News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



P. Training

We must find the best ways to organize, train, and equip our forces to exploit our competitive advantages—quality people and advanced technology.

General Dennis J. Reimer
Army Chief of Staff

1. Introduction

The new national security strategy stresses preparation to defend against nuclear threats, threats from regional powers, threats to evolving democratization, and regional instabilities. A force projection Army must be ready to carry out changing roles and missions at any time, anywhere in the world.

Army training can meet this challenge through the application of behavioral science and emerging technologies to individual/land warfare training, simulation–enhanced training, battle command training, and unit training. These advances will be used to increase mission readiness for both active and reserve forces and improve the training for new missions. Commanders will be able to provide tough, realistic, battle–focused training to provide soldiers and leaders with the ability to fight and win within a constrained training budget.

2. Relationship to Operational Capabilities

The combined arms training strategy (CATS) is the Army’s architecture for training and educating its people and units. CATS provides the conceptual framework for establishing training policy and resource requirements. The objective of the CATS architecture is to provide doctrine–based strategies for training warfighting tasks and skills in institutions, units, and through self–development.

Table III–39 presents the correlation between TRADOC’s battlefield dynamics and training SU/ACs. It also shows proposed training system capabilities by battlefield dynamics. Simulation–based training and training strategies cut across all battlefield dynamics, although special emphasis is given to combined arms operations for both large and small units.

3. Army Modernization Strategy

America’s 21st century Army will train on a digitized battlefield consisting of a close integration of live, virtual, and constructive simulations. Training strategies, organizational redesign, battle command training, and personnel issues will evolve into an interactive cycle of experimentation and assessment with actual units and in support of the battle labs.

As stated in the FY96 Army Modernization Plan:

The challenge is to train and sustain the most combat ready and deployable force in the world. The Army must look to research and development initiatives to identify technology that may offset decreasing force structure and ensure the means of providing realistic, dynamic training to our soldiers—today and tomorrow.

Current and development system concepts are focused through the following training programs:

Distributed interactive systems (DIS).
Combined arms tactical trainer (CATT).
Family of simulations (FAMSIM), including warfighters’ simulation (WARSIM) 2000, tactical simulations (TACSIM), and command and control simulations.
Combat training centers (CTCs): National Training Center (NTC), Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC), Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), and Battle Command Training Program (BCTP).
Nonsystem training devices (NSTD).
Range instrumentation, targetry, and devices.

Taken together, upgrades to these programs provide training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations (TADSS) that will provide the means for meeting the Army’s training modernization objectives.

Table III–39.  Training System Capabilities

System/
System Upgrade/
Advanced Concept
Function

Patterns of Operation

System/
System Upgrade
Capability

Advanced Concept
Capability

  Project the Force Protect the Force Gain Information Dominance Decisive Operations Shape the Battlespace Sustain the Force    
VIRTUAL
SIMULATION
            Combined arms training

Battle command training

Synthetic battlefield

 
System Upgrade            
Combined Arms Tactical Trainer

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Family of Simulations

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Distributed Interactive Simulation

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Combined Arms Training Strategy

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Advanced Concept               Joint mission training

Mission rehearsal

Mission readiness estimation

Behaviorally accurate semiautomated forces (SAFOR)

Innovative Simulation–Based Training Strategies

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Assessment Technologies

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CONSTRUCTIVE
SIMULATION
              Joint mission training

Mission rehearsal

Mission readiness estimation

Advanced Concept            
Distributed Models/Simulations for Joint/Theater Exercises

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LIVE SIMULATION             Performance data collection/analysis (unit performance assessment system)

Contingency mission training

Special operations training

Joint services training

Range modernization

Upgrades of MILES equipment

Range modernization

 
System Upgrade            
Combat Training Centers: NTC, JRTC, CMTC, BCTP

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Nonsystem Training Devices (NSTD)

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Range Instrumentation/Targetry/Devices  

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Future training technology initiatives must have high potential payoff (i.e., reduced training time and resource consumption). Initiatives must offer solutions that offset a decreasing force structure and ensure the means for providing realistic, dynamic training at both home station and the CTCs. CTCs must be upgraded and augmented by training aids and devices to provide a cost–effective training environment, using warfighting equipment in conjunction with simulated environments. A DIS capability combined with virtual reality (VR) technology will permit the development of synthetic battlefields for training that complement field training exercises at the CTCs.

4. Roadmap for Army Training

Table III–40 summarizes the training SU/ACs and relevant technology demonstrations. The roadmap at Figure III–22 details the Army’s current plans to support future training initiatives. Limited advanced development funding for training system upgrades is available in the outyears.

Figure III-22. Roadmap - Training Modernization
Figure III-22. Roadmap - Training Modernization
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CTCs represent realistic training environments using equipment on a large, instrumented maneuver area or advanced simulation programs. Standardized instrumentation systems at all CTCs provide precise measurement of unit performance in the simulated combat environments. NSTD upgrades include improved multiple integrated laser engagement system (MILES) air/ground engagement simulation (AGES II) for more effective integration of aviation operations into CTC exercises.

