News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



B. INITIATIVES

The Army’s basic research program takes advantage of numerous Army and DoD initiatives. These initiatives not only help to support and orient funding for specific research areas, such as COEs, university research centers, and historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and minority institutions (MIs), but they also provide guidance for future Army needs such as the AAN and SROs. Those initiatives having the greatest impact on research programs are described in this section.

1. Centers of Excellence

COEs continue to be an integral part of the Army’s research investment strategy, along with single investigator programs and Army laboratory research. Centers have proven to be effective in many application–oriented projects in areas such as rotary wing technology and electronics. Interdisciplinary research requires the joint efforts of many scientists and engineers and also often requires the use of expensive research instrumentation that is difficult for a single investigator to acquire. Center programs often couple the state–of–the–art research programs with broad–based graduate education programs to increase the supply of scientists and engineers in areas of Army importance.

The scientific research undertaken at each COE (and URI center, see below) is dynamic and continuously reviewed, using various inputs for assessing the quality of the programs. These inputs include reviews by executive advisory boards that represent high–level management of industrial and military organizations and by technical advisory councils that represent technical personnel from multiservice organizations. Table V–2 illustrates the composition of a typical management and technical panel—in this case the Center for Intelligent Resin Transfer Molding for Integral Armor Applications.

Army COEs are active in the research areas summarized in Table V–3. This table identifies each COE research program, provides a list of participating universities, summarizes the scope of each program, and highlights future plans. Some of these centers have had significant collaborative participation by HBCUs and MIs, a trend that the Army will be encouraging for future COEs. In addition, industry will be encouraged to participate more in future Army COEs to leverage and synergize the investment in these collaborative efforts. Table V–3 notes COEs funded directly by the Army and also those managed by the Army but funded by DoD.

Table V–2.  An Example of the Composition of an Executive Advisory Board
and Technical Advisory Council for a Center of Excellence
(here, the Center for Intelligent Resin Transfer Molding for Integral Armor Applications)

Executive Advisory Board

Technical Advisory Council

Chairperson, Director, ARL Materials Directorate

ARO, Director, Materials Science Division

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley, Director, Vehicle Structures Directorate

MICOM, Technical Director

Tank–Automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM), Technical Director

Soldier Systems Command, Chief of Staff

Chairperson, ARO, Materials Science Division

ARL, ST, Materials Directorate

ARL, Scientist, Weapons Technology Directorate

University of Delaware, Scientist, Composites Manufacturing Science Laboratory

Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center (ERDEC), Scientist

Tank–Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC), Chief, Manufacturing Technology Branch

McDonnell Douglas Missile Systems, Senior Group Manager—Composites

Lockheed Martin, Manager, Advanced Programs

United Defense Ground Systems, Manager Composite Structures

 

Table V–3.  Army Centers of Excellence

Research Areas/
Participating Universities

Scope

Future Plans

Army Funded

Scientific Foundations of Image Analysis

Washington University

Mathematical and algorithmic foundations of image science

Fundamental performance limits on ATR systems

Detection and recognition bounds

Hibert Schmidt orientation bound

Orientation bounds for fused data

Science, Engineering, and Mathematics (SEM) Education*

Contra Costa College

Coordinated program to increase number of underrepresented graduates in SEM

Prescribed, sequential coursework

Mentoring and study groups

Internships and summer programs

Includes tuition and stipend

Outreach programs

Enroll 250 students over a 5–year period in science/mathematic programs

Provide solid foundation in science and mathematics

Facilitate transfer to institutions awarding higher degrees

Encourage careers in SEM

Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells*

Illinois Institute of Technology Consortium

Electrochemistry

Advanced material synthesis

Manufacturing capability

Lithium/metal oxide batteries

Nickel hydride batteries

Direct oxidation methanol fuel cells

Automotive

University of Michigan

Advanced ground vehicle simulation

Vehicle dynamics and structures

Advanced propulsion systems

Human–hardware interface

Vehicle system optimization

Military vehicle technology assessments

Cost/performance tradeoff methodology

Microelectronics

University of Maryland, College Park

Nanoelectronics and optoelectronics

CB detection

Wide–bandgap electronics

Integrated terahertz devices

Uncooled infrared (IR) sensors

Optical interconnects

Individual biodetectors

High–speed signal processing

Johns Hopkins University Piezoelectronics and electrochemistry

Manufacturing science

Microelectromechanics (MEM)

