News 1998 Army Science and Technology Master Plan



D. SUMMARY

The Army basic research program is an integrated in–house and extramural research program. The in–house laboratory programs are driven by mission needs; the extramural program is chartered to provide a balance between long–term extramural research foci–pursued through Army–funded academic COEs and industry–led federated laboratories—and unanticipated, more forward–looking research windows of scientific opportunity—pursued through the single investigator program. ARO and the management at the Army’s laboratories and RD&E organizations deliberate and coordinate in partnership to establish, implement, and meet overall Army research objectives. Despite receiving only a small portion of DoD’s basic research budget, the Army derives the maximum return on investment from its research program through its high degree of integration. Table V–7 summarizes how the scientific research areas described in this chapter support the six SROs defined to date; Table V–8 depicts how these scientific research areas support the ten technology areas described in Chapter IV.

The research areas described in the preceding sections of this chapter are dynamic and continuously updated. Programs are reviewed by multiservice organizations, by Army battle laboratory personnel, by peer reviews, and by coordinating groups established for each of the scientific areas. To illustrate the dynamic nature of the scientific areas, Table V–9 summarizes how certain research areas are receiving new or increasing emphasis and highlights recent accomplishments.

Much of the research supported by the U.S. Army is undertaken by distinguished scientists and engineers at American colleges and universities, as detailed in previous sections of this chapter. Not only does the Army benefit from the accomplishments of these people but they themselves receive honors bestowed on them by their peers. Table V–10 summarizes some of the awards received during the past year by the individuals shown for their research sponsored by the U.S. Army.

The Army’s science base is an essential foundation for the technology on which the Army’s ability to meet future threats depends. Research for the Army is performed by a blend of university and in–house components that are uniquely suited to the Army’s special requirements. Because of the fundamental role of the science base in shaping the Army’s technological future, the Army is committed to strongly support basic research.

Table V–7.  Where Scientific Research Areas Support
Strategic Research Objectives

Scientific Research Area

Strategic Research Objectives

  Biomimetics Nanoscience Smart Materials Mobile Wireless Communications Intelligent Systems Compact Power Sources

1.Mathematical Sciences

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2. Computer and Information Sciences

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3. Physics

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4. Chemistry

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5. Materials Sciences

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6. Electronics Research

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7. Mechanical Sciences

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8.Atmospheric Sciences

     

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9. Terrestrial Sciences

       

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10. Medical Research

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11. Biological Sciences

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12. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Neural Sciences

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Table V–8.  Impact of Basic Research Areas on the Chapter IV Technology Areas

Chapter IV (6.2) Technology Area

Chapter V (6.1) Research Areas

  Mathematical Sciences Computer and
Information Sciences
Physics Chemistry Materials Science Electronics Research Mechanical Sciences Atmospheric Sciences Terrestrial Sciences Medical Research Biological Sciences Behavioral, Cognitive, and Neural Science
Aerospace Propulsion and Power      

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Air Vehicles  

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Chemical and Biological Defense  

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Individual Survivability and Sustainability

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Command, Control, and Communications

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Computing and Software

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Conventional Weapons    

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Electronic Devices    

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Electronic Warfare/Directed Energy Weapons    

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Civil Engineering and Environmental Quality      

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Battlespace Environments          

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Human Systems Interfaces  

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Personnel, Performance, and Training  

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Materials, Processes, and Structures  

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Medical and Biomedical Science and Technology      

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Sensors  

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Ground Vehicles      

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Manufacturing Science and Technology

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Modeling and Simulation

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Table V–9.  Illustrations of the Dynamic Nature of Research Programs

Research Areas

New Emphasis

Increasing Emphasis

Accomplishments

Mathematics and Computer Science Mathematics of biological/
natural systems
Hybrid systems