The CATS is the framework that will be used to design and execute effective unit training programs in a resource–constrained environment. Supporting technology demonstrations that will lead to the advanced concepts, shown in Figure III–22, are described below.

a. Unit Collective Training

The purpose of this research is to develop technologies for improving the training of units to prepare for operations envisioned for Force XXI and Army After Next. Technologies will include methods of improving skill retention and training transfer as we move from conventional to digital systems; multisite, multiservice, and

Table III–40.  Training Demonstration and System Summary

Advanced Technology Demonstration

Technology Demonstration

Simulation in Training for Advanced Readiness Collective Training

Unit/Joint Training Readiness
Training for the Digitized Battlefield

Simulator–Enhanced Training

Combined Arms Training Strategy for Aviation

Battle Command Training

Battle Command Skills Training

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

System Upgrade

Distributed Interactive Simulation
Combined Arms Training Strategy
Combined Arms Tactical Trainer
Family of Simulations
Combat Training Centers
Non–System Training Devices
Range Instrumentation, Targetry, and Devices

Advanced Concept

Distributed Models/Simulation for Joint/Theater Exercises
Innovative Simulation–Based Training Strategies
Advanced Assessment and Leader Development Technologies

multiechelon training and assessment techniques, and techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of devices and simulators that can be used for collective training.

In FY98 this research is expected to produce structured training procedures for the new digital, close–combat tactical trainer, along with guidelines for applying these procedures to areas other than armor; improved retention of digital procedural skills for the M1A2 tank; improved methods for conducting multisite, multiservice after–action reviews (AARs), and methods of introducing cognitive modeling and situational awareness behaviors into computer–generated forces used in DIS scenarios.

b. Simulation–Enhanced Training

Today’s Army must be capable of producing swift, decisive, low–casualty victories across the spectrum of conflict anywhere in the world. Simulated environments can be tailored to provide realistic training for these missions, and these simulators must be used to maximize training effectiveness while keeping costs low. The research in this area includes simulation training for aviation, VEs for combat training, and new strategies for reserve component training. FY98 products include sensory requirements to train aviation tasks using VE, fidelity requirements for networked aviation systems, methods to enhance the effectiveness of VE training for dismounted soldiers and small units, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of time–compressed gunnery training strategies.

c. Individual//Land Warfare Training

The purpose of this research is to develop innovative and cost–effective training methods and programs that improve a combatant’s ability to employ complex high–technology weapons and equipment and perform effectively in various operational environments. FY98 products include training techniques for increasing soldier effectiveness in night operations, identification of the training implications of land warrior systems, and an improved computer–based foreign language tutor and authoring system enhanced by continuous speech recognition.

d. Battle Command Training

The purpose of this research is to provide strategies and methods to develop effective battle commanders by improving cognitive thinking and problem–solving skills required by new mission demands. This research will develop measures of battle command skills and identify those skills and characteristics needed by battle commanders in the 21st century.

e. Technology Programs for Improving Personnel Performance

The objective of this research is to maintain and enhance the quality of the Army by providing effective recruiting, selection, and assignment strategies; improved personnel support systems; and feedback strategies needed to foster a positive command climate. This research will produce an initial set of performance requirements for future noncommissioned officers (NCOs), methods to improve Special Forces team performance, determination of post–mobilization effects of Operation Joint Endeavor upon reserve component soldiers, and techniques for assessing the Army’s current command climate.

f. Other Training Modernization Programs

The Army’s personnel performance and training S&T program support these activities as well as the majority of the battle labs’ advanced warfighting experiments.

DARPA Simulation in Training for Advanced Readiness (SIMITAR) ATD. SIMITAR was initiated to address training readiness issues identified during mobilization for Operation Desert Shield. Results led to congressional interest and funding (FY93–97) for DARPA–led research on advanced technology training for the Army National Guard (ARNG). The effectiveness of SIMITAR training technologies will be validated in two ARNG brigades in FY97–98.

5. Relationship to Modernization Plan Annexes

Table III–41 shows the correlation between Army Training SU/ACs and other AMP annexes.

Table III–41.  Correlation Between Training S/SU/ACs and Other AMP Annexes

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

Modernization Plan Annexes

  Mounted Forces* Close Combat Light* C4 Engineer & Mine Warfare* Tactical Wheeled Vehicles* Fire Support Space & Missile Defense IEW Logistics Soldier Systems Aviation NBC Combat Health Support Space
System
Upgrade
Distributed Interactive Simulation    

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  Combined Arms Training Strategy

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  Combat Training Centers

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  Nonsystem Training Devices

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  Range Instrumentation/Targetry and Devices

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  Combined Arms Tactical Trainer

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  Family of Simulations    

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Advanced
Concept
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  Innovative Simulation–Based Training Strategies

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  Advanced Assessment Technologies

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* See Combat Maneuver Annex.
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