High–resolution display technology

Microsensors

New battery concepts

New fuel cell concepts

University of Virginia Integrated terahertz devices

Quasi–optical electronics

High–speed signal processing

Millimeter–wave (MMW) electronics

Howard University Wide–bandgap electronics High–temperature/high–power electronics

Electromagnetic environment (EME) protection devices

Materials

Johns Hopkins University

Advanced materials characterization

Nondestructive materials evaluation

Functional metal matrix composites

Hydrogen interaction with materials

Joining of advanced materials

Nonintrusive process monitoring

Nanomaterials characterization

University of Delaware Integrated composite armor materials

Fiber resin interphase control

Composite joining/adhesive bonding

High strain rate behavior and impact damage mitigation in composites

Smart composite materials processing

Michigan Molecular Institute Dendritic polymer materials

Synthetic nanoscopic materials

Synthesis, characterization, and assessment

Dendritic polymer scale up and engineering properties database

Fiber coatings

Conducting polymers

Nanocomposites

High Performance Computing Research

University of Minnesota

Efficient algorithms

Large–scale scientific computing

Efficient utilization of high–performance architectures

Parallel algorithms for novel architectures

Large–scale scientific computing

High–performance computing

Adaptive gridding

Mesh moving

Multidisciplinary modeling

Computational environment development

Rotorcraft

Georgia Institute of Technology

Efficient low–noise rotors

Affordability

Low–vibration dynamic systems

Smart and composite structures

Day/night adverse weather capability

Integrated flight controls

Near–wake definition, aeroacoustics

Slotted and circulation control rotors

Aeroelastic and stability analysis; carefree flight control

Finite element analysis of composite rotors

Strength and life of damaged composites

Wake–lifting surface interaction; dynamic inflow

Robust and adaptive flight controls

University of Maryland Low–vibration dynamic systems

Smart and composite structures

Day/night adverse weather

Highly reliable, safe operations

Elastomeric dampers and bearings

Vibration reduction and stability augmentation

Concurrent design of composite rotors

Low–noise fuselage panels for cabins

Wireless rotor control, sensing and anti–icing

Pennsylvania State University Efficient low–noise rotors

Low–vibration dynamic systems

Advanced drive trains

Smart and composite structures

Highly reliable, safe operations

Active control of noise, aeroacoustics

Active/passive control of damping

Vibration and loads; computational fluid dynamics

Repair composite structures; active control systems

Reconfigurable flight control systems

Information Sciences

Clark Atlanta*

Distributed databases

Probabilistic modeling

Multimedia software

Software reusability

Computer optimization

Heterogeneous databases

Models for software

Interactive data analysis

Hypervelocity Physics and Electrodynamics Research

Institute for Advanced Technology, University of Texas at Austin

Fundamental understanding of hypervelocity (HV) launch, flight, impact and lethality

Rail/armature and launch effect electrodynamics

Fundamentals of pulse power for electric armaments

Supporting educational and assessment activities

Validate superior performance of HV projectiles

Armatures and rail materials for robust, efficient launchers

Support to pulsed alternator development, alternative pulse power approaches

DoD Funded

Advanced Distributed Simulation

Grambling State University Consortium*

Parallel and distributed computing

Heterogeneous multimedia database

Interactive graphics and visualization

Advanced distributed simulation

Student training and education program

Enhance research infrastructure

Man–machine interface

Intelligent Resin Transfer Molding for Integral Armor Applications

Tuskegee University* Consortium

Intelligent resin transfer molding for integral armor applications

Resin transfer molding (RTM) process/manufacturing, sensing and control

New developments process modeling/
phenolic resins

Bonding, repair, and ballistic performance

Smart weave and sensors in RTM

Virtual manufacturing of RTM process

Materials and process issues for integral armor

Performance modeling, simulations, and testing

Science, Engineering and Mathematics (SEM) Education

Morehouse College*

Unifies multiple departments to enhance programs and increase underrepresented graduates in SEM

