News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



Q. Space

As military planners grapple with myriad challenges in 21st Century Warfare, the importance of using space to achieve the ultimate goal—full spectrum dominance—is becoming abundantly clear.

Lieutenant General Edward G. Anderson III

1. Introduction

Space is the fourth medium of warfare, along with land, sea, and air. Space commerce is becoming increasingly important to the global economy. Likewise, the importance of space capabilities and space power to military operations is increasing immensely. Just as land dominance, sea control, and air superiority have become critical elements of current military strategy, space superiority is emerging as an essential element of battlefield success and future warfare. An agreement between U.S. Army TRADOC and U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC) established the Space and Missile Defense Battle Laboratory (SMDBL) and designated it the specified proponent for space activities. In that regard, the SMDBL will interact with TRADOC schools and battle laboratories for efforts and issues related to space. The control and protection of military, civil and commercial space systems will become paramount to achieving full–spectrum dominance now and in the 21st century.

Space capabilities are critical enablers to achieving information dominance and to ensuring full–spectrum dominance across all levels of conflict. The space science and technology challenge is to determine how to exploit, leverage, and integrate horizontally the military, civil, and commercial space technologies and capabilities into the current force, the programmed force (Army XXI) and the potential force (Army After Next). The program for space S&T leverages technology developments from other services as well as government agencies, industry, and academia. Space technology will be an enabler to accelerate the attainment of essential and leap–ahead capabilities required for full–spectrum dominance.

The Army is evolving to meet space needs that are documented in the Joint Vision 2010, Army Vision 2010, and U.S. Space Command Vision for 2020, and insights emerging from the Army After Next process. It has a vision to provide the warfighter with space products that will allow land force dominance in the 21st century, and provide space–based capabilities that are adaptable and deployable to meet the Army’s force projection requirements. The Army is developing technologies in areas such as communications, position/navigation, intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, mapping, weather, and missile warning that support these visions and support the Army’s goal of developing space products that get the right information to the warfighter at the right time.

The Army RDA focuses on relevant space capabilities and technologies to support the Army modernization strategy and investment plans. This ensures that essential space technologies are developed and integrated into the current and programmed force to maintain the required overmatch capabilities against potential adversaries. Additionally, guidance is provided for supporting the potential force with leap–ahead space technologies and capabilities required for full–spectrum dominance.

2. Relationship to Operational Capabilities

Table III–42 summarizes space system capabilities. The systems and system upgrades column indicates relatively near–term capabilities, and the advanced concepts column refers to far–term capabilities. The table also shows the correlation between the S/SU/ACs and the Army modernization objectives.

3. Space Modernization Strategy

The modernization of Army space systems is discussed in Annex N of the AMP. The space modernization must be capabilities based and

Table III–42.  Space System Capabilities

System/
System Upgrade/
Advanced Concept
Function

Patterns of Operation

System/
System Upgrade
Capability

Advanced Concept
Capability

  Project the Force Protect the Force Gain Information Dominance Decisive Operations Shape the Battlespace Sustain the Force    
COMMUNICATIONS             Digital battlefield communications terminal upgrades

SATCOM pages

Forward area communications beyond line of sight

SATCOM on the move

High–capacity voice, data, and video transmission

System Upgrade            
Single–Channel Antijam Man–Portable Terminals

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Communications

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Advanced Concept            
Communications
Transport

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Advanced Sensor Collection and Processing

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POSITION/
NAVIGATION

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Improved weapons pointing 1–mil pointing accuracy using GPS
INTELLIGENCE
SUPPORT (Collection & Processing)
            Improved situation awareness

Improved targeting

Improved pointing accuracy

Terrain analysis

Precision strike

Target geolocation t80 meters

Tactical direct downlinks

Tactical direct sensor tasking

Data exfiltration

Hyperspectral imagery
processing

System            
Eagle Vision II

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Surveillance Targeting and Reconnaissance Satellite

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System Upgrade            
Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities

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THEATER INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT

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Satellite direct access Theater direct access
terminals
THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE                
System            

Joint Tactical Ground Station

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System Upgrade             Real–time warning to theater forces

