News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



J. Electron Devices

1. Scope

The Army program in electron devices generates the cutting–edge components essential for a vital advantage over complete dependence on widely available commercial electronics. This technology area capitalizes on basic research in the forefront of science (Chapter NO TAG), and advances it to the exploratory development subsystem level. It includes focused research, development, and design of electronic materials; nanoelectronic devices (including digital, analog, microwave, and optoelectronic sensors and circuits); electronic modules, assemblies, and subsystems; and the required portable power sources. Electron devices technology comprises four major subareas: EO, MMW components, nanoelectronics, and portable power sources.

2. Rationale

Supremacy in electron devices is crucial to supremacy on the digitized battlefield. A superior, versatile, innovative program in electron device S&T is essential to the broad Army vision of (1) decisive force multiplication with a minimum number of platforms and personnel, (2) avoidance of potentially disastrous technological surprise on the battlefield, and (3) complete situational awareness on the battlefield. Power on the battlefield is a cornerstone to battlefield effectiveness. The technology supports the Army’s five modernization objectives, STOs, and ATDs. Requirements of Army systems such as EW, radar, and C4I translate into component requirements, which may include performance, weight, size, radiation hardness, interoperability, cooling, power consumption, maintainability, and survivability. This technology area represents over 40 percent of the procurement cost of many military systems. Military purchases of semiconductor electronics have increased annually. Semiconductor electronics were one of very few areas to experience significant growth. Fielding of weapons systems that meet present requirements, that can be upgraded to meet future requirements, and that have affordable life–cycle costs will demand exploitation of commercial electronics whenever possible, plus development of the special technologies here for Army systems that need unique capabilities.

3. Technology Subareas

a. Electro–Optics

Goals and Timeframes

The objective of the EO subarea is to develop critical EO components such as lasers, focal plane arrays (FPAs), amplifiers, detectors, photonic devices, fiber optics, and low power displays for application in Army tactical and strategic systems.

Near–term goals include support of development of high–resolution, full–color displays for land warrior head–mounted vision systems, realization of multispectral FPAs with adjacent LADAR, fiber–optic distributed sensors, and on–chip, optical interconnects.

Mid–term goals include development of smart multicolor staring FPAs for robust seekers and acquisition sights, integrated optoelectronic staring laser radar (LADAR), nonlinear optical devices for sensor protection and improved phosphors and materials for miniature flat panel displays.

Long–term goals include development of integrated multidomain (LADAR and multispectral FPA) smart sensor elements, miniature hybrid optical image processors, real–time smart vision systems, portable high–power tunable laser sources, and new display technologies. DARPA is currently supporting the Army’s interest in uncooled FPA technology, miniaturized, high–resolution flat–panel displays and optical interconnects. (This support is noted by the symbol [*D] in Table IV–20.)

Major Technical Challenges

Technical challenges include the development of more reliable, higher efficiency, higher frequency, longer wavelength solid–state lasers; optical signal processors; cost–effective modules for information systems and IRFPAs; receive–architecture for optically fed phased–array radar; new low–power flat–panel display.

Specific technical challenges include:

Monolithic integration of optoelectronic devices on silicon.
Design and development of optical interconnects.
Growth of novel thin film materials for uncooled detectors.
High efficiency phosphors.
Photolithography and/or electrical circuitry manufacturing issues for 2,000 lines/inch displays.
Integration of smart functions onto FPAs.
Long–lived UV laser diode operation at room temperature.
Fusion of multispectral images.
Large area multicolor FPAs.
Solid–state tunable direct lasing in the UV.
Development of portable, tunable solid–state IR lasers.
Development of superconducting components and cryogenic antennas.
Redesign of the I2 tube with no undue impact on tube lifetime.
Integration of reflection modulators and FPAs.
Processing of data from LADAR and FPA.

b. Millimeter–Wave Components

Goals and Timeframes

Near–term goals are to insert affordable monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) into low–cost expendable decoys, low–cost moving target indicator (MTI) radar, and smart munition seekers; to develop mature and affordable MMW integrated circuit (IC) technology for next–generation, target acquisition systems and MMW satellite communications.