Image analysis

Numerical methods for stocastic differential equations

Graph partitioner 10 times faster than state–of–the–art spectral methods

Geometric modeling, dynamic display, and fast rendering techniques

Controllers for dynamic simulations of human/soldier systems

Physics Image analysis

Quantum computing

Nanotechnology

Conduction via single quantum eigenstates in coulomb–blockaded quantum dots

Performance bounds for ATR

Elimination of optical self–focusing by population trapping

3D wire mesh photonic crystals

Chemistry Dendritic macromolecules

Microturbines and thermophotovoltaics

Diffusion and permeability in polymers

Chemical process modeling

Direct oxidation fuel cells

CB detection

Environmentally friendly solvent/chemical agent resistant elastomers

Mechanisms of carbon hydrogen bond oxidation in homogeneous catalysis

High aspect ratio etching of microturbine wheels

Enhanced chemical agent reactivity of layered nanoscale metal oxides

Complete hydrodechlorination of 1, 1, 1 trichloroethane and reduction of half mustard

Materials Science Electroluminescent porous silicon

Molecular–based nanostructures

Dendrimer polymers (modeling/simulation)

High performance fibers

Nonequilibrium processing

Biomimetic processing

In situ liquid crystal polymer (LCP)/thermoplastic microcomposites

Flux–trapped superconducting magnets

Diffusion–enhanced adhesion

Modulated diamond–like carbon films

High strength, tough microlayered polymer composites

Electronics Demining

Low energy electronics design for mobile platforms

Optical control of array antennas

Image analysis and terahertz electronics

Low power electronics with RF emphasis

Multicarrier direct sequence code division multiaccess with lower bit error rate

First principles simulation using full band Monte Carlo

Field–controlled piezo–tuning of microdevices

Mechanics Aerothermophysics for theater missile defense (TMD) missiles

Sensing, actuation, control for advanced engines

Real–time simulation of multibody dynamics

Novel structural damping concepts

Reliability of structures/
materials

Advanced active control—rotorcraft vibration and aeroacoustic coupling

High pressure hydrocarbon combustion

Composites in high strain rates

Damage mechanics

Fast Floquet theory for computational determination of a helicopter’s stability in forward flight

First planar laser–induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of shock–initiated combustion in supersonic gas mixtures

Extension of shear band studies into 2D velocity and rate of energy dissipation in moving adiabatic shear bands

First detailed mean and turbulence measurements in supersonic base flows with base bleed

Atmospheric and Terrestrial Sciences Terrain analysis and visualization

Landscape process dynamics

Stable boundary layer

Acoustic signal variability in turbulent atmosphere

Terrain–vehicle interaction

Ice adhesion and mechanics (macroscale)

Theory for turbulent scattering of acoustic waves in intermittent turbulence

Theory of dynamic drag law for high–resolution atmospheric boundary condition

Development of CB aerosol detector

First generation, mathematically rigorous contact mechanics model for soil tire interaction

Prototype cone penetrometer system for in–situ measurements of hydraulic conductivity

Medical Receptor–targeted drugs and antibodies

Oxygen free radical scavengers

Malaria Genone Project

Genetic engineering

Microencapsulation of vaccines and drugs

Performance–enhancing nutrients

Oral treatment (arteether) for drug–resistant malaria

Topical treatment (paramomycin) for cutaneous leishmaniasis

Diagnostic skin test for leishmaniasis

Biological Sciences Plant biotechnology

Response and adaptation to environmental signals

Enzymatic functions at extreme temperatures

Biodegradative microbiology

Biodetection

Nanoscale biomechanics

Biocatalysis

New detection signature for pathogenic bacteria

Isolation of genes required for establishing and maintaining hibernation

Crystal structures of gene repressor and its complexes

Incorporation of nonnatural amino acids into artificial proteins

Behavioral, Cognitive, and Neural Sciences Perceptual processes

Attention fixation

Night vision

Long term skill retention

Multimodal interfaces

Depth perception cue isolation and enhancement

Determined role of commitment to performance

 

Table V–10.  Some of the Awards Received During the Past Year by Scientists and Engineers
for Research Sponsored by the U.S. Army

Individual

Affiliation

Award Received

Acton, Prof. S. T. Oklahoma State University Eta Kappa Nu Young Electrical Engineer Award
Aggarwal, Prof. J. Washington University IEEE Computer Society Technical Achievement Award
Bajcsy, Prof. R. University of Pennsylvania National Academy of Engineering
Bancroft, COL W. H. U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command AMSUS Gorgas Medal
Bierman, Prof. P. University of Vermont Geological Society of America Donath Medal
Burke, COL D. S. Walter Reed Army Institute of Research President, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Chlamtac, Prof. I. University of Texas Assoc of Computing Machinery Fellow
Chopra, Prof. I. University of Maryland American Helicopter Society Fellow
Chu, Prof. B. State University of New York, Stony Brook Society of Polymer Science Award, Japan
Cover, Prof. T. M. Stanford University IEEE Richard W. Hamming Medal for 1997
Curl, Prof. R. Rice University Nobel Prize in Chemistry (shared)
Cushman, Prof. J. H. Purdue University American Geophysical Union Fellow
Dunn, Prof. B. University of California, Los Angeles Allied Sponsored Research Award; Fellow, American Ceramics Society
Fiedler, Prof. F. University of Washington Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Fields, Prof. L. City University of New York Fellow, American Psychological Association
Fridovich, Prof. I. Duke University Franklin Institute Elliot Cresson Medal
Friedman, Prof. P. University of California, Los Angeles 1996 AIAA Structures Structural Dynamics and Materials Award
Gessow, Prof. A. University of Maryland American Helicopter Society Lifetime Accomplishment Award
Grenander, Prof. U. Brown University National Academy of Science
Hall, Prof. H. University of Arizona American Chemical Society Cooperative Research Award in Polymer Science and Engineering
Happer, Prof. W. Princeton University American Physical Society H.P. Broida Prize
Ho, Prof. C. M. University of California, Los Angeles National Academy of Engineering
Honig, Prof. M. Northwestern University IEEE Fellow
Kolb, Dr. C. E. Aerodyne Research Inc. 1997 American Chemical Society Award for Creative Advances in Environmental Science and Technology
Lakshminaryana, Prof. B. Pennsylvania State University ASME 1996 Fluid Dynamics Award
McIntosh, Prof. R. E. University of Massachusetts National Academy of Engineering
MacKnight, Prof. W. University of Massachusetts 1997 American Chemical Society Polymer Research Award
Montgomery, Prof. W. W. Western Michigan University Geological Society of America Award for Outstanding Student Research
Pandolf, Dr. K. U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine President–Elect, International Society for Adaptive Medicine
Perepezko, Prof. J. University of Wisconsin Minerals, Metals and Materials Society Bruce Chalmers Award
Pope, Prof. G. University of Texas, Austin Society of Petroleum Engineers Distinguished Achievement Award
Popovic, Prof. University of Colorado, Boulder International Union of Radio Science Koga Award
Rebeiz, Prof G. University of Michigan IEEE Fellow
Rogers, Prof. C. Virginia Polytechnic Institute ASME Fellow
Russell, Prof. T. University of Colorado, Denver Campus Researcher of the Year Award for 1996
Rutledge, Prof. D. California Institute of Technology 1997 IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society Distinguished Educator Award
Schmaljohn, Dr. C. S. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases Dalyrmple–Young Award, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Segal, Prof. D. University of Maryland Presidential appointee to the Board of Visitors, United States Military Academy (USMA)
Sirignano, Prof. W. Univ of California, Irvine Combustion Institute Egarton Gold Medal
Smalley, Prof. R. Rice University Nobel Prize in Chemistry (shared)
Smith, Prof. J. A. Princeton University University Engineering Council Teaching Award for 1996
Tsvankin, Prof. I. Colorado School of Mines Society of Exploration Geophysicists Virgil Kaufman Gold Medal

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