Summer study, field trips

Mentoring/research programs

Scholarship and outreach programs

Enhance quality of science and mathematics instruction in secondary schools

Increase majors in SEM

Increase number of graduate students in SEM

Encourage careers in SEM

*Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions Centers

 

2. DoD University Research Initiatives

The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) continues to support a portfolio of programs characterized as URI. All DoD services share the funds for this portfolio, nominating and investing in subject areas and activities best correlated with their research and technology needs.

A series of 5–year block grant URI programs, most funded at about $400,000 per year, concluded in FY96. Over 30 university groups performed research for the Army on topics in biology, advanced propulsion, materials, high–frequency microelectronics, electro–optics, nanotechnology, energy, manufacturing science, environmental sciences, and intelligent control systems.

During each year since FY94, several new 5–year multidisciplinary university research initiatives (MURIs) programs have been started, most funded at about $1 million per year. The MURIs typically engage two or more science/engineering departments within a university (sometimes with other academic or industrial partners). Achievements not attainable through work in a single specialty are sought. For example, new levels of intelligence in control of rotor blades requires the collaborative expertise of investigators in mathematics and computer science as well as in the fields of aerodynamics and aerostructures. For another example, successful experiments with extremely small turbine engines require the collaborative expertise of investigators in propulsion as well as in manufacturing science, and perhaps other fields. Table V–4 lists the Army MURI centers, the scope of their research programs, and future plans.

In addition to the above, the URI program supports two graduate science and engineering education programs: the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship Program and the Augmentation Awards for Science and Engineering Research Training Program. These programs make up the bulk of the ongoing URI program. Other URI activities supported in FY97 included the Defense Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research, the Infrastructure Support Program for HBCUs and MIs, the Defense University Research Instrumentation Program, the Focused Research Initiative, and a Young Investigator Program.

In addition to the technical programs and resulting accomplishments of the URI and COE efforts, another major output from these Army–funded academic programs is the support and graduation of technical students—many of whom go on to work in Army laboratories or allied industries.

Table V–4.  Army Multidisciplined University Research Initiative Centers

Research Areas/
Participating Universities

Scope

Future Plans

Terminating in FY1999

Micro Gas Turbine Generators

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Develop high power, high energy density power sources

Develop high aspect ratio fabrication of silicon carbide (SiC)

Very small, high speed electrostatic generators

Very high speed bearing systems

Very compact turbo compressors

Compact recuperator systems

Microcombustors for hydrocarbons

Smart Composite Structures

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Develop advanced technologies for the control of electromechanical systems

Investigate solid–state actuator and sensor technologies and structural control for critical rotorcraft applications

Active materials technology

Active composites mechanics and manufacture

Distributed control technology

Applications testbed program

Mesoscale Patterning For Smart Material Systems

Princeton University with Harvard University and Drexel University

Mesoscale (1 nanometer (nm)–1 millimeter (mm)) patterning

Laser stereolithography

Self–assembled monolayers and templates

Microcontact printing of ferroelectric ceramics

3D coassembly of composites

Mechanical characterization of patterned structures

High–Performance Fuel Cells

University of Minnesota

Improved anode electrocatalysts for direct oxidation of methanol

Improved membranes with low methanol permeability

Develop a model for small fuel cells

Develop lower cost materials with sufficient lifetimes for military applications

Develop methodology to functionally tether homogeneous catalysts to electrode structures

Develop catalysts for direct oxidation of alkanes

Innovative Mesoscale Actuator Devices for Use in Rotorcraft Systems

University of California, Los Angeles

Integration of ferroelectric actuator and silicon (Si)–based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) processing technologies