Target location

Laser boresight

Pager warning to troops

 
TMD Weapons

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SPACE CONTROL

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Antisatellite system capabilities EW, DEW, and KEW systems
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focused on enhancing current satellite systems through more effective use of equipment and on influencing new satellite designs to provide significant value added and improved capability for the warfighter. The Army’s space modernization efforts support the Army’s modernization objectives, as illustrated in Table III–42. As our potential adversaries continue to acquire modern technology to enhance their capabilities, it is clear that the Army’s access to and exploitation of space capabilities must be upgraded through a continuous modernization program. Inserting or embedding highly advanced space technologies into Army systems can ensure maintaining combat overmatching. These long–term needs will be met by efforts that are planned and programmed today.

To facilitate effective modernization, it is important that the Army RDA process consider the incorporation of space and space–based assets when looking for solutions to Army warfighter requirements. The Army uses these approaches in its strategy of space RDA:

Use Army laboratories, schools, and battle labs to evaluate and understand future operational capabilities, advanced operational concepts, and potential technological advances.
Influence the space design of other services, government (national, civil, and DoD), and commercial space systems to support Army patterns of operations.
Integrate horizontal technology of space technologies and capabilities to sustain current overmatch capabilities.
Exploit and leverage existing space technologies, capabilities and systems, government (national, civil, and DoD), commercial, and foreign to field leap–ahead capabilities necessary for full–spectrum dominance.

The Army’s focus for technology development in modernizing its space segments is to exploit space and provide relevant space capabilities to the warfighter. The Army’s in–house R&D primarily focuses on the ground segment of space systems and communications systems (i.e., receive terminals, antennas, and processors). Many Army R&D institutions are able to bring technology initiatives to the warfighter. They have ongoing programs working in the area of sensor development, algorithm development, and processing to aid in automatic target recognition, battlefield visualization, and theater missile defense applications. The key to Army success is proof–of–concept demonstrations that can show applications for use in an effective architecture for space.

The Army’s space–related research, development, and acquisition programs are focused on providing several capabilities to the warfighter through:

Sensors that are multifunctional and leverage commercial technology.
Processors that serve to decrease the decision cycle, provide processing in–theater with rapid access to stored data, provide automatic/aided target recognition, and also provide advanced decision aids to include AI attributes.
Assured access to medium– and high–data rate satellite communication—commercial and national.
Multiband and in–theater injection Earth terminals.
Integrated seamless information exchange across strategic and tactical domains, and including dynamic bandwidth allocation.
Space control efforts to deny enemy information on friendly capabilities while protecting our space assets.
Obtaining target signatures of interest during day/night operations capable of penetrating weather and concealment.
Accurately measuring and predicting environmental conditions over areas of interest.
Integration of space capabilities into modeling and simulation.
Identification of friend, foe, and neutral forces.
Providing theater missile attack warning and cueing to friendly forces and allies.
Providing real–time, survey–quality pointing accuracy for directional systems, to include weapon systems.
Real–time, direct downlinking of raw and onboard processed data from space–based assets to tactically deployed units that are equipped to process and exploit data.
POS/NAV devices to navigate accurately across highly uniform terrain areas (jungle and desert).
Providing technical and procedural applications derived from space assets and products for effective conduct of information operations.
Providing warning of hostile and friendly fires from artillery and tactical missiles in near real time to effect counterfire or evasion.
Providing warning to TMD and air defense systems of ducting and false target ranges caused by thermal layering and other atmospheric and stratospheric phenomena.
Direct tasking of national systems.
Improvement and integration of more advanced, automated, integrated precise elevation and geographic positioning generation capabilities from national systems at the tactical level for immediate targeting support.

These capabilities support several TRADOC battle laboratory operational capability requirements and Army modernization objectives that have been integrated into the Army XXI process. They include exploratory and advanced technology development space applications that add value to battlefield operating systems. This technological development process provides added value to the current Army acquisition strategy for space–related materiel developments. The acquisition strategy includes leveraging S&T from other services and agencies, using nondevelopmental items (NDIs) and COTS equipment, prototype equipment, and commercial, civil, and tactically oriented satellites to improve warfighting capabilities. ATDs, ACTDs, and STOs have incorporated space–based capabilities. These include communications, position/navigation, intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, missile warning, and space control.

In the near term, part of the space modernization strategy is to leverage, buy, and exploit commercial and military systems, terminals, and receivers for application on current satellite systems. This strategy includes defining requirements and focusing technologies to influence future applications of planned systems, as well as the design and development of future satellite systems to satisfy Army requirements. For example, the Army is in a cooperative effort with the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) to develop and deploy the prototype Eagle Vision II van to provide in–theater direct downlink of five commercial imaging satellites. The Army is also the primary participant in the DARPA tactical SAR project, the Surveillance Targeting and Reconnaissance Satellite (STARLITE). The Army is working with NASA and the Air Force to exploit the NASA Lewis and Clark spacecrafts for Army applications. Additionally, the Army has participated in the development of systems requirements for at least three Air Force programs: (1) Space–Based Infrared Systems (SBIRS), (2) Global Positioning System (GPS) III, and (3) Warfighter–1, a hyperspectral demonstration program. The Army’s active involvement within the early phases of these programs helps to ensure that Army warfighting requirements are addressed during the critical phases of the design of these systems.

4. Roadmap for Space Systems

A number of projects are ongoing for the application and development of technologies to exploit space to meet Army requirements. The roadmap for space exploitation is shown in Figure III–23. Table III–43 lists the ATDs, TDs, and S/SU/ACs for space exploitation.

Figure III-23. Roadmap - Space Systems Modernization
Figure III-23. Roadmap - Space Systems Modernization
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Overhead Passive Sensor Technology for Battlefield Awareness TD (1994–02). This STO will demonstrate several technologies to be used in the collection of multispectral and hyperspectral imagery for the exploitation of remote earth sensing imagery. It has applications in the areas of reconnaissance, surveillance, and intelligence, as well as terrain analysis. The collection sensors will be used to develop the database required to identify spectral signatures for future exploitation. The prototype sensor will demonstrate Army tactical utility in ground and flight tests. Phenomenology between spectral and polarization will be investigated for detection and identification of tactical targets. These sensors will assist in the development of Army requirements for the next generation of remote Earth sensors. Sensor technology will transition to Army sensor packages, to UAV, or to space systems. Supports: Precision Strike, TMD Weapons, Advanced Sensor Collection and Processing, Depth and Simultaneous Attack Battle Lab, SMDBL, and Field Artillery Systems.

Battlefield Ordnance Awareness (BOA) TD (1996–02). This STO will demonstrate a near–real–time ordnance expenditure reporting system using space/airborne sensors with onboard processing. This technology will enable battlefield visualization based on both enemy and friendly ordnance expenditures as well as ballistic and cruise missile launches. The display of this information will enable the theater commander to view the development of the battlefield from a revolutionary new perspective. It addresses the need to target ordnance delivery for counterfire purposes, a major battlefield deficiency. The BOA capability will identify the ordnance by type and provide position information for counterfire opportunities, as well as battle damage assessment, blue forces ordnance inventory, information needed to dispatch logistical and medical support, and search/rescue. Advanced processor technology will be used with state–of–the–art focal plane staring arrays to provide critical information to the commander. In FY98, near–real–time processing of ordnance data will be demonstrated. This will be followed in FY99 with the development of a space qualifiable sensor design with state–of–the–art, near–real–time onboard processing. In FY00, the BOA sensor and near–real–time processor will be integrated into a suitable airborne platform with ordnance data collection occurring in FY01. Supports: TMD Weapons, Phase II upgrades for JTAGS, Depth and Simultaneous Attack Battle Lab, SMDBL, Precision Strike, Advanced Image Processing, and Field Artillery Systems.

Laser Boresight Calibration TD (1995–98). This STO will develop a solid–state laser calibration capability that will provide a known ground registration point for space–based sensors, resulting in improved launch point predictions and impact area for theater ballistic missiles (TBMs). It will reduce the command and control timelines and improve the overall responsiveness of the Joint Precision Strike and theater area defense forces by significantly reducing the search box. The improved line–of–sight target accuracy will result in higher quality missile warning, alerting, and cueing information. This capability will potentially be integrated into the Joint Tactical Ground Station (JTAGS) P3I. Supports: TMD–JTAGS, Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS), and SMDBL.