Mid–term goals are to continue cost reduction and increase the density and functional capabilities of MMIC assemblies and packages, extend microwave power module (MPM) technology to the MMW frequency regime, and provide common, secure, jamproof, affordable wireless communications, and battlefield IFF.

Long–term goals are to achieve unprecedented levels of integration of diverse RF sensors into common apertures to reduce system size and weight by an order of magnitude while meeting military cost, performance, reliability, and radiation hardness requirements. In brief, the overall goal is to own the battlefield electromagnetic spectrum.

Major Technical Challenges

Among the technical challenges in millimeter–wave components are the achievement of high power, high efficiency, large dynamic range, wide bandwidth, flexible manufacturing modeling and simulation, to enable first–pass success of components, modules, and arrays, and process integration necessary for high–yield, low–cost multifunctional solid–state devices and vacuum tubes. All these attributes must be provided at an affordable cost.

c. Nanoelectronics

Goals and Timeframes

Near–term goals include development of scalable manufacturing processes and cluster and lithography tools for flexible fabrication of integrated compound semiconductor devices, advanced process synthesis technology, novel devices for very high throughput digital signal processors, integration of electronic combat and combat–support functions, wide–bandgap semiconductor devices for high–temperature electronics, pulse power electronics, nonvolatile memories, and microscale electromechanical components.

Mid–term goals include development of lithography and fabrication capabilities for low–volume, affordable integrated microwave, digital, and optical processors.

Long–term goals include flexible and affordable fabrication capabilities for concept demonstrations of fully integrated, nanometer feature size, ultra–dense circuits for revolutionary warfighting sensor and information systems capabilities.

Major Technical Challenges

Among the technical challenges are creating new wide–bandgap semiconductor devices for high–temperature electronics and for low–leakage, high–breakdown, highly linear power devices; high–quality, radiation–hardened devices of diverse technologies; mixed–signal operation of nanoelectronics with on–chip millimeter–wave and EO components; very low power circuits, and affordable custom nanoscale semiconductor processing for unique military applications–specific circuits. An overall major challenge is the development of high–performance, low–power electronic systems for a substantial reduction in battery requirements and associated weight and size penalties.

d. Portable Power Sources

Goals and Timeframes

The objectives of this program are to lighten the soldier’s burden, provide critical steady– and pulse–power components, and reduce logistical and disposal costs. This can be done by applying chemistry, energy conversion, electronics, and signature suppression to improve existing power systems and to enable the development of newer, more advanced batteries, fuel cells, capacitors, and electromechanical (including engines and permanent magnet alternators) components and systems.

The general goal is to develop small, lightweight, low–cost, environmentally compatible power sources with high power and energy densities for communications, target acquisition, combat service support applications, miniaturized displays, and microclimate cooling for the Future Soldier System.

Specific near–term goals are:

Next generation, high energy (150–225 watt hour/kilogram (Wh/kg)) primary lithium (Li) batteries for man–portable equipment.
Lighter weight, higher energy density (80 Wh/kg) metal hydride or Li–ion rechargeables.
Improved spin–stable reserve batteries.
Develop low temperature (–30_C electrolyte for Li–ion batteries.
New electrolytes for low–cost electrochemical capacitors.
Man–portable 100 to 300 watt hydrogen–fueled fuel cells for soldier systems .
Man–portable (40 lb/kW), signature suppressed 3,000–W–engine–driven generator set. The engine will have a brake–specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 0.52 and thermal efficiency of 25 percent and will be capable of starting and operating on DF–2/JP–8 fuels.
DARPA sponsored thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power source.

Specific mid–term goals are:

Higher energy density (>350 Wh/kg) Li primary batteries.
Improved energy (>100 Wh/kg) rechargeable batteries.
Low–cost electrochemical capacitors for electric vehicles.
Fuel cell stacks that operate on liquid fuels.
Demonstration/validation of signature–suppressed, electronically controlled, man–portable/man–handleable 0.5–3.0 kW–engine–driven generator sets that provide power on the move, enhance total asset visibility and combat services support (CSS) operations and are compatible with emerging C4I and weapons systems.
Continue demonstration of DARPA sponsored thermovoltaic power source.