Model and understand ferroelectric actuator behavior

Investigate active control of dynamic stall and vibration reduction in rotorcrafts

Determine mechanical/tribological properties of MEMS structures

Investigate high field, pulse mode operation of batteries

Simulation of unsteady aeroelastic behavior of rotorblades

MEMS–Based Smart Gas Turbine Engines

Case Western University

MEMS sensor/actuator arrays

SiC–based MEMS structures

Feedback control

Pressure, heat flux and ice detection sensors

Flow control microvalves

Computer–aided design (CAD)–based design

High temperature sensors/actuators

Distributed control

Thermophotovoltaic Electric Generator

University of Western Washington

Develop robust IR emitters

Improve power density of photovoltaic cells

Develop filter technology required for improved efficiency

Develop high flux tailored spectrum emitters

Improve long wavelength response of gallium antimonide (GaSb) photocells

Improve burner technology for logistics

Terminating in FY2000

Functionally Tailored Fibers and Fabrics Research

North Carolina State University with Akron University and Drexel University

Functionally tailored textiles and fabrics

Advanced fibers and polymers

Multifunctional and smart materials

Textile and textile–based composite manufacturing

Electrospinning of high performance fibers

Clothing for comfort and battlefield threat protection

Smart materials for camouflage, signature suppression, and soldier recognition

Flexible and rigid armor composite materials design

Algorithmics of Motion

University of Pennsylvania and Stanford University

Motion acquisition using computer vision

Motion generation with planning algorithms

Motion execution using control techniques

Automatic target recognition

Reconnaissance and surveillance

Navigation and mission planning

Demining and data acquisition

Applicable and Robust
Geometrical Computing

Brown University,
Johns Hopkins University, and Duke University

Geometric computing

Development of robust algorithms

Input/output (I/O) memory management

Terrain modeling

CAD/computer–aided modeling (CAM)

Geometric libraries and visualization software

Low Power, Low Noise
Electronics

University of Michigan with University of Colorado,
Boulder

University of California, Los Angeles with University of California, San Diego

Communications radio frequency (RF) components

Radar RF components

Comprehensive low power design

Power amplifier circuit interfaced with modulation/signal processing algorithms

High functionality/low power devices

High functionality/efficient antennas

Intelligent Turbine Engines

Georgia Institute of Technology

Active control of gas turbines

Sensors/actuators

Control architecture

Combustor/compressor control

MEMS sensors/actuators

Dynamic engine models

Nonlinear controllers

Terminating in FY2001

Active Control of Rotorcraft Vibration

University of Maryland

Exterior (rotor) noise and vibration control

Interior noise control

Transmission noise and vibration control

Mach–scaled rotor tests

Comprehensive acoustic and vibration analysis techniques

Innovative noise and vibration control concepts

Damage Tolerant Lightweight Armor Materials

Purdue University

University of Dayton Research Institute

University of California,
San Diego

Novel materials and structures design concepts

Processing, fabrication, and testing of materials

Advanced analytical methods

Layered, oriented, and gradient materials systems

Dynamic viscoplasticity models for anisotropic materials

Solution of inverse problems

Low Energy Electronics for Mobile Platforms

University of Michigan

Top–down design methodology

Optimization of all systems design levels

Software implementation

Minimum energy information exchange

Integrated platform system design

Adaptive and minimum energy processing

High performance devices and components

Photonic Band Engineering

University of California, Los Angeles

Improved microwave/MMW devices

Efficient microlasers and smart pixels

Low observables and identification friend or foe (IFF)