Laser Satellite Communications TD (1995–99). This STO is communications technology that will provide a high–bandwidth data rate (overhead and ground) sensor capability while reducing size, weight, power, and cost requirements. Being extremely difficult to jam, it has a low probability of intercept. In FY95, a mountain–top–to–mountain–top demonstration was conducted in Hawaii, which successfully established the acquisition and tracking of a long–range,

Table III–43.  Space Demonstration and System Summary

Advanced Technology Demonstration

Technology Demonstration

Digital Battlefield Communications (see C4)

(For additional information, see Volume II, Annex B.)

Theater Direct Access
Overhead Passive Sensor Technology for Battlefield Awareness
Laser Satellite Communications
Battlefield Ordnance Awareness
Laser Boresight Calibration
Range Extension
Blue Force Tracking (Grenadier Beyond Line–of–Sight Reporting and Tracking)
Eagle Vision II (Commercial Imagery Satellite)
STARLITE (Government Imagery Satellite)

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

System

Joint Tactical Ground Stations
Eagle Vision II
Surveillance Targeting and Reconnaissance Satellite

System Upgrade

Single–Channel Antijam Man–Portable Terminals
Communications
Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities
Theater Missile Defense Weapons

Advanced Concept

Communications Transport
Advanced Sensor Collection and Processing
Data Exfiltration for Deep Targeting
Hyperspectral Imagery Processing

duplex, high–data–rate LASERCOM link while subjected to a U–2 maneuver/vibration profile. A follow–on study, which began in FY96, evaluated the feasibility of using LASERCOM in space–to–ground applications. It was completed in FY97 and revealed that a layered architecture consisting of satellite–to–air (i.e., manned and unmanned) air–to–ground platforms provided high link availability through most weather conditions, especially for those missions with larger response time requirements. An air–to–ground proof–of–concept demonstration was initiated in FY97 using the Airborne Surveillance Testbed and existing Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) LASERCOM terminals. FY97 also saw the development of a portable ground LASERCOM terminal, which will be part of a satellite–to–ground demonstration in FY98 using the space technology research vehicle 2 (STRV–2) satellite. The satellite is scheduled to be launched during the 4th quarter of FY98, and will transmit data at 1.2 GBps using two LASERCOM portable ground terminals. Future demonstrations will support the establishment of a Joint LASERCOM Internet Concept that meets the needs of the warfighter in Force XXI. Supports: Digital Battlefield Communications ATD, Communications Transport System, and SMDBL.

Digital Battlefield Communications (DBC) ATD (1995–99). The DBC ATD will exploit emerging commercial communications technologies to support multimedia communications in a highly mobile dynamic battlefield environment, the "digitized" battlefield, and split–based operations. Commercial ATM technology will be integrated into actual tactical communications networks to provide bandwidth on demand to support multimedia information requirements. It is discussed in detail in the section on Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (above).

Range Extension TD (1994–99). The goal of this demonstration is to support Army C4I modernization by developing and demonstrating key technologies and capabilities for flexible and affordable intra–theater long–range communications. It includes the use of surrogate satellites, enhancements to current SATCOM equipment, and UAV cross links. Major technology areas to be addressed are airborne payload designs, ground terminal adaptations, interoperability/compatibility, and simulation. These technologies will be used to supplement current (and programmed) SATCOM resources at all frequency bands. SATCOM terminals will be extended by improvements to reduce size and weight, increasing throughput and mobility and implementing emerging techniques such as DAMA. This demonstration is referenced further in the section on Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (above). Supports: Digital Battlefield Communications, JPO UAV TIER II Program, and Communications Transport System.

Theater Direct Access TD (1995–98). A tactical satellite launched by DARPA will be used to conduct a proof–of–concept technology demonstration with Army TENCAP systems to show the capability of satellite mission tasking direct from theater forces. The joint Army/DARPA/NSA program will conduct the technology demonstration of this concept in support of early entry and battle command doctrine. Supports: Tactical Satellite system and system upgrades to Army TENCAP.

