched AIM–120 Advanced Medium–Range Air–to–Air Missile (AMRAAM) (HMGL–AMRAAM) TD (1996–99). The primary focus for this technology demonstration will lead to a low–cost, highly mobile air and cruise missile defense capability based on the robust capabilities of the joint Air Force/Navy/USMC AIM–120 AMRAAM. This concept will integrate this extremely capable digital fire–and–forget missile onto a highly mobile Avenger–based heavy HMMWV ground launch platform. Army cueing for the systems will be provided by the AN/MPQ–64 ground–based sensor (GBS) (or any other 3D sensor), and remote fire control will be managed with the simplified handheld terminal unit. The Marine Corps will use their continuous wave acquisition radar for cueing and the remote terminal unit for management of remote fire control operations. The AIM–120 AMRAAM launched from an HMMWV–based system provides a medium–range, high–rate–of–fire missile with the multiple simultaneous target engagement capabilities needed to fill the gap between Stinger and Patriot. The mix of short (Stinger) and medium (AIM–120) range missiles will provide both the IR and the RF guidance and homing needed to counter the evolving cruise missile and UAV threats. Supports: AIM–120 AMRAAM, RFPI ACTD, and Current and Future Missile Systems.

Guidance Integrated Fuzing TD (1995–99). The objective of this program is to develop guidance integrated fuzing techniques for MMW, active–homing seeker systems in air defense missiles, utilizing a mix of target signature measurements, target backscatter modeling, and endgame modeling. This effort will also provide algorithms for integrated guidance and fuzing to track high–speed targets from the munition to achieve accuracy for warhead kills. In addition, near–far field target signatures from an MMW, monopulse instrumentation radar will be collected. It is expected that this effort will generate high–fidelity target models to support highly accurate guidance integrated fuzing simulations to validate robust system designs. Supports: Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC3) and Corps Surface–to–Air Missile (Corps SAM).

Armicide TD (1997–00). The Armicide TD will demonstrate a concept designed to serve as an adjunct for antiradiation missile (ARM) defense to the major air defense systems such as Patriot and the theater high altitude area defense (THAAD) ground–based radar (GBR). Armicide will use the organic air defense system radars to provide the fire control to engage the ARM target. Thus, the need for providing an expensive counterarm sensor is avoided. Armicide consists of the following main components that are currently within the realm of engineering implementation or available with minor modifications: (1) a medium–caliber, command–guided smart munition that does not require an expensive homing seeker; (2) two rapid fire conventional launchers, whose design and technology are in use by all services, as well as internationally; (3) a fire control processor/transmitter; and (4) the host radar (Patriot and GBR) that will provide target and interceptor tracking information to the fire control unit of the radar. Supports: Patriot, THAAD GBR.

c. Benefits to Air Defense Artillery Systems

Benefits to the air defense mission area that may be derived from ATDs, STOs, and advanced concepts are as follows:

New search and track capabilities which could be adapted into air defense’s multisensor capabilities.
Improved integration of sensors and fire control systems providing faster slew–to–cue capabilities for air defense weapons.
Propellant and guidance movements that may be incorporated into air defense weapons to provide dead zone and self–protection coverage.
Combat identification enhancements to ensure higher accuracy of positive identification of hostile and friendly targets, therefore reducing possibility of fratricide.
Communication enhancements improving the vertical and horizontal sharing of critical battlefield information and increasing the accuracy and volume of data being shared.
Survivability enhancements that will lower the susceptibility of air defense sensors to ARMs and will decrease existing air defense systems vulnerability to indirect fire.
Fuzing improvements that will lead to higher probability of kills of both conventional targets and weapons of mass destruction.
Digitization of the battlefield.

5. Relationship to Modernization Plan Annexes

It is important that air and missile defense modernization and related technology base program efforts exhibit a linkage with AMP annexes in other mission areas. This linkage is important for decision makers when prioritizing all of the Army’s modernization efforts. Table III–28 portrays the linkage of Air Defense Artillery SU/ACs and other AMP annexes.

Table III–28.  Correlation Between Air and Missile Defense S/SU/ACs and Other AMP Annexes

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

Modernization Plan Annexes

  Aviation IEW Close Combat Light* C4 Mounted Forces* TMD**
System Corps SAM

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System Upgrade Patriot Advanced Capability  

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  Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle—Enhanced (Linebacker)      

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Advanced Concept Stinger Block II

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* See Combat Maneuver Annex.
** See Space & Missile Defense Annex.

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System plays a significant role in the modernization strategy
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