Specific long–term goals are:

Rechargeable Li/polymer batteries with energy densities >150 Wh/kg, low cost, and improved safety.
New pouch primary combat battery (250 Wh/kg) in flexible conformal packaging.
Practical silent TPV power sources.
1 to 50 kW transportable fuel cells.
Active batteries with very long shelf life for smart munitions.
Batt/cap devices capable of full charge/discharge in minutes, with energy densities >200 Wh/kg.
Portable 5,000–watt diesel–engine–driven generator set compatible with emerging C4I and weapons systems.
Demonstration of dual–use electromechanical (power generation, transmission, distribution, or utilization) technologies and equipment (0.5–1100 kW) that reduce system size/weight and visual/audible IR signatures, improve system reliability, minimize operation and support costs, and improve the deployability, tactical mobility, and effectiveness of a CONUS–based fighting force.

Major Technical Challenges

Nonflammable, high–conductivity electrolytes, more energetic cathode materials, and lower–cost manufacturing methods for Li batteries, compact hydrogen generators, improved fabrication methods for metal hydride cells, higher voltage and more capacitive electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, improved polymer exchange membranes and electrocatalysts for fuel cells, spectrally matched emitters and photocells for TPV systems, and higher efficiency combustion of and greater reliability/life for man–portable/man–handleable engine driven generator sets.

4. Roadmap of Technology Objectives

The roadmap of technology objectives for Electron Devices is shown in Table IV–20. (The symbol [*D] denotes DARPA supported programs.)

Table IV–20.  Technical Objectives for Electron Devices

Technology Subarea

Near Term FY98–99

Mid Term FY00–04

Far Term FY05–13

Electro–Optics
(Photonic Devices)

Order of magnitude improvement in spatial light modulator (SLM) dynamic range and speed

Vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) array integrated with Si–driver chip for optical interconnects

Photonic and electronic devices integrated on the same chip

Image–forming light modulator in a hybrid (digital–optical) ATR

Free–space reflection modulators & modulator arrays

Integrate loss–less splitter & phase shifter for optically controlled phase array antennas

On–chip, optical interconnects

High–resolution adaptive system for aberration correction

Integrated optoelectronic staring laser radar

Integrated optical module for optical control of microwave phased array antenna

Order of magnitude faster hybrid (digital–optical) image processor with reduced size and power requirements

Matured technology base in the synthesis and characterization of electro–optical materials

Modulation of RF signals with laser diodes

Optoelectronic computing [*D]

Intelligent imaging systems on silicon

Massively parallel architectures

Miniaturized hybrid (digital–optical) general purpose optical image processor

Optoelectronic neural nets

Real–time smart vision systems

Electro–Optics
(Fiber Optic
Technology)
Multiplexed fiber–optic sensor

Integrated semiconductor & polymeric optoelectronic components for fiber optic gyros

Environmentally stable fiber optic dispensers

Manufacturing process for interferometric fiber–optic gyros (IFOG)

Distributed fiber–optic sensor with 10 times as many acoustic channels

Miniature integrated chip components

Highly reliable miniature (3–axis) IFOG

Efficient coupling techniques for miniature components

Fiber–optic strain–sensing techniques

Integrated photonic subsystems

Highly reliable international measurement unit (IMU) on–chip resonant fiber–optic gyro

Demonstration of fiber–optic gyro

Demonstration of small, ultra long–range, fiber–optic datalinks

Electro–Optics
(Smart Multispectral
Detectors and Sources)
Large–area staring long wave infrared (LWIR) detectors

Thin–film uncooled ferroelectric IR detector w/projected noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) <0.01oC [*D]

Image intensification (I2) devices with an improved signal–to–noise ratio and better resolution

Increased power/tunability of IR sources

Two–color FPA demonstration of either mercury, cadmium telluride (MCT) or quantum well infrared photodiode (QWIP) with adjacent breadboard LADAR

Efficient visible wavelength conversion

Nonlinear optical material research for sensor protection

Efficient laser sources in the UV for CB detection

Nonlinear optical devices for sensor protection

Uncooled FPA with NEDT <0.01oC for F/1 system [*D]

