FM 101-5-1
Operational Terms and Graphics


Chapter 1
S


sabotage (JP 1-02) - An act or acts with intent to injure, interfere with, or obstruct the national defense of a country by willfully injuring or destroying, or attempting to injure or destroy, any national defense or war material, premises, or utilities, to include human and natural resources. (See also terrorism.) See FMs 19-1 and 100-20.

safe area (JP 1-02) - A designated area in hostile territory that offers the evader or escapee a reasonable chance of avoiding capture and of surviving until he can be evacuated.

safe house (JP 1-02) - An innocent-appearing house or premises established by an organization for the purpose of conducting clandestine or covert activity in relative security. See FM 100-20.

salient - A protrusion or bulge in the trace of the forward line of friendly troops toward or into an enemy area of operations or on the outside bend of a river. See FM 100-40.

salvage (JP 1-02) - 1. Property that has some value in excess of its basic material content but which is in such condition that it has no reasonable prospect of use for any purpose as a unit and its repair or rehabilitation for use as a unit is clearly impractical. 2. The saving or rescuing of condemned, discarded, or abandoned property, and of materials contained therein for reuse, refabrication, or scrapping.

scatterable mine (JP 1-02, NATO) - In land mine warfare, a mine laid without regard to classical pattern and which is designed to be delivered by aircraft, artillery, missile, ground dispenser, or by hand. Once laid, it normally has a limited life. See FM 20-32.

scheduled fire (JP 1-02, NATO) - A type of prearranged fire executed at a predetermined time. See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

scheduled supplies - Requirements that can be reasonably predicted. A scheduled supply normally will not require a requisition to be submitted by the user for its replenishment. Requirements are based on troop strength, equipment density, forecasts, and daily usage factors. Supply classes I, III (bulk), V, and VI normally are treated as scheduled supplies. See FM 100-10.

scheduled target (JP 1-02, NATO) - In artillery and naval gunfire support, a planned target on which fire is to be delivered at a specific time. (See also on-call target.) See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

schedule of fire (JP 1-02) - Groups of fires or series of fires fired in a definite sequence according to a definite program. The time of starting the schedule may be ON CALL. For identification purposes schedules may be referred to by a code name or other designation. See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

schedule of targets (JP 1-02, NATO) - In artillery and naval gunfire support, individual targets, groups or series of targets to be fired on, in a definite sequence according to a definite program. See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

scheme of maneuver (JP 1-02) - The tactical plan to be executed by a force in order to seize assigned objectives. See FM 101-5.

scientific and technical intelligence (JP 1-02) - The product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of foreign scientific and technical information which covers: a. foreign developments in basic and applied research and in applied engineering techniques; and b. scientific and technical characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of all foreign military systems, weapons, weapon systems, and materiel, the research and development related thereto, and the production methods employed for their manufacture. See FM 34-2.

screen (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. An arrangement of ships, aircraft, and/or submarines to protect a main body or convoy. 2. In cartography, a sheet of transparent film, glass, or plastic carrying a "ruling" or other regularly repeated pattern which may be used in conjunction with a mask, either photographically or photomechanically, to produce areas of the pattern. 3. In surveillance, camouflage, and concealment, any natural or artificial material, opaque to surveillance sensor(s), interposed between the sensor(s) and the object to be camouflaged or concealed. 4. A security element whose primary task is to observe, identify and report information, and which only fights in self-protection. (Army) - A task to maintain surveillance; provide early warning to the main body; or impede, destroy, and harass enemy reconnaissance within its capability without becoming decisively engaged. (See also security operations.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

screen line - A control measure, usually named as a phase line (PL), established forward of the main body during defensive operations. Once occupied it becomes the forward line of own troops (FLOT) and the limit of advance (LOA) for all friendly forces although permission can be obtained from the establishing headquarters to go beyond it. (See also screen and security operations.) See FMs 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, and 100-15.

seaport - A place at which ships may discharge or receive their cargoes. (See also aerial ports.) See FM 55-10.

seaport of debarkation (SPOD) - A marine terminal for sustained port operations at which personnel and material are discharged from ships. SPODs normally act as ports of embarkation on return passenger and retrograde cargo shipments.