Photonic crystals for electromagnetics

Demonstrate low threshold lasing

Nonlinear image processing

Integrated Approach to Intelligent Systems

University of California, Berkeley

Design of hierarchical control architectures for multiagent systems

Perceptual systems

Framework for representing and reasoning with uncertainty

Soft computing approaches to intelligence augmentation

Intelligence augmentation for human centered systems

Fully autonomous systems

Battle management

Demining

Duke University

University of Missouri, Rolla

Northeastern University

Mine, ordnance, and explosive detection, identification, and location

Sensor and information fusion

Neutralization

Mine detection and location under realistic weather and environmental conditions

Enhancement of detection probability

Minimization of false alarm rate

Rapid, Affordable Generation of Terrain and Detailed Urban Feature Data

Purdue University

Advanced photogrammetric and image understanding research

Image understanding research for terrain analysis

Mathematical modeling for multisensor registration

Automated extraction of remote sensing cues

Automated feature recognition

Unsupervised classification for hyperspectral imagery

Predictive Capabilities Based on Performance Metrics for Automatic Target Recognition for Military Applications

Brown University

Quantitative understanding of ATR capabilities and limitations

Metrics for structured clutter

Metrics for scene complexity

Analytical frameworks for classifying images

Algorithm–independent bounds on ATR performance

Metrics to predict and measure the performance of ATR implementation

Biomimetics and Biomimetic Processing

University of California, Santa Barbara

Biomimetic processing

Mineralization in organic substrates

Control of hierarchical structures

New EO devices

Chemical detectors

Structural materials

New multifunctional and smart materials

Terminating in FY2002

Clustered Engineered
Materials

Northwestern University

Laser ablation/molecular beam cluster growth

Nanosphere liftoff nanopatterning

Self–assembled nanoclusters

Biological agent detection

Photocatalysis for decontamination

Efficient frequency conversion

Quasi–Optic Power
Combining

Clemson University

California Institute of Technology

Spatial and quasi–optical power combining

Hybrid power combining

Array phase control

Device/electromagnetic (EM) field interaction

Economical sources and arrays of MMW power

Reduced size, weight, phase noise

Enhanced reliability, durability

Enhanced array functionality beam steering, modulation/demodulation, nonlinear function

Reciprocal arrays, transmit and receive through common aperture

Design and Control of Smart Structures

Harvard University with Boston University and the University of Maryland

Modeling and experiments with MEMS for flow control over airfoils

Mathematical framework for modeling and controlling fluid motion

Parallel array microvalves for flow control

Ferrofluidic micropumps for drug delivery

MEM devices for flat panel displays

Controlled deformable mirrors and antennas

Dendritic Polymers

University of Illinois

Property discovery using combinatorial libraries

Computational modeling to guide synthesis and properties

Surface engineering and adhesion studies

Synthesis and scale–up of polymeric materials

Responsive protective coatings and sensor coatings

Catalysts for chemical agent destruction

Volatile organic compound (VOC) free coatings

Super–tough, processable elastomers

Lubricants for solids and liquids

Terminating in FY2003

Defect Engineered Nanostructures

Princeton University

Investigate fundamental issues

Microscopically characterize structures

Elucidate influence of defects on performance

Integration and mass production of quantum–based devices

Reduce size and power consumption

Olfactory Sensing

California Institute of Technology with Harvard University and Yale University

Characterize molecular events

Model olfactory physiology

Molecular recognition

Insight regarding olfactory processes

Enable biomimetic approach

Design and produce engineering systems

Adaptive Optoelectronic Eye

University of Southern California

University of Michigan

Manmade sensors that adapt and interact similar to animal vision

Smart and adaptive emulation of biological eye

Determine functionality of biological vision

Merge microelectronics, microoptic, and micromechanical devices

Scheme for detecting, processing, and transmitting near–perfect optical images

Microthermal Engines

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Georgia Institute of Technology

Understand and produce millimeter–sized devices to re–engineer traditional heat engines at mesoscale level

Investigate new refractory ceramic micromachining

Develop new bonding and micromolding

Power generation or cooling

Replace batteries for individual soldier

Digital Communication Devices Based on Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos

University of California, San Diego

Generate digital signals by an integral nonlinear element, not a circuit or an integrated circuit (IC)

Investigate simple microelectronic devices for control

Implement mobile wireless communication

Secure digital transmissions with small, lightweight, low–power equipment

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