Blue Force Tracking (Grenadier BRAT) TD (1996–98). This is the Army’s application of the National Reconnaissance Office’s collection of broadcasts from remote assets (COBRA) activity. In the Army, Grenadier BRAT (GB) is being evaluated as a Blue Force tracking tool for integration into the Army’s overall battlefield visualization efforts. The system uses a spread–spectrum, LPI signal compatible with national support systems. This waveform is the carrier for the GB data and carries location data provided by an integrated GPS receiver as part of the transmitter, a unique identifier, and selected unit status information. At preset intervals, the information is transmitted and collected by way of national support systems. It is processed by a single rack of equipment at the ground processing center and injected into tactical receiver equipment and related applications or tactical information broadcasting system (TIBS) broadcasts. The data are received by any TRAP/TIBS–compatible receiver and displayed as an unidentified signal. Army TENCAP systems have been provided software that allows the operator to display the data in graphical situation display format and pull down the unit identification and status data. These data are then passed to the Army battlefield control system for integration as part of the operational battlefield visualization. Supports: Army TENCAP and Data Exfiltration for Deep Targeting.

Eagle Vision II TD (Direct Downlink (DDL) and Direct Tasking of Commercial Imagery Satellites) (1998–01). Eagle Vision II (EV–II) will provide a direct downlink of unclassified remote sensed imagery from commercial satellites to the supported commander. It will take direct downlink from a baseline of five commercial satellite vendors. These data will be processed and provided to users in standard image formats for command and control, mission rehearsal, intelligence, and geographic information systems. EV–II will consist of an air– and sea–transportable 30–foot expando van containing a data acquisition segment and data integration segment and a 5–meter X–band antenna. It provides near–real–time unclassified commercial imagery from a baseline of five commercial vendors of multispectral and panchromatic imagery. The demonstration will pass imagery to a digital terrain support system for terrain analysis and digital terrain elevation data level 1 and 2 data generation. It will also pass the RISTA systems such as the modernized imagery exploitation system for intelligence exploitation. Supports: Eagle Vision II and Hyperspectral Imagery.

Surveillance Targeting and Reconnaissance Satellite (STARLITE) TD (DDL and Direct Tasking of Government Imagery Satellites) (1998–00). STARLITE is a program that will provide a direct tasking control and downlinking of a small, lightweight imaging satellite to a deployed tactical/operational commander. It will use a SAR for all–weather, day/night operations in a constellation of 24 satellites projected for launch in 2003–2005. This will allow near–continuous coverage of the battlefield or contingency area to the depth of 800–1,000 miles, with 90 percent confidence of a 15–minute response time from request to image delivery to the commander. The STARLITE demonstration will have two satellites downlinking to a modified Army Space Program Office (ASPO)–enhanced tactical radar correlator (ETRAC). The ETRAC modification will consist of a clip–on kit usable in the four services’ common imagery ground/surface systems, such as Tactical Exploitation System (TES), contingency airborne reconnaissance system (CARS), tactical exploitation group (TEG), and Navy tactical input segment (TIS). The preliminary objectives for the demonstration are to determine feasibility and utility of delegated collection management authority to a tactical commander, demonstrate imagery DDL using LIGHTSAT technologies, demonstrate rapid–response changes in tasking by an Army corps, and assess the utility of corps directly commanding the payload. Supports: STARLITE.

5. Relationship to Modernization Plan Annexes

Table III–44 shows the relationship between the Space S/SU/ACs and AMP annexes.

Table III–44.  Correlation Between Space S/SU/ACs and Other AMP Annexes

System/System Upgrade/Advanced Concept

Modernization Plan Annexes

  Aviation IEW Fire Support Close Combat Light* C4 Space & Missile Defense Logistics
System

Joint Tactical Ground Station

 

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  Eagle Vision II

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  Surveillance Targeting and Reconnaissance Satellite

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System Upgrade Theater Missile Defense Weapons  

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  Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities

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  Single–Channel Antijam Man–Portable Terminals  

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  Communications  

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Advanced Concept Communications Transport

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  Advanced Sensor Collection and Processing

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  Data Exfiltration for Deep Targeting

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  Hyperspectral Imagery

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* See Combat Manuever Annex.
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