Efficient laser source at 3–5 m

Eye–safe micro solid–state lasers

Smart multicolor FPA (QWIP or MCT) demonstration

Multidomain smart sensor demonstration

Metallo–organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) producible smart multicolor FPA with image processing functions

Two–color uncooled camera [*D]

Large, 3–color hyperspectral array for an overhead (space) sensor

Monolithic multifunction, multispectral (including LADAR) smart FPA

Broadband, low–cost, low–loss, IR/ visible, passive sensor protection

Portable, high–power, tunable (UV to far IR (FIR)) laser source for multiple applications

Long–life, UV laser diode operation at room temperature

Electro–Optics
(Smart High–
Resolution Displays)
High–resolution, full–color flat–panel displays for tactical environments

1000 line/inch miniature flat panel displays for helmet–mounted displays (HMDs) or other applications [*D]

Miniature high–resolution displays for telepresence and virtual environment applications [*D]

2000 line/inch miniature flat panel displays for HMDs or other applications [*D]

Reduced power HMDs

Real–time holographic (3D) displays
Electro–Optics
(Millimeter–Wave, IR Sensor Processors)
Prototype superconductor antennas

Integrated IR sensor and processor

Coupled quantum well (QW) research of optoelectronic components

LWIR forward–looking infrared (FLIR) based on MCT, superlattices, and QWIPs

Fusion of multiple wideband sensors

2000 1000 quantum–well staring arrays

Advanced device technology in support of Far lR goggles

2D array of superlattice longwave detectors

Millimeter–Wave
Components
analog monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) devices
Continuous increases in single radar–type function (amplifiers, oscillators, mixers, switches) chips in the 1 to 140 gigahertz (GHz) range

Cost reduction of chips

Microwave/digital ICs

Microwave/optical ICs

Vehicular radar

MMW wireless communications

High–density 3D packaging

High–power vacuum devices

Full integration of MIMICs with digital and optoelectronic devices in the 100 to 200 GHz range
Millimeter–Wave
Components
(High Power and Sub MMW Sources)
Demo Ka–band power amplifier for missile seekers

Broadband subMMW amps for advanced weapon systems

High efficiency MMW power modules

Compact magnet structures for subMMW sources

Extension of sources to terahertz and infrared spectral regions
Millimeter–Wave
Components
(Acoustic–Wave Devices)
Family of ultra–stable low noise frequency sources

High–performance frequency channelizer

Miniature atomic frequency standards

Fully adaptive bandpass/bandstop filters

CB sensors

Vibration–resistant oscillators

Miniaturized filters/resonators

Low cost ID tags

Analog/digital hybrid processors

Nonreciprocal acoustic components

Multicolor IR sensors, accelerometers

Thin–film and other monolithic resonators/acoustic components integrated with MMIC transceivers

Automated microcomputer compensation and laser–aided fabrication error correction

Miniaturized frequency channelizer

Nanoelectronics
(Compound
Semiconductor Manufacturing)
Advancement of MOMBE and metallo–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) single–wafer deposition technology

Development of silicon carbide (SiC) process technology for high temperature electronics and power devices

Ferroelectric film development for nonvolatile memory applications

Development of reliable sources of indium phosphide (InP) wafers

Heteroepitaxial growth of device–quality gallium arsenide (GaAs) on silicon (Si)

Development of wide bandgap SiC devices for high temperature and high power applications

Ferroelectric nonvolatile memories for digital battlefield applications

Development of gallium nitride (GaN) materials and devices

Accelerometers

Nanoelectronics
(Integrated Optics)
Process for growth and characterization of EO polymers

Device functions in EO polymers

Demonstrate limiting and thresholding operations in nonlinear materials

Process for growth and characterization of indium phosphide

Integrated optics device functions in indium phosphide

Selective technology insertion of integrated optics functions based on EO polymers

Technology insertion of selected integrated optics functions

High speed digital (soliton) coupling and logic operation devices

Nanoelectronics
(Micromechanical Actuator–Sensors)
Micromachined structures and materials for miniature sensors and actuators

Micro–acoustic sensors for target detection and CB sensing

Miniature gyroscopes and accelerometers for inertial guidance

Miniature medical instruments for surgery

Monolithically integrated miniature sensor/actuator microsystems

Integrated sensor readout circuits for real–time information output

Embedded microsensors and actuators for automated missile guidance, structural failure prognosis, personal navigation, and medical diagnosis/treatment
Portable Power Sources Low–cost primary Li battery, >150 Wh/kg

Develop low temperature (–30_C) electrolyte for Lithium–ion batteries

Improved energy density metal hydride or Li–ion rechargeable batteries, >80 Wh/kg

High voltage electrolyte for low–cost electrochemical capacitor

Man–portable hydrogen fuel cell stack

Improved reserve batteries for GPS, high–spin munitions

Lightweight, DF–2 fueled, 500 W TPV power source with 8% efficiency

Primary Li batteries with energy densities >300 Wh/kg

Rechargeable batteries with energy densities >100 Wh/kg

Low–cost high–energy electrochemical capacitors for vehicles

Liquid–fueled fuel cell stacks

Investigate validity of TPV technology for battlefield use and demonstrate improved efficiency (15%) using recommended upgrades

Rechargeable batteries with energy densities >250 Wh/kg

New pouch primary battery (250 Wh/kg)

Practical, thermophotovoltaic charger using logistic fuels

Advanced polymer or solid–oxide fuel cell with up to 50 kW power

Batt/cap devices with charge/ discharge in minutes, >200 Wh/kg

Electromechanical Technologies Man–portable, signature suppressed 3000 W (40 lb/kW) engine driven generator set capable of burning JP–8/DF–2 Demonstration and validation (DEM/VAL) signature suppressed, electronically controlled man–portable/man–handleable 500–3,000 W engine driven generator sets Man–portable, signature suppressed, electronically controlled 5,000 W (70 lb/kW) engine driven generator set capable of burning JP–8/DF–2

Dual use electromechanical technologies and equipment (0.5 to 1.1 kW) which will reduce system size/weight and signatures, improve system reliability and tactical mobility, and enhance the effectiveness of CONUS–based forces

5. Linkages to Future Operational Capabilities

The influence of this technology area on TRADOC FOCs is summarized in Table IV–21.