seaport of embarkation (SPOE) - A marine terminal for sustained port operations at which personnel board and materiel is loaded aboard ships. SPOEs normally act as ports of debarkation on return passenger and retrograde cargo shipments.

search and attack - A variant of the movement to contact conducted by smaller, light maneuver units and air cavalry or air assault forces in large areas to destroy enemy forces, deny area to the enemy, or collect information. Search and attack operations may be conducted against a dispersed enemy in close terrain unsuitable for armored forces, in rear areas against enemy special operations forces (SOF) or infiltrators, or as an area security mission to clear assigned zones. (See also movement to contact.) See FMs 7-7, 7-10, 7-20, 7-30, 71-100-2, 90-4, and 90-26.

sector (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. An area designated by boundaries within which a unit operates, and for which it is responsible. 2. One of the subdivisions of a coastal frontier. (Army) - Normally, sectors are used in defensive operations and have a forward edge of the battle area designated by a higher commander. (See also area of influence and zone of action.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

sector of fire (JP 1-02, NATO) - A defined area which is required to be covered by the fire of individual or crew-served weapons or the weapons of a unit. See FMs 7-7, 7-8, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

secure (JP 1-02, NATO) - In an operational context, to gain possession of a position or terrain feature, with or without force, and to make such disposition as will prevent, as far as possible, its destruction or loss by enemy action. (Army) - A tactical task to gain possession of a position or terrain feature, with or without force, and to deploy in a manner which prevents its destruction or loss to enemy action. The attacking force may or may not have to physically occupy the area.

security (JP 1-02) - 1. Measures taken by a military unit, an activity, or an installation to protect itself against all acts designed to, or that may, impair its effectiveness. 2. A condition that results from the establishment and maintenance of protective measures that ensure a state of inviolability from hostile acts or influences. 3. With respect to classified matter, it is the condition that prevents unauthorized persons from having access to official information that is safeguarded in the interests of national security. (NATO) - A condition that results from the establishment of measures which protect designated information, materiel, personnel, systems, components, and equipment against hostile persons, acts, or influences. See FMs 17-95, 71-100, and 100-15.

security area (zone) - Area that begins at the forward area of the battlefield and extends as far to the front and flanks as security forces are deployed. Forces in the security area furnish information on the enemy and delay, deceive, and disrupt the enemy and conduct counterreconnaissance. See FMs 17-95, 71-3, 71-100, and 100-15.

security assistance (JP 1-02) - Group of programs authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended, or other related statutes by which the United States provides defense articles, military training, and other defense-related services, by grant, loan, credit, or cash sales in furtherance of national policies and objectives. See FM 100-20.

security operations - Those operations designed to provide reaction time, maneuver space, and protection to the main body. Security operations are characterized by aggressive reconnaissance to reduce terrain and enemy unknowns, to gain and maintain contact with the enemy to ensure continuous information, and to provide early and accurate reporting of information to the protected force. Forms of security operations include screen, guard, cover, and area security. Area security operations normally are associated with rear operations. Security operations forces orient on the main body and may be oriented in any direction from a stationary or moving force. (See also screen, guard, cover, and rear area response forces.) See FMs 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 100-15, and 100-40.

seize - A tactical task to clear a designated area and obtain control of it. (See also contain.) See FM 100-40.

selective identification feature (SIF) (JP 1-02) - A capability that, when added to the basic identification friend or foe system, provides the means to transmit, receive, and display selected coded replies. (See also identification, friend or foe (IFF), and IFF on/off line.) See FM 1-111.

selective mobilization - See mobilization.

semipermissive environment - See operational environment.

sensor (JP 1-02, NATO) - An equipment which detects, and may indicate and/or record objects and activities by means of energy or particles emitted, reflected, or modified by objects.

separation zone (JP 1-02, NATO) - An area between two adjacent horizontal or vertical areas into which units are not to proceed unless certain safety measures can be fulfilled. (See also zone of separation (ZOS).) See FM 100-20.

sequel - Major operations that follow the current major operation. Plans for these are based on the possible outcomes (victory, stalemate, or defeat) associated with the current operation. See FM 101-5.

serial (JP 1-02, NATO) - An element or a group of elements within a series which is given a numerical or alphabetical designation for convenience in planning, scheduling, and control. (Army) - A serial can be a group of people, vehicles, equipment, or supplies and is used in airborne, