F. Individual Survivability and sustainability
The subareas of individual survivability and sustainability (ISS) are an integral part of the human systems area. ISS corresponds to the warrior protection and sustainment subarea of the human systems technology DTAP.
ISS focuses on protecting and sustaining the individual warfighterultimately the most critical element of any weapon system on the digitized battlefield. By providing food, drinking water, clothing, airdrop, and shelter, this technology area ensures warfighter survivability and performance and enhances readiness and quality of life on the battlefield and in operations other than war (OOTW).
This technology area comprises two subareas: individual survivability and sustainability. The individual survivability subarea includes all material and combat clothing systems for protection of the individual warfighter. These efforts provide technological advancements in individual ballistic protection, countermeasures to sensors, laser eye protection, multifunctional materials, and warrior performance and endurance enhancements, as well as integration of capability enhancing technologies (e.g., individual combat identification, system voice control, rapid target acquisition, selfcontained navigation and display, unexposed firing/viewing) with the protective clothing/loadbearing system.
The sustainability subarea includes scientific and technological efforts to sustain and enhance warfighter performance and combat effectiveness. These range from nutritional performance enhancement, food preservation, food service equipment, energy technologies, and drinking water to advanced and precision cargo/personnel airdrop and airbeam technologies for shelters. Technologies pursued in this effort address the need to "fuel the fighter"to deliver the right nutrients at the right levels at the right time in the right combination, to provide versatile airdrop capabilities critical to worldwide force projection and resupply, and to provide rapidly deployable food service equipment and shelters in forward areas.
2. Rationale for Investment
a. Relationship to Military Capabilities/Needs
Success on the battlefield relies heavily on continuous availability of warfighters and on optimizing their performance. Keys to accomplishing this are to mitigate personnel risk and to enhance the capabilities of individual warfighters in an operating environment. ISS technologies enable warfighters to perform their missions and survive in normal and emergency operational environments. (Refer to individual subareas for more specific relationships to military capabilities.) Figure IV4 depicts the four Army mission requirements supported by these subareas: integrated protective clothing and equipment, rations and water, air delivery systems, and airbeamsupported shelters.
Figure IV-4. Army Mission Requirements in Individual Survivability and Sustainability
b. Technical Forecast
Numerous foreseeable advances in individual survivability technologies exist. They include development of nextgeneration advanced materials for multiple threats, including flame protection, technology to provide fragmentation and small arms ballistic protection at 20 to 30 percent reduced weight, and materials to prevent detection by multispectral sensor devices. Clothing systems that provide thermal and environmental protection with minimum bulk and weight are also on the horizon. Another priority is integrating capabilityenhancing technologies into the various soldier systems, such as Land Warrior, Mounted Warrior, and Air Warrior for unique operational environments (e.g., Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT)). Integrated soldier and small unit battlefield performance simulations that support analysis of technology enhancements are also being developed and applied.
Foreseeable advances in sustainability technologies include targeted and modulated nutrient delivery for heightened mental acuity and physical performance, use of intrinsic chemical markers to validate sterility of thermally processed foods, and biosensors to monitor ration deterioration. Also being explored are the use of nonthermal processing technologies (such as irradiation or pulse electric fields) to preserve foods, selfheating operational rations, and a 200 percent increase in kitchen fuel efficiency and power density obtained by converting kitchens to thermal fluid heat transfer. A diesel reforming technology could provide a versatile new fuel for kitchens and soldiers individual equipment, while a nonelectric and thermal storage technology could facilitate selfcontained mobile refrigeration systems. In addition, cogeneration systems that provide heat and electric power for field kitchens at nearly 100 percent of the heat value of the fuel and a new water purification technology are being created. Also coming are prediction of parachute behavior and performance during parachute opening, autonomous and precise guidance, navigation, and control for standoff air delivery using flexible gliding wings, parachute design for manufacturability, soft landing technologies, and new textile manufacturing technology for airbeams for field shelters.
Improved and integrated individual survivability capabilities, including improved ballistic protection, enhanced loadbearing, countermeasures to sensors, flame resistance, and laser eye protection will permit the Army to engage regional forces promptly in decisive combat while protecting the force. Many technologies will reduce casualties, increase mission duration, and speed turnaround time, which ultimately reduce manpower costs and save lives. Although soldier systems may be more costly on an individual basis, the systems will be more lethal and the individual more survivable. Ultimately, it will be more cost effective by permitting a smaller standing Army. Integration efforts will lead to revolutionary breakthroughs by providing the soldier, as a weapons system platform, more effective, efficient, and precise/accurate means of fighting.
In the sustainability area, payoffs include ration systems that sustain and support highly mobile, forwarddeployed troops and provide enhanced performance capabilities such as improved target acquisition, enhanced cognitive skills and decision making (particularly under stressful battlefield conditions), extended mission endurance, and increased alertness. Improved food packaging protects and prevents ration components from physically or microbiologically deteriorating in extreme conditions. Other improvements are enhanced food safety/stability and quality in all environments, fuel/energy efficiency, full use of resources, technology to provide drinking water, and operational readiness and rapid deployability.
Specific payoffs in airdrop technology include the means of delivering critical equipment, personnel, and supplies with greater accuracy, safety, and precision, resulting in greatly reduced personnel airdrop injury rates and increased survivability of delivery aircraft. Also, reducing drop zone size requirements in supporting rapid force entry tactics can result in a faster consolidation of force and allow for justintime resupply of rapidly moving forces. Reduced development, testing, and procurement costs will result from predictive performance and design optimization modeling and virtual testing. Pressurized airbeam technology will provide significant reductions in weight, setup times, and packed volume of soft shelters for rapid deployability in forward areas.
d. Transition Efforts
Emphasis is placed on moving cutting edge technologies into engineering and manufacturing development (EMD) programs through ATDs and technology insertions.
The Soldier Enhancement Program (SEP) is another effective means of getting new technology to the field quickly. There is extensive collaboration with industry as evidenced by current active Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRDAs). Although some investment is focused on militaryunique applications, many of the basic clothing, food, and portable shelter technologies are inherently dual use. (Refer to the individual subareas for more specific transitions and dualuse opportunities.)
3. Technology Subareas
a. Individual Survivability
The individual survivability technology subarea addresses the full range of combat, environmental, and special purpose protective materials and components. The program includes textile and compositebased material systems and design concepts for individual ballistic protection, countermeasures to sensors, multifunctional materials (including environmental and flame/thermal protection), warrior performance and endurance enhancement, laser eye protection, smart textile materials, and integration of soldier system modular components. Supporting technologies include bioengineered materials for protection and analytic tools with resolution to capture battlefield effects of fatigue, load, environmental exposure, hydration, and terrain.
Impact on Military Capability
Individual survivability technology development and integration efforts provide the fundamental protection and operational capability enhancements that maximize the Armys most precious resourcethe soldier. By protecting the soldier in combat and OOTW, this area supports the Joint Vision 2010 operational concept of full dimensional protection. Protective systems will provide major and direct benefit to the future DoD/Army mission to enable full spectrum dominance. Enhanced protective systems are critical to the survivability, lethality, and mobility of the warfighter. The weight of protective clothing and equipment is approximately 40 pounds, or 46 percent of the total weight of the Soldier system as presently configured. This area will make significant reductions in the weight of the equipment the individual warrior will have to carry/wear. The potential now exists for revolutionary achievements through the emerging field of smart materials. Development of smart materials may be the answer to the explosive pace of technology advancements in sensors, electronics, and information technology.
Potential Benefits to the Industrial Base
Dualuse applications include highperformance fibers for ballistic/blast protection for law enforcement agencies, aircraft cargo containers, use in aerospace, electronics, and automobile industries, and recreational sport applications. Flame and thermal resistant fibers have strong dual uses in firefighting applications, race car driving, industrial workwear, hotel furnishings, childrens sleepwear, and piloting. The anthropometric database/models have commercial applications in the design and sizing of clothing systems and equipment such as boots, athletic footwear, gloves, and helmets. CRDAs with industry and development programs with major universities are aggressively pursued. Seven active CRDAs include biogenetically engineered spider silk (HoechstCelanese, Inc.), enzymatic synthesis of new polymers (Rohm and Haas), processing and spinning silk (Agricola), protective films from milk fat (National Dairy Board), environmental protective clothing and equipment (L. L. Bean), environmental protective technology (W. L. Gore), and body armor (Massachusetts State Police).
Technology Development Plan
Survivability Technology Taxonomy
Ballistic ProtectionResearch for protection against flechettes, small arms, and high velocity fragmentation and blast threats from mines and bursting munitions. DARPA is contributing to the development of ultralightweightarmor technologies.
Countermeasures to SensorsResearch on textile materials for camouflage for the individual soldier.
Multifunctional MaterialsFibers, fabrics, clothing systems, and techniques for individual protection in all climates against high heat sources and flame, and across all terrains and environmental extremes, including encapsulation and water immersion, whole body protection against lasers, microwaves, and nuclear/thermal threats, and smart materials to enhance integration capabilities.
Warrior Performance and Endurance EnhancementResearch and integrated application of anthropometry, biomechanics, and biophysics as scientific/engineering tools. Integrated individual protective systems and mechanisms to reduce effects of physical and environmental stresses, increase mobility and mission duration, and optimize the human/material/equipment interface.
Laser Eye ProtectionResearch into technologies affording protection from multiline and tunable lasers.
Systems IntegrationApplying systems and concurrent engineering principles to discrete Soldier system technologies, components or processes in order to optimize performance and capabilities and to maximize return on investment.
Major Technical Challenges/Approaches
ChallengeDevelop armor material system for protection against combined fragmentation and small arms threats at a 20-30 percent reduced areal density over current small arms protection without a significant increase in other penalties.
ApproachConduct analyses of fiber properties, textile structure, and/or textile architecture to enhance performance, e.g., investigate functionally graded design/hybridization, determine appropriate configurations for advanced materials, investigate improved textile structure through lowcost weaving technology and thermoplastic resin systems, and develop/evaluate promising alternate material concepts for small arms protection.
ChallengeProvide passive protection against advanced sensors without degrading current visual and nearIR camouflage protection, while maintaining desired/required textile properties (e.g., durable, launderable, flexible, nontoxic). Countermeasures should not increase the bulk or heat stress on the soldier beyond levels imposed by existing clothing systems.
ApproachThe sensor of major importance at present is the thermal imager. Based on physics, there are two approaches to solving this problem for the soldier: control the emissivity of the uniform or cool the soldier so that he provides a less conspicuous target to the sensor. Since a passive (not powered), lightweight system is desired, research has concentrated on novel materials to control the emissivity without degrading fabric protection.
ChallengeDurable combat uniforms that provide protection against multiple threats, that are costeffective, and that do not impose a heat stress penalty.
ApproachDefine minimum levels of flame protection required in clothing systems and develop appropriate performance test methods for flame protective materials so that requirements can be verified and developed. Explore novel fibers, fiber blends, fabric constructions, and functional finishes that will provide protection against flame, environmental, and electrostatic hazards while providing visual and nearIR (NIR) camouflage protection.
ChallengeProvide eye protection against lasers capable of causing retina damage (lasers that emit visible or nearIR light).
ApproachInvestigate the fundamental physics underlying the phenomena and develop a means to incorporate the most promising nonlinear optical (NLO) materials into an effective and useful configuration for eye protection.
ChallengeModular performanceaugmenting components integrated within the fighting systems.
ApproachUsing biomechanical and mechanical engineering tools, develop an ergonomically efficient loadbearing system that is compatible with other system components, is comfortable, reduces fatigue and localized injury, and increases mobility and combat effectiveness. Develop a boot design to reduce stressrelated lower extremity injuries and enhance locomotor efficiency.
ChallengeReduce the weight penalties associated with electronic cables used by various soldier systems, such as MOUT, Land Warrior, Mounted Warrior, and Air Warrior.
ApproachInvestigate conductive polymers/materials and develop novel ways to incorporate them into combat uniform fabrics and/or protective uniform systems.
This subarea focuses on warfighter sustainment by providing highquality, nutritious rations, drinking water, advanced airdrop capabilities, and rapidly deployable food service equipment and inflatable shelters for forward areas. In the ration area, efforts focus on the unique military combat field feeding requirements not addressed in the private sector: low volume and weight, modularity, high nutrient density, storage stability under environmental extremes, efficient use of battlefields fuels for equipment, and the battlefield logistics of providing hot food. S&T efforts include three main areas:
Nutritional performance enhancement by formulating rations to provide energy and essential nutrients, and to increase alertness and extend endurance in combat and in environmental extremes.
Ration preservation and stabilization to prevent microbial, physical, and biochemical deterioration and to withstand the rigors of longterm military storage and distribution worldwide.
Field food service equipment and systems that are highly mobile, fuel efficient, and consistent with minimizing the logistics burden.
Innovative water purification technology is being developed to provide drinking water to field troops. In the airdrop areas, efforts focus on advanced and precision offset air delivery for cargo, personnel, and sensors/submunitions, high glide deployable wings, the integration of guidance, navigation, and control for rapid deployment and justintime resupply, and soft landing technologies for cargo and personnel. Inflatable airbeam structure technology, including 3D weaving and braiding, and scaling and shape definition will provide airbeam shelters for rapidly deployable forces and continuous operations of tactical rotary aircraft and combat vehicles.
Impact on Military Capability
In the sustainability area, performanceenhancing ration components will increase the warfighters mental acuity, physical performance, and ability to deal with battlefield stress. New thermal and nonthermal preservation and active packaging technologies will result in the capability to provide high quality rations for optimizing nutrient consumption. Ongoing and planned innovations in combustion, heat transfer, cogeneration, and refrigeration will enable a new generation of rapidly deployable kitchens that will deliver higher quality meals faster and cheaper, and that will be able to operate in more tactical and climatic environments to ensure that all warfighters can receive at least one hot cooked prepared meal per day.
A new water purification technology will be applicable to military water treatment equipment ranging from individual purifiers to division and corps level units. This new technology will meet or exceed the performance of existing reverse osmosis membranes.
Initiatives in advanced and precision airdrop technology will provide capabilities critical to both rapid worldwide insertion of continental United States (CONUS)based initial forces and justintime resupply of rapidly moving forces. Airdrop technology also provides a lowcost, highly accurate means of delivering personnel, munitions, and batteries and of emplacing sensors necessary for realtime knowledge and digitization of the battlefield, and for precisionguided, standoff delivery to reduce the vulnerability of the delivery aircraft and crew.
Inflatable airbeam structures provide rapidly deployable shelters in forward areas for performing vehicle and aircraft maintenance in adverse environments and under blackout conditions. Also, these inflatable structures will assist in quickly establishing a presence in remote areas without adequate facilities for maintenance, storage, medical, billeting, and command and control (C2) centers.
Potential Benefits to the Industrial Base
Significant dualuse applications exist for disaster and humanitarian relief, for sports and other recreational activities (campers, backpackers, hunters, etc.), for forest firefighting, and for special dietary concerns (shelfstable flexibly packaged foods). Development of a new nonhazardous chemical ration heater while improving the safety of military packaged rations will also be integrated into a line of commercial selfheated meals that will be marketed for commuters, school lunches, and field occupations. Diesel reforming technology has application for residential and industrial heating. Cogeneration technology has application for emergency power and backup for power failures. Refrigeration technology has application for remote sites and humanitarian missions such as transporting vaccines and medical supplies. The new water purification technology will also be applicable to municipal desalination plants.
CRDAs include meals in microwave retort pouch (My Own Meals, Inc.), radiation preservation of foods (Food Technology Service, Inc.), shelf stable breads and bakery products (Milas European Bakery), shelf stable bakery products (Sara Lee), microencapsulation of performance modifying nutrients (BioMolecular Products, Inc.), edible films (Marine Polymer Technologies, Inc.), encapsulation systems for lipids and flavors in military rations (IGI, Inc.), individual ration components for military/commercial use (M&M, Mars, Inc.), integration of hydrogen suppression material in flameless ration heater (Zestotherm, Inc., and Dynatron, Inc.), intermediate moisture foods (Good Mark Foods, Inc.), antifungal/antibacterial agent (CAREX, Inc.), and airbags as impact attenuators for airdrop soft landing (Marotta Scientific Control, Inc.). Several additional CRDAs are under negotiation.
While industry has assumed the lead role in applying irradiation technology, supported research in coordination with United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and industry contributes directly to providing the scientific basis required for gaining regulatory approval for the use of this technology for both military and civilian benefit. Additionally, there is joint industrial collaborative research to exploit novel quality enhancement and quantification technologies, high pressure processing treatment, and ohmic processing. Using novel methodologies developed by the Department of the Army, these new processes will be validated as microbiologically safe and will lead to the production for both civilian and military consumers of a wide variety of safe and appealing foods that would not be possible using conventional thermoprocessing.
Technology Development Plan
Specific sustainability technology efforts are defined by the following taxonomy:
Preservation and performance enhancing technologiesResearch in food science (e.g., encapsulation, molecular inclusion), physical chemistry, behavioral sciences, chemical engineering, and packaging, as they relate to novel food formulation, nutrition, nutritional biochemistry, neurophysiology, preservation, stabilization, processing, protection, and other related technologies.
Food service equipment/energy technologiesResearch in combustion, thermodynamics, heat transfer, cogeneration of electric power and heat, automatic control, material, and refrigeration technologies.
Water purification technology for drinking waterResearch to prove the feasibility of a technology with a 300 percent increase in operating/storage life, a 50 percent increase in water flux, and tolerance of 5parts per million (ppm) chlorine when compared with conventional reverse osmosis.
Airdrop technologyResearch in designs and concepts for parachutes/gliding wings and cargo/personnel airdrop systems; aerodynamics and guidance, navigation and control of deceleration; theoretical/computational prediction and experimental determination of decelerator behavior and performance; and personnel/system interfaces to improve safety and logistics.
Airbeam technology for sheltersResearch in fibers, fabrics, fabric stress/strain properties, manufacturing technologies, coatings and concepts for airbeam structures and textilebased shelters.
Major Technical Challenges/Approaches
ChallengeThe natural complexity of food systems affects the chemical, physical, and nutritional characteristics and leads to undesirable changes that are often further compounded by lengthy, uncontrolled storage.
ApproachDetermine relationship between formulations/processes and glass transition temperature using dynamic mechanical analysis and electron spin resonance, and correlate results with rate of change of critical physical and chemical properties of rations. Evaluate new preservation methods that produce shelfstable foods with the taste and appearance of "homecooked" meals. Investigate multifunctional packaging adjuvants (e.g., oxygen scavenging, antimicrobial, nutrient protection, color protection).
ChallengeMethodology to provide data needed to establish links between specific nutrient intake and performance.
ApproachInvestigate methodologies for assessing the bioavailability and uptake of a variety of nutrients. Develop rapid and precise methods for determining physiological availability of nutrients in rations subjected to timetemperature stresses.
ChallengeImprove fieldfeeding capability by increasing fuel efficiency from the current 1520 percent to 80 percent, improve kitchen habitability, meal output and quality, deployability, reliability, and ability to transport and store perishable items.
ApproachDevelop diesel fuel reforming, thermal fluid heat transfer, cogeneration, and thermal storage and stabilization technology and integrate these developments into field kitchens.
ChallengeDevelop new water purification technology with a 300 percent increase in operating and storage life, a 50 percent increase in water flux, tolerance to 5 ppm chlorine, temperatures up to 165_Fahrenheit (F), and pH from 5.0 to 9.5 when compared to conventional reverse osmosis membranes.
ApproachExplore new desalting technologies that are lighter, more economical and energy efficient than current systems. Technologies currently being investigated are polymeric microgels, which remove specific contaminants; mosaic membranes, which may increase water production while having chlorine resistant properties; and polyphosphazene membranes, which will incorporate biofouling resistance.
ChallengeAnalysis of the transient parachute opening processes, including the complicated interaction between the flexible and porous parachute canopy fabric and its surrounding air flow.
ApproachNumerical coupling of the air flow process and the canopy fabric requires unsteady 3D fluid/structure analysis and modeling.
ChallengeEffectively dissipate airdrop kinetic energy to provide a softlanding capability for cargo and personnel.
ApproachInvestigate and demonstrate airbags with advanced gas injection technologies for application to heavy cargo airdrop. Conduct predictive performance modeling, experimentation, and demonstration of gas operated parachute retraction concepts for application to light cargo and personnel airdrop. Explore new decelerator concepts that provide increased drag efficiency.
ChallengeLower cost, lighter weight, reduced volume parachutes.
ApproachDevelop and demonstrate advanced hybrid architecture for personnel and cargo parachute applications that optimize performance with minimal construction, using 2D woven fabrics. Investigate and exploit 3D weaving technologies that virtually eliminate joints and seams in constructed parachutes.
ChallengeProducible, reliable airbeam fabrication.
ApproachSmall diameter, high pressure airbeams will be demonstrated by continuously braiding and weaving a high strength, 3D fabric sleeve over an air retention bladder. Scaling parameters and airbeam structural behavior will enable fabrication for various sizes of soft shelters.
4. Roadmap of Technology Objectives
The roadmap of technology objectives for Individual Survivability and Sustainability is shown in Table IV12.
Table IV12. Technical Objectives for Individual Survivability and Sustainability
Near Term FY9899
Mid Term FY0004
Far Term FY0513
Demonstrate an improved system for protection against combined fragmentation and small arms threats, to be measured by a 20 to 30% reduction in areal density (weight per given area)
Develop whole body scan protocols compatible with anthropometric survey (ANSUR) 2D database standards
Provide modeling, simulation, and analytical tools to reduce risk of Force XXI Land Warrior program
Demonstrate silkbased fabric for ballistic protective applications
Demonstrate prototype boot that reduces stressrelated lower extremity injuries
Demonstrate an effective, lightweight nonpower electrochemical microclimate cooling system
Optimize thermal signature reducing face paints
materials technology for individual countermine protective system to provide equal
protection at a 35% reduction in system weight
Demonstrate a tunable laser eyeprotective device incorporating NLO materials
Develop fully integrated soldier system analytical model
Demonstrate a novel multifunctional fabric system with a 50% decrease in the cost of flame protection
Integrate technology upgrades to the Land Warrior system
Demonstrate combat uniform systems that reduce the soldiers signature by 50%
Develop conductive fibers/materials for combat clothing
novel, highly oriented organic fibers for ballistic protective clothing materials
Develop next generation advanced camouflage combat uniforms
Develop reactive and catalytic protective clothing materials, uniform system designs, and production capabilities for global rapid response and diverse missions
optimize the incorporation of complex carbohydrates for modulated energy release during
period of high demand
Develop a diesel fuel reforming capability for producing a naturalgaslike fuel for field kitchens
Demonstrate wide span inflatable airbeam technology for the Aviation Maintenance Shelter
Fabricate a high glide airdrop system that has a 2,0005,000pound payload capacity
Develop glasscoating technology for flexible or semirigid retortable nonfoil packaging materials to extend shelf life
Develop inpackage additives to prevent oxidation and other forms of product degradation
Demonstrate a parachute retraction system using clustered parachutes that provide a less than 10 feet/second soft landing capability
Utilizing advanced airfoil and parachute designs, demonstrate a gliding personnel parachute with a 20% increase in maximum jump altitude and a 25% increase in glide ratio, compared to the current Army stateoftheart MC-4 parachute
Demonstrate an innovative purification technology that will provide drinking water for troops in the field
Demonstrate a highglide airdrop system that can carry a 2000 to 5000lb payload using an advanced guidance package and a highglide wing
shelfstable solid muscle foods providing Arationlike quality using
Select/incorporate neurotransmitter precursors in ration components/supplements for antistress benefits
Demonstrate a rapidly deployable field kitchen featuring advances in diesel combustion, heat transfer, integral power, and refrigeration that can produce high quality meals quickly and economically
Validate nonthermal preservation techniques used to minimize nutritive losses
Demonstrate interactive packaging technology (e.g., emitters/absorbers) for shelfstable and perishable food production applications
Transition the 2000 to 5000lb payload capacity highglide airdrop
Demonstrate less than 10 G (gravitational force) soft landing airbag system that provides an all weather, rapid rollon/rolloff airdrop capability for future Army
Using novel design techniques, demonstrate a cargo size parachute with a 20% reduction in weight bulk and manufacturing cost (compared to fielded parachutes) while providing equivalent flight performance
Demonstrate a soft land capability that augments personnel parachute performance and will reduce system descent rates to values below 16 feet/second, using "pneumatic muscle" technologies
Target nutrient delivery systems to ensure maximum bioavailability of key nutrients
Demonstrate a totally integrated selfcontained field feeding system based on advances in food, packaging, shelter, and energy technologies
Investigate powered gliding wing airdrop systems
Demonstrate advanced airdrop recovery/stabilization technologies that reduce ground dispersion and personnel/equipment linkup times
Demonstrate advanced airdrop performance simulation technologies, as virtual test proving ground enablers, that reduce test cycle time/cost
5. Linkages to Future Operational Capabilities
The influence of this technology area on TRADOC FOCs is summarized in Table IV13.
Table IV13. Individual Survivability and Sustainability Linkages to Future Operational Capabilities
Integrated and Branch/Functional Unique Future Operational Capabilities
|Individual Survivability||TR 97022
TR 97023 MobilityCombat Dismounted
TR 97027 Navigation
TR 97044 SurvivabilityPersonnel
TR 97045 Camouflage, Concealment, and Deception
TR 97048 Performance Support Systems
Command and Control
TR 97002 Situational Awareness
TR 97003 Mission Planning and Rehearsal
TR 97004 Tactical Operation Center Command Post
TR 97006 Combat Identification
TR 97007 Battlefield Information Passage
TR 97008 Power Projection and Sustaining Base Operations
TR 97009 Communications Transport Systems
TR 97010 Tactical Communications
TR 97011 Information Services
TR 97012 Information Systems
TR 97015 Common Terrain Portrayal
TR 97019 Command and Control Warfare
TR 97020 Information Collection, Dissemination, and Analysis
TR 97022 MobilityCombat Mounted
TR 97023 MobilityCombat Dismounted
TR 97024 Combat Support/Combat Service Support Mobility
TR 97025 Countermobility
TR 97026 Deployability
TR 97027 Navigation
TR 97028 Unmanned Terrain Domination
TR 97029 Sustainment
TR 97030 Sustainment Maintenance
TR 97031 Sustainment Services
TR 97032 Sustainment Logistics Support
TR 97033 Sustainment Transportation
TR 97034 Enemy Prisoner of War/Civilian Internee Operations
TR 97035 Power Source and Accessories
TR 97038 Casualty Care, Patient Treatment, and Area Support
TR 97039 Lines of Communications Maintenance and Repair
TR 97040 Firepower Lethality
TR 97042 Firepower Nonlethal
TR 97043 SurvivabilityMateriel
TR 97044 SurvivabilityPersonnel
TR 97045 Camouflage, Concealment and Deception
TR 97046 Battlefield Obscuration
TR 97048 Performance Support Systems
CSS 97002 Containerization and Packaging
MD 97007 Preventive Medicine
MD 97012 Veterinary Services
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