L. Air and Missile Defense
Not the cry, but the flight of the wild duck, leads the flock to fly and follow.
As the 21st century approaches, air and missile defense must be ready to meet the challenge of the evolving air and missile threat while continuing to support force projection operations in major regional contingencies, protect the United States in coordination/cooperation with joint air defense systems, and execute military operations other than war missions. The air and missile threat is often the single greatest risk to the successful conduct of force projection operations, particularly during early entry and decisive operations. With many nations acquiring technologically advanced, highly lethal weapons such as ballistic missiles, our air and missile defense force can expect to face a much more diversified threat in the future. Threat capabilities of other nations beyond the year 2000 will require that the air and missile defense force be capable of dominating battlespace to achieve decisive victory by winning quickly with minimal casualties.
The mission of air and missile defense is to protect the force and selected geopolitical assets from aerial attack, missile attack, and surveillance. To meet its mission requirements and counterthreat capabilities, the air and missile defense force must be a strategically deployable, highly mobile, and versatile force, trained and equipped to go to war anywhere in the world on short notice; it must be highly lethal and capable of battlefield survival. The air defense mission includes national missile defense (NMD) of the continental United States and antisatellite defense, as well as theater missile defense (TMD), which protects the force from theater missile attacks. Both NMD and TMD are addressed in Volume II, Annex B.
Successful execution of future operations will require increased emphasis on planning and conducting joint and multinational operations. The capabilities of many weapons and forces must be integrated to achieve the operational commanders air defense objectives.
2. Relationship to Operational Capabilities
To achieve the required operational capabilities, a balanced materiel development and demonstration strategy must be followed. Multifaceted technology base efforts have been initiated across the full spectrum of tactical through strategic requirements. Initiatives emphasize survivable target acquisition (both passive and active) and positive identification; costeffective fusion of multiple sensor/processor modules into automated target acquisition and fire control suites; multiple missile guidance modes against the reactive threat; highenergy, insensitive propellants and alternate propulsion concepts; missile seeker upgrades to integrate advanced fuzing techniques and smart focal plane arrays; hittokill technology; mobile, lightweight, and increased firepower; dispersed, distributed, survivable C2 and supporting communications, and an integrated training architecture that fully exploits the materiel capability. Table III26 shows the correlation between air and missile defense SU/ACs and the Army modernization objectives, and displays in general terms the operational capabilities for air and missile defense SU/ACs.
3. Modernization Strategy
The air and missile defense and TMD modernization plan annexes detail a disciplined approach to providing air and missile defense support to both theater and maneuver forces. The air and missile defense modernization strategy focuses on the following objectives:
Achieve near leakproof TMD this decade.
Table III26. Air and Missile Defense System Capabilities
Patterns of Operation
|Project the Force||Protect the Force||Gain Information Dominance||Decisive Operations||Shape the Battlespace||Sustain the Force|
|KILL SYSTEMS||Missile defense
Expanded engagement envelope
Hit to kill
3D surveillance and tracking
Low radar cross section targets
Target in clutter
|Bradley Stinger Fighting VehicleEnhanced (Linebacker)|
Improved lethality against helicopter
|Stinger Block II
|Provides significant capability Provides some capability|
4. Roadmap for Air Defense Artillery
Table III27 presents a summary of demonstrations and systems found in the air and missile defense roadmap (Figure III18). Modernization of air and missile defense depends upon the development of these key systems for air defense coordination.
Figure III-18. Roadmap - Air Defense Artillery
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Table III27. Air and Missile Defense Demonstration and System Summary
Advanced Technology Demonstration
Staring Sensor Suite (see Mounted Forces)
(See Volume II, Annex B, for additional information)
Ducted Rocket Engine
Future Missile Technology Integration
Compact Kinetic Energy Missile
HighMobility GroundLaunched AIM120 Advanced MediumRange AirtoAir Missile
ATR for Weapons
System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept
Stinger Block II
a. Advanced Technology Demonstrations Leading to Modernization of Air Defense Artillery Units
Air defense artillery systems consist of a complementary mix of weapons, sensors, and command and control systems. air and missile defense modernization focuses on SU/AC developments and their associated demonstrations. The MFS3 ATD will have a major impact on the air defense mission. Additionally, the mission area will derive benefits from many other efforts, such as the RFPI ACTD, the Target Acquisition ATD, and the BCID ATD.
Multifunction Staring Sensor Suite (MFS3) ATD (199801). The MFS3 ATD will integrate multiple advanced sensor components including staring infrared arrays, multifunction laser, and acoustic arrays. In support of air defense, it will demonstrate the capability for automated surfacetosurface, surfacetoair, and airtoground search, acquisition, and noncooperative identification. More detailed information can be found in Section IIIG, "Mounted Forces" (above). Supports: Bradley Stinger Fighting VehicleEnhanced (BSFVE) (Linebacker).
b. Technology Demonstrations Leading to Modernization of Air Defense Artillery Systems
The following are primarily focused on the air and missile defense mission area.
2.75Inch Antiair TD (199799). The objective of the 2.75Inch Antiair TD is to provide a comprehensive upgrade to the Stinger missile system through the incorporation of an advanced imaging infrared seeker to enable the engagement of hostile helicopters in clutter at extended ranges (two to three times current capabilities). This demonstration will go beyond the current concept development program of a formfactored seeker with commercial breadboardtype signal processing electronics by demonstrating the ability to package the signal processing electronics in 2.75inchdiameter space. In addition, signal processing algorithms for target detection, tracking, and IR CCM will be developed and demonstrated via hardware in the loop simulations, ground tests, and captivecarry tests. This system will maintain compatibility with existing Stinger launchers and retain Stingers excellent capability against fixedwing aircraft. Supports: ForwardArea Air Defense (FAAD) StingerBlock II and all launch platforms.
Ducted Rocket Engine (DRE) TD (199698). This TD is discussed in detail in Section IIIN, "Fire Support."
Future Missile Technology Integration (FMTI) TD (199498). This technology demonstration is discussed in detail in Section IIID, "Aviation" above.
Compact Kinetic Energy Missile (CKEM) TD (199699). This technology is discussed in detail in Section IIIG, "Mounted Forces" (above).
ATR for Weapons TD (199801). This technology demonstration is discussed in detail in Section IIID, "Aviation" (above).
HighMobility GroundLaunched AIM120 Advanced MediumRange AirtoAir Missile (AMRAAM) (HMGLAMRAAM) TD (199699). The primary focus for this technology demonstration will lead to a lowcost, highly mobile air and cruise missile defense capability based on the robust capabilities of the joint Air Force/Navy/USMC AIM120 AMRAAM. This concept will integrate this extremely capable digital fireandforget missile onto a highly mobile Avengerbased heavy HMMWV ground launch platform. Army cueing for the systems will be provided by the AN/MPQ64 groundbased sensor (GBS) (or any other 3D sensor), and remote fire control will be managed with the simplified handheld terminal unit. The Marine Corps will use their continuous wave acquisition radar for cueing and the remote terminal unit for management of remote fire control operations. The AIM120 AMRAAM launched from an HMMWVbased system provides a mediumrange, highrateoffire missile with the multiple simultaneous target engagement capabilities needed to fill the gap between Stinger and Patriot. The mix of short (Stinger) and medium (AIM120) range missiles will provide both the IR and the RF guidance and homing needed to counter the evolving cruise missile and UAV threats. Supports: AIM120 AMRAAM, RFPI ACTD, and Current and Future Missile Systems.
Guidance Integrated Fuzing TD (199599). The objective of this program is to develop guidance integrated fuzing techniques for MMW, activehoming seeker systems in air defense missiles, utilizing a mix of target signature measurements, target backscatter modeling, and endgame modeling. This effort will also provide algorithms for integrated guidance and fuzing to track highspeed targets from the munition to achieve accuracy for warhead kills. In addition, nearfar field target signatures from an MMW, monopulse instrumentation radar will be collected. It is expected that this effort will generate highfidelity target models to support highly accurate guidance integrated fuzing simulations to validate robust system designs. Supports: Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC3) and Corps SurfacetoAir Missile (Corps SAM).
Armicide TD (199700). The Armicide TD will demonstrate a concept designed to serve as an adjunct for antiradiation missile (ARM) defense to the major air defense systems such as Patriot and the theater high altitude area defense (THAAD) groundbased radar (GBR). Armicide will use the organic air defense system radars to provide the fire control to engage the ARM target. Thus, the need for providing an expensive counterarm sensor is avoided. Armicide consists of the following main components that are currently within the realm of engineering implementation or available with minor modifications: (1) a mediumcaliber, commandguided smart munition that does not require an expensive homing seeker; (2) two rapid fire conventional launchers, whose design and technology are in use by all services, as well as internationally; (3) a fire control processor/transmitter; and (4) the host radar (Patriot and GBR) that will provide target and interceptor tracking information to the fire control unit of the radar. Supports: Patriot, THAAD GBR.
c. Benefits to Air Defense Artillery Systems
Benefits to the air defense mission area that may be derived from ATDs, STOs, and advanced concepts are as follows:
New search and track capabilities which could be adapted into air defenses multisensor capabilities.
5. Relationship to Modernization Plan Annexes
It is important that air and missile defense modernization and related technology base program efforts exhibit a linkage with AMP annexes in other mission areas. This linkage is important for decision makers when prioritizing all of the Armys modernization efforts. Table III28 portrays the linkage of Air Defense Artillery SU/ACs and other AMP annexes.
Table III28. Correlation Between Air and Missile Defense S/SU/ACs and Other AMP Annexes
System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept
Modernization Plan Annexes
|Aviation||IEW||Close Combat Light*||C4||Mounted Forces*||TMD**|
|System Upgrade||Patriot Advanced Capability|
|Bradley Stinger Fighting VehicleEnhanced (Linebacker)|
|Advanced Concept||Stinger Block II|
|* See Combat
** See Space & Missile Defense Annex.
System plays a significant role in the modernization strategy
System makes a contribution to the modernization strategy
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