Table IV–21.  Electron Devices Linkages to Future Operational Capabilities

Technology Subarea

Integrated and Branch/Functional Unique Future Operational Capabilities

Electro–Optics (Photonic Devices) TR 97–001 Command and Control
TR 97–006 Combat Identification
TR 97–007 Battlefield Information Passage
TR 97–010 Tactical Communications
TR 97–011 Information Services
TR 97–013 Network Management
TR 97–016 Information Analysis
TR 97–020 Information Collection, Dissemination, and Analysis
TR 97–021 Real–Time Target Acquisition, Identification, and Dissemination
TR 97–027 Navigation
TR 97–045 Camouflage, Concealment, and Deception
TR 97–053 Embedded Training and Soldier–Machine Interface
TR 97–054 Virtual Reality
TR 97–055 Live, Virtual, and Constructive Simulation Technologies
Electro–Optics (Fiber Optic Technology) TR 97–006 Combat Identification
TR 97–010 Tactical Communications
TR 97–017 Information Display
TR 97–021 Real–Time Target Acquisition, Identification, and Dissemination
TR 97–052 Training Aids, Devices, Simulators, and Simulations Fidelity Requirements
TR 97–054 Virtual Reality
Electro–Optics (Smart Multispectral Detectors and Sources) TR 97–001 Command and Control
TR 97–006 Combat Identification
TR 97–007 Battlefield Information Passage
TR 97–010 Tactical Communications
TR 97–021 Real–Time Target Acquisition, Identification, and Dissemination
TR 97–043 Survivability—Materiel
TR 97–044 Survivability—Personnel
TR 97–045 Camouflage, Concealment, and Deception
TR 97–052 Training Aids, Devices, Simulators, and Simulations Fidelity Requirements
TR 97–057 Modeling and Simulation
Electro–Optics (Smart High Resolution Displays) TR 97–006 Combat Identification
TR 97–007 Battlefield Information Passage
TR 97–016 Information Analysis
TR 97–017 Information Display
TR 97–021 Real–Time Target Acquisition, Identification, and Dissemination
TR 97–054 Virtual Reality
TR 97–055 Live, Virtual, and Constructive Simulation Technologies
TR 97–056 Synthetic Environment
TR 97–057 Modeling and Simulation
Electro–Optics (Millimeter Wave, IR Sensor Processors) TR 97–019 Command and Control Warfare
TR 97–021 Real–Time Target Acquisition, Identification, and Dissemination
TR 97–045 Camouflage, Concealment, and Deception
TR 97–053 Embedded Training and Soldier–Machine Interface
TR 97–054 Virtual Reality
TR 97–057 Modeling and Simulation
Millimeter–Wave Components (Analog MIMIC Devices) TR 97–001 Command and Control
TR 97–006 Combat Identification
TR 97–010 Tactical Communications
TR 97–011 Information Services
TR 97–013 Network Management
TR 97–017 Information Display
TR 97–019 Command and Control Warfare
TR 97–020 Information Collection, Dissemination, and Analysis
TR 97–021 Real–Time Target Acquisition, Identification, and Dissemination
TR 97–045 Camouflage, Concealment, and Deception
TR 97–057 Modeling and Simulation
Millimeter–Wave Components (High Power Terahertz Sources) TR 97–006 Combat Identification
TR 97–021 Real–Time Target Acquisition, Identification, and Dissemination
TR 97–035 Power Source and Accessories
TR 97–045 Camouflage, Concealment, and Deception
TR 97–057 Modeling and Simulation
Millimeter–Wave Components (Acoustic Wave Devices) TR 97–006 Combat Identification
TR 97–021 Real–Time Target Acquisition, Identification, and Dissemination
TR 97–045 Camouflage, Concealment, and Deception
TR 97–057 Modeling and Simulation
Nanoelectronics (Compound Semiconductor Manufacturing) TR 97–006 Combat Identification
TR 97–010 Tactical Communications
TR 97–011 Information Services
TR 97–017 Information Display
TR 97–019 Command and Control Warfare
TR 97–021 Real–Time Target Acquisition, Identification, and Dissemination
TR 97–035 Power Source and Accessories
TR 97–057 Modeling and Simulation
Nanoelectronics (Integrated Optics) TR 97–006 Combat Identification
TR 97–017 Information Display
TR 97–021 Real–Time Target Acquisition, Identification, and Dissemination
TR 97–045 Camouflage, Concealment, and Deception
TR 97–052 Training Aids, Devices, Simulators, and Simulations Fidelity Requirements
TR 97–057 Modeling and Simulation
Nanoelectronics (Micromechanical Actuator–Sensors) TR 97–006 Combat Identification
TR 97–017 Information Display
TR 97–021 Real–Time Target Acquisition, Identification, and Dissemination
TR 97–045 Camouflage, Concealment, and Deception
TR 97–052 Training Aids, Devices, Simulators, and Simulations Fidelity Requirements
TR 97–057 Modeling and Simulation
Portable Power Sources TR 97–001 Command and Control
TR 97–004 Tactical Operation Center Command Post
TR 97–007 Battlefield Information Passage
TR 97–010 Tactical Communications
TR 97–019 Command and Control Warfare
TR 97–020 Information Collection, Dissemination, and Analysis
TR 97–021 Real–Time Target Acquisition, Identification, and Dissemination
TR 97–028 Unmanned Terrain Domination
TR 97–035 Power Source and Accessories
TR 97–036 Nonprimary Power Sources Combat Vehicles/Support Systems
TR 97–038 Casualty Care, Patient Treatment, and Area Support
TR 97–052 Training Aids, Devices, Simulators, and Simulations Fidelity Requirements
MD 97–001 Patient Evacuation
MD 97–004 Combat Heath Support in a Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Environment
Electromechanical Technologies TR 97–010 Tactical Communications
TR 97–019 Command and Control Warfare
TR 97–021 Real–Time Target Acquisition, Identification, and Dissemination
TR 97–035 Power Source and Accessories
TR 97–036 Nonprimary Power Sources Combat Vehicles/Support Systems
TR 97–045 Camouflage, Concealment, and Deception
TR 97–052 Training Aids, Devices, Simulators, and Simulations Fidelity Requirements

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