News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



O. Logistics

There will not be a revolution in military affairs until there is a revolution in logistics.

General Dennis J. Reimer
Army Chief of Staff

1. Introduction

Logisticians provide the means with which the warfighters can execute their war plans, strategy, and tactics. The Joint Vision 2010 requires that our forces maintain a dominant maneuver capability. For the land component, dominant maneuver consists of two elements: strategic and operational. Strategic maneuver equates to the Army’s requirement to project the force. This power projection force will be lighter and more durable, with multipurpose warfighting systems that will reduce the amount of lift required as well as the size and complexity of the logistics needed to sustain the force.

Reduce the logistics footprint on the battlefield . . . reduce logistics OPTEMPO by 30% and the logistics O&S costs by 25% . . . .

General Dennis J. Reimer
Army Chief of Staff

The DoD S&T community has identified six Strategic Research Objectives (SROs) that are the highest priority in terms of developing advanced technologies to meet requirements. These are smart structures, biomimetics, nanoscience, broadband communications, intelligent systems, and compact power sources. The Army’s new SRO, Research for Innovative Logistics, complements these DoD SROs. The logistics S&T community fully supports the focused logistics capability as defined in Joint Vision 2010, Army Vision 2010, through its Revolution in Military Logistics Campaign Plan—The Way Ahead (commonly referred to as the RML). The RML provides categories of "enablers," one of which is advanced technologies. These advanced technology enablers complement the six critical technologies from the DoD SROs.

The AAN mission is to conduct broad studies of warfare to about the year 2025 to frame issues vital to the Army after about 2010, and to provide issues to the senior Army leadership for integration into TRADOC combat development programs. One goal of The AAN is to link technological possibilities to innovative operational capabilities. To this end, the AAN Logistics Efficiencies Panel has further broken out the requirements for advanced technology applications in the areas of power, distribution, soldier sustainment, system sustainment, ammunition, and C4I.

Think out of the box! Find the Ah–ha’s!

Major General Robert Scales
Deputy Chief of Staff for Doctrine

The technology initiatives that the logisticians are pursuing directly support the goals of Joint Vision 2010, Army Vision 2010, the chief of staff’s guidance, and other pertinent documents. For example, on board prognostics will not only eliminate the requirement to deploy vast quantities of dissimilar test equipment but also provide real–time predictions of impending failure. This ability to predict future failure will reduce collateral damage due to failed parts and reduce the time for repair for the warfighter; prognostics will alert a combat commander to impending failure of combat vehicles prior to entering into a decisive engagement with enemy forces.

2. Relationship to Operational Capabilities

Logistics system upgrades and advanced concepts and their link to the Army modernization objectives are shown in Table III–35. This table also displays the operational capabilities provided by each of the SU/ACs.

3. Logistics Modernization Strategy

The Logistics annex of the AMP focuses on the objective of "project and sustain the force."

Table III–35.  Logistics System Capabilities

System/
System Upgrade/
Advanced Concept
Function

Patterns of Operation

System/
System Upgrade
Capability

Advanced Concept
Capability

  Project the Force Protect the Force Gain Information Dominance Decisive Operations Shape the Battlespace Sustain the Force    
PROJECT             Improved precision–guided delivery of munitions

Reduced weight and bulk of cargo and personnel parachutes

Lower ground impact velocities for cargo airdrop systems

Lower impact forces for cargo airdrop systems

 

 

 

 

 

Accurate delivery of supplies/equipment from offset distances

Increased delivery accuracy via an autonomous GPS–based guidance and navigation system

Covert day/night and limited visibility airdrop capability

System Upgrade            
Aerial Delivery            
Advanced Cargo Airdrop Technologies

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Advanced Concept            
Precision Offset, High Glide Aerial Delivery

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SUSTAIN             Shelf stable ration components

Enhanced rations performance and flexibility

Reduce rations weight and volume

Less soldier labor/fatigue

Reduced manpower

Automated assessment of petroleum products

Improved corrosion protection

Improved munitions protection

Improved morale/quality of life

Improved food, nutrition, readiness

Lower O&S cost

Versatile new fuel/energy source

Improved quality of life (food, water)

Improved air transportability

 
System Upgrade            
Army Field Feeding Future

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Advanced Lightweight Portable Power/Silent Energy Source

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Rapid Deployment Food Service for Force Projection

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Mobility Enhancing Ration Components

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Emerging Petroleum Quality

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Reforming Diesel to Refuel Soldiers

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Munitions Survivability

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Embedded ammo info device

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Survivable munitions storage area:

Improved ammunition readiness

Inventory/expenditure rate data for anticipatory logistics

Reduced rearm times

Improved rates of fire

Less soldier labor/fatigue

Reduced manpower

Saves lives/combat power

Improved munitions accuracy

Improved prognostics/diagnostics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Increased mobility, deployability, reliability, and maintainability

Future combat system logistics

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Advanced Concept               Increased mobility, deployability, reliability, and maintainability
Containerized Kitchen

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To project and sustain the force in support of Force XXI and the AAN, as presented in RML, the Army will need to find technology solutions to overcome the realities of prior and projected force reductions. Many of these technologies are currently under development through ATDs and TDs from other mission areas. In order to portray the complete picture of Army Logistics, as influenced by these other initiatives, Table III–36 is presented. This table shows the direct and significant impact upon the efficiencies, operational concepts, and costs of logistics functions provided by these intitiatives. It details the initiative, the mission area, the vision supported and the benefits to Army Logistics. Their impact upon the Logistics community’s capability to project and sustain the current and future force cannot be understated.

To project the force the logistics community needs:

Key information technologies that rapidly and automatically identify and track assets.
Access to and use of theater entry technologies such as battlefield visualization and situational awareness.
Advanced thermodynamic material for unattended, tamper–proof, climatically controlled "smart" containers.
Access to and use of theater command and control technologies.

Table III–36.  Modernization Payoffs of Technologies for Logistics

Initiative

Vision Supported

Benefit of Initiative

  Joint Vision 2010 Army Vision 2010 RML Army After Next DoD Strategic
Research Objectives
 

Project the Force

Perform Enhancing
Demonstrations

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    Enables personnel to perform at high levels of performance for extended time
Rapid Deployment Food Services

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    Provides a 50% increase in MTBF with a 50% decrease in fuel usage
Reforming Diesel to Refuel Soldiers

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Provide a technology to reform diesel fuel into a versatile fuel that can be cleanly and reliably burned

Sustain the Force

Rotorcraft Pilot’s Associate  

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    Provides high–speed data fusion processing and cognitive decision–aiding expert systems
Battlespace Command and
Control

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Provides EEI required for velocity management and battlefield distribution
Digital Battlefield
Communications

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Provides "bandwidth on demand" to support
multimedia information requirements
Vehicle Mounted Mine Detector    

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    Provides mounted capability to detect metallic and
nonmetallic mines—resupply
Battlefield Combat Identification

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Provides situational awareness to prevent fratricide—
resupply, maintenance missions
Future Scout and Cavalry System    

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    Provides advanced lightweight materials and electric drive to be supplied and maintained
Rapid Terrain Visualization

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Provides battlefield situational awareness required to plan and execute log missions
Joint Logistics

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    Provides rapid integration log data to meet Army and joint mission requirements
Precision Offset Aerial Delivery

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Provides reliable precision–guided delivery of combat essential munitions and equipment
Helicopter Active Control Technology    

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    Enables advanced fault–tolerant systems to maintain reliability and simplify maintenance
Aircraft System Self–Healing

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Compensates for premature subsystem or component failure, changes repair concept
Munitions Survivability

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    Provides advanced materials, barricades, and blankets for munitions survivability
Embedded Ammo Information Device

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  Enables anticipatory resupply and prognostics/diagnostics, improves readiness, improves munitions accuracy
Future Combat System Logistics

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  Provides rapid integrated seamless rearm and resupply for FCS
Mobility Enhanced Ration
Components

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    Provides shelf–stable, no–preparation rations compatible with existing ration systems
Munitions Survivability

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    Ensures the survivability of munitions at ports, airheads, and munitions storage areas
Survivable, Affordable, Repairable Airframe Program

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New efficient and affordable diagnostics and repair concepts—30% reduced repair times
Fourth–Generation Crew Station

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Provides advanced 3D display technology transferable to telemaintenance
Integration High–Performance Turbine Engine

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25% reduction in fuel consumption and a 60% increase in power–to–weight ratio
Alternate Propulsion Sources

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Explores advanced propulsion concepts beyond air–breathing propulsion
Electrical Power Generation

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Provides light, highly mobile power sources capable of operating on multiple fuels
On–Board Integrated Diagnostic System (OBIDS)

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Reduces maintenance 15%, O&S 10%, maintenance cost/flight hour 50%; increases reliability 45%
Ground Propulsion and Mobility

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    Provides critical engine, electronic drive, track and suspension, and storage devices
Advanced Electronics Future Combat System

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Advanced concepts to resupply power and distribution systems will need to be developed
Future Combat System Integrated Demonstration

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Provide high–power electric technology critical to leap–ahead capabilities within combat vehicle
Future Combat System Mobility

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    Provides an electric drive and power conditioning system; an active suspension system
Universal Transaction Comm

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Information to flow—wherever it exists, in any form, to wherever it is needed in any form
Third–Generation Advanced Rotor Demonstration

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Increases range 36% or payload 98%, reliability 45%; reduces O&S costs 10%
Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission II  

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Provides 25% weight reduction, increases MTBR; significantly reduces O&S costs
Structural Crash Dynamics (M&S)  

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Provides design and performance evaluation tool to be optimized for helicopter systems
Rotor–Wing Structures Technology  

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Increases reliability 20%, maintainability 10%; reduces O&S 5% for utility type rotorcraft
Advanced Rotorcraft
Aerodynamics
 

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Reduces MTBF; increases reliability and maintainability; and reduces O&S costs
Subsystem Technology
Affordability and Supportability
 

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Overcomes technical barriers associated with advanced digitized maintenance and real–time OBIDS
Subsystem Technology for IR Reduction  

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Repair and maintenance of advanced multispectral coatings require specialized maintenance training
Intravehicle Electronics Suite

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Validates real–time performance requirements for VEtronics open systems architecture
Military Operations in Urban
Terrain

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    Open system architecture facilitates a large reduction in future ILS life–cycle costs
Joint Speakeasy

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Flexible radio architecture, rapid waveform reprogrammability/reconfigurability
Range Extension

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Technical supplement current (and programmed) SATCOM resources, all frequency bands
Machine Visualization–Autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle

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Provides capability to ensure resupply continues at the required level and timeliness
SATCOM Technology

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Provides higher data rates, improvements in throughput, and reduced life–cycle costs
Advanced Cargo Air Drop Technology

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Provide improved performance characteristics and enhanced safety of existing personal parachute capabilities
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To sustain the force the logistics community needs smart combat systems that have:

Ultra–reliability built into them during manufacture.
Built–in self–prognostics that report future failures automatically.
Self–healing subsystems that provide the capability to delay repairs and continue to prosecute the battle.
Alternative propulsion systems and fuels.
"Smart" materials that self–heal and change to the demands of the battlefield.
Biomimetic materials that provide quantum increases in strength and are noncorrosive and nonerosive.
Sensors and AI that will enable resupply and repair movements about the battlefield with a high degree of impunity.
Battlefield situational awareness.
Nanotechnology applied to battlefield manufacture of supplies as well as the maintenance and repair of combat equipment.

4. Roadmap for Army Logistics

Table III–37 presents a summary of TDs, ACTDs and SU/ACs in the Logistics S&T program that support Logistics modernization. The roadmap at Figure III–21 portrays the projection and evolution of these programs in support of Logistics modernization.

a. RML Domain: Force Projection

Precision Offset, High–Glide Aerial Delivery TD (1994–99). Semirigid deployable wing (SDW) technology will be used to demonstrate precision, high–offset delivery of supplies and equipment. Details can be found in the section on Close Combat Light (above). Supports: Aerial Delivery, Precision Offset, High–Glide Aerial Delivery, EELS, DSA, and CSS Battle Labs.

Advanced Cargo Airdrop Technologies TD (1998–00). This TD will demonstrate technologies to provide an improved cargo airdrop capability. Utilizing novel design techniques, demonstrate a personnel size parachute (interim goal) by the

Table III–37.  Logistics Demonstration and System Summary

Advanced Concept
Technology Demonstration

Technology Demonstration

Joint Logistics Project Demonstrations

Precision Offset, High–Glide Aerial Delivery
Advanced Cargo Airdrop

Sustain Demonstrations

Rapid Deployment Food Service for Force Projection
Mobility–Enhancing Ration Components
Field Feeding/Logistics Fuel
Electric Power Generation
Munitions Survivability
Embedded Ammo Information Device
Future Combat System Logistics
Reforming Diesel to Refuel Soldiers
Emerging Petroleum Quality

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

System Upgrade

Advanced Cargo Airdrop
Aerial Delivery
Army Field Feeding Future
Rapid Deployment Food Service for Force Projection
Advanced Lightweight Portable Power Generation/Silent Energy Source
Munitions Survivability
Embedded Ammo Information Device
Combat System Logistics
Future Combat System Logistics
Reforming Diesel to Refuel Soldiers
Munitions Survivability
Mobility–Enhancing Ration Components
Emerging Petroleum Quality

Advanced Concept

Precision Offset, High–Glide Aerial Delivery
Containerized Kitchen

end of FY97 and, by the end of FY00, a cargo–size parachute with a 20 percent reduction in weight, bulk and manufacturing costs (compared to fielded parachutes) while providing equivalent flight performance. By the end of FY98, demonstrate a parachute retraction system using clustered parachutes that provide a less than 10 feet/second soft landing capability. This capability will allow for airdrop of critical items (such as robotics) too fragile for airdrop with conventional systems. By the end of FY00, demonstrate a less than 10 g soft landing airbag system that will provide an all–weather, rapid roll–on/roll–off airdrop capability for the future Army. Supports: FOCs QM 97–001: Aerial Delivery; IN 97–301: Mobility—Tactical Infantry Deployability; AD 97–001: Deployability.

b. RML Domain: Force Sustainment

Joint Logistics ACTD (1998–99). The Joint Logistics ACTD will develop and demonstrate an automated joint logistics awareness and analysis capability to view the logistics battlespace, collaborate in shared information, and integrate existing strategic and operational logistics data and tools. This will be achieved through a network of workstations connecting operational planners and logisticians across services and echelons, and by using advanced data distribution and visualization techniques. The network provides the platform for the rapid integration of logistics data and tools adaptable to meet Army and joint mission requirements in CINC exercises and operational contingencies. This ACTD, which is Global Command and Control System (GCCS) compliant, will also integrate existing logistics models with knowledge–based tools to provided decision support to the commanders. Supports: Force XXI, Vision 2010, and RML.

Figure III-21. Roadmap - Logistics Modernization
Figure III-21. Roadmap - Logistics Modernization
Click on the image to view enlarged version

Rapid Deployment Food Service for Force Projection TD (1994–99). With renewed emphasis on fresh foods and changes in Army policy from two hot meals per week to one a day, fundamental changes are required in field kitchens to support rapid force projection. This program will demonstrate advances in diesel combustion, heat transfer, power generation, and food storage. The fundamental changes in kitchen design will include centrally heated equipment, integral power, and heat–driven refrigeration. These technologies will be developed, integrated with other improvements on a kitchen platform and demonstrated in field scenarios. The demonstrations will show necessary increases in mobility, deployability, reliability, maintainability, and efficiency that will yield higher quality meals faster and cheaper. Supports: Rapid Deployment Food Service for Force Projection.

Mobility Enhancing Ration Components (MERCs) TD (1996–98). By FY98, MERCs will demonstrate technologies of shelf–stable, highly acceptable, eat–on–the–move/eat–out–of–hand components for operational rations. Ration components will be suitable for individual or group ration systems that support highly mobile and deployed troops. MERCs will be suitable for arctic, jungle, desert, mountain, and urban environments. The goal is to provide novel ration components (e.g., shelf–stable sandwiches) that can be consumed on–the–go with no preparation or heating required and that are compatible with existing ration systems. Supports: Army Field Feeding Future.

Advanced Lightweight Portable Power TD (1998–01). This TD will support the Army’s vision of the digitized battlefield by developing light, highly mobile, signature–suppressed power sources capable of operating on multiple fuels in all hostile environments. Designs will be based on evaluation and integration of commercially available engines and state–of–the–art alternator and power electronic technologies. The goal is to enhance electrical generation, storage, and conditioning capabilities required to support Tactical Operations Center (TOCs), communication/weapon systems and sensors of the 21st century battlefield. Supports: Electric Power Generation, Force Provider Upgrades, and RML.

Silent Energy Source for Tactical Applications (1999–02). This program will demonstrate silent lightweight, liquid–fueled fuel cell power sources in the 50–150 watt range for various soldier applications. These power sources are aimed at offering lighter more energetic power sources than are currently available and would extend mission time, reduce weight, and decrease the logistics burden associated with current power sources. Supports: Electric Power Generation, Force Provider Upgrades, and RML.

Emerging Petroleum Quality TD (1994–98). Advanced technology and automated devices/systems will be employed to provide rapid on–the–spot assessment of bulk and packaged petroleum products from CONUS or host nation support. The advanced technologies being demonstrated for petroleum quality analysis (PQA) will use automated analytical techniques and emerging methodologies in conjunction with computer–based expert systems. The devices/systems will replace all existing petroleum laboratories, reduce testing time from 3 hours to 10 minutes, and decrease manpower requirements by 75 percent. This emerging technology is state–of–the–art and will serve as a foundation for follow–on industry efforts. PQA will provide commanders the combat service support equipment required to enhance sustaining momentum, maintaining operational/tactical maneuver freedom, and optimizing the use of locally available supplies. The capability to utilize locally available petroleum products with attendant risks will significantly reduce logistics and enhance mobility of forward units. Supports: Logistics Survivability and all ground combat vehicles.

Reforming Diesel to Refuel Soldiers TD (1998–01). Reforming diesel fuel (and JP–8) into a versatile gaseous fuel will allow modern, efficient gas appliances to replace gasoline and diesel fueled equipment in field kitchens. This will reduce field feeding costs while allowing for significant improvements in the kitchen as a work environment and the cook’s ability to prepare high–quality meals. An added benefit is the ability to dispense safely the reformed fuel into bottled cartridges to power soldier individual equipment. This program will include technology and technical demonstration of a field kitchen with commercial gas cooking appliances powered by a diesel–to–gas reformer. Additionally, a soldier refueling concept will be demonstrated whereby the field kitchen is a logistic supply point that fuels individual soldiers and their equipment. Supports: Army Field Feeding Equipment 2000.

Munitions Survivability TD (1997–99). This TD will develop advanced explosive propagation technologies to ensure the survivability of munitions at ports, airheads, and munitions storage areas. High–performance fire–blocking/–retarding materials and blast absorbing designs will be developed to prevent fire and explosive propagation between munitions stacks. This technology will limit ammo loss to only 1 percent from a ballistic missile direct hit and will reduce ammo storage area footprint by 60 percent. The program provides a low–cost approach to protect decisive munitions and is critical component of force protection and force projection. Supports: Munitions Survivability; CSS, DSA, and EELS Battle Labs, and RML.

Embedded Ammunition Information Device TD (FY00-02). This program will demonstrate extremely small, low cost microchip–based devices that can be embedded in munitions and related packaging to provide: remote wireless tracking of expenditure rates and logistics data in support of anticipatory resupply, monitoring of environmental data (shock, temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, etc.) for remote quality assurance inspections, enable prognostics/diagnostics, and "reading of temperature data by fire control systems to improve munitions accuracy." The devices will incorporate single–chip miniature radio frequency (RF) tranceivers, micro–machined environmental sensors, and memory that can be read and written to with RF energy. A device that functions solely from the RF energy from an associated "reader" as well as a battery–powered device will be demonstrated. The battery–powered device will be able to accommodate a full environmental sensor suite and transmit information over greater distances than the battery–free device. The result will be significantly improved logistics efficiency through anticipatory resupply, improved readiness via enhanced quality assurance of the stockpile, and improved munitions accuracy resulting from knowledge of certain environmental parameters that affect ballistics.

Future Combat System Logistics TD (FY00-04). This program will develop technologies to reduce the logistics burden and increase battlefield survivability for the Future Combat system (FCS). After this period, efficient focused resupply of ammunition is required. This program will demonstrate high efficiency modular packaging, a rapid theater distribution system that provides ammunition directly to the FCS in the field, and an automated upload system that loads ammunition into the FCS autoloader , to reduce rearm times by up to 50% over the status quo, manual, labor–intensive logistics system. The result will be an integrated, seamless system that increases the FCS firepower by decreasing rearm downtime and helps the FCS achieve its system requirement to reduce the logistics burden by 50%.

5. Relationship to Modernization Plan Annexes

Table III–38 shows the correlation between the Logistics SU/ACs and other Army Modernization Plan annexes.

6. Logistics Annex of the ASTMP

The Logistics Annex of the ASTMP provides for a comprehensive presentation of what is being developed to fulfill the RML requirements to project and sustain the force.

Table III–38.  Correlation Between Logistics S/SU/ACs and Other AMP Annexes

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

Modernization Plan Annexes

  Close Combat Light* Soldier Systems Aviation C4 Combat Health Support Fire Support Mounted Forces Space & Missile Defense Tactical Wheeled Vehicles*
System
Upgrade
Aerial Delivery

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  Army Field Feeding Future

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  Rapid Deployment Food Service for Force Projection

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  Reforming Diesel to Refuel Soldiers

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  Advanced Lightweight Portable Power/Silent Engine Source      

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  Munitions Survivability

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  Advanced Cargo Airdrop

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Embedded Ammo Information Device

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Future Combat System Logistics

           

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  Emerging Petroleum Quality

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  Mobility Enhancing Rations

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Advanced
Concept
Precision Offset, High–Glide Aerial Delivery

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  Containerized Kitchen

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* See Combat Maneuver Annex.
dot1.gif (49 bytes) System plays a significant role in the modernization strategy
dot2.gif (53 bytes) System makes a contribution to the modernization strategy

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