4. HardwareintheLoop Simulation
Hardwareintheloop simulations test types of systems using real hardware and computer simulations, providing a significant return on investment for the Army.
One example of hardwareintheloop simulation is ARDECs Ware Simulation Center located at Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois (Figure VI19). This simulator provides a realistic emulation of the field environment that an armament system will encounter. The facility can test weapons using up to 30mm live or 40mm inert ammunition. In addition, the facilitys 6DOF simulator is a large mount capable of holding weapons, gun turrets, and vehicle sections weighing up to 10,000 pounds. Programmed vibrations as well as pitch and yaw motions may be applied to the attached loads while the weapons are test fired in the indoor range.
The AMCOM openloop tracking complex (OLTC), a computerautomated electrooptical countermeasure (EOCM) simulation facility, provides electronic warfare analysts the tools for evaluating the performance and effectiveness of EO air defense missile systems and guidance assembly hardware in the presence of countermeasures.
CECOM has implemented the Army Interoperability Network (AIN), a nationwide suite of distributed communications capabilities and services to support interoperability and software development for Army C4I systems throughout their life cycle. The AIN provides the Army infrastructure for C4I systems to achieve the objectives of the Army Enterprise Strategy (i.e., battlefield digitization and C4I for the warrior). The AIN provides rapid engineering support solutions that replicate battlefield configurations by networking dispersed fielded C4I systems. Current AIN major operational equipment includes the AIN Central Control Facility, Protocol Assessment Facility, four sites at Fort Monmouth, and remote sites at Fort Leavenworth, Fort Sill, and Fort Huachuca. A remote site is planned for PEO Armored Systems Modernization at General Dynamics Land Systems, Warren, Michigan. A transportable AIN node is available to provide quickreaction AIN access in situations requiring rapid test support. The AIN is the Armys infrastructure for linking the battle laboratories with the RDECs.
5. Combined Arms Battlefield SoldierintheLoop Simulation
Enhanced design architectures and improved battlefield simulation techniques are rapidly growing areas of Army simulation and modeling capability. The Army leadership has a vision of how the totality of battlefield simulation technology and techniques can be used throughout the research and acquisition process (Figure VI20).
The cornerstone is the BDSD program, designed to create and maintain a distributed, stateoftheart network capability linking government, university, and industry sites into a simulation of the combined and joint arms battlefield. The BDSD program is shown in Figure VI11 above.
Using current and emerging longhaul data communication capabilities to create wide area networks (WANs), simulation capabilities will be resident at geographically separate sites and linked together to form much larger synchronized simulation environments. Thus simulation environment can be "packaged" in sizes and places corresponding to the size and location of actual units for evaluating weapon system, force development, and training concepts (Figures VI21 and VI22).
Figure VI-21. BDS-D Referees.
WithBDS-D, wargame exercise referees can observe training operations
from any vantage point on the battlefield while remaining transparent to the players.
Figure VI-22. BDS-D Training.
BDS-D will give weapon system operators the ability to more
realistically train with non-line-of-sight missile technologies.
Armored Systems Modernization (ASM) is similarly being analyzed under the BDSD concept. ASM mobility, weapon station stability, and ride quality, as well as the survivability of all the ASM variants, will be evaluated in a true combined arms simulation. Anticipated ASM capabilities are being simulated and evaluated via the BDSD test bed resources; crew controls and displays for the LOSAT variant of the ASM family have been prototyped within the BDSD resources and successfully used to describe valuable human factors modifications.
6. Test and Evaluation Simulation
Technological progress must be complemented by test and instrumentation facilities, including T&E simulation, that can measure the technological progress being achieved. Environmental and safety concerns increasingly impose constraints on T&E facilities. The ability to simulate the physical conditions of the battlefield for T&E reduces the time to obtain data and cost. Bringing the test environment under laboratory control provides highquality, reproducible data that can be recorded and analyzed during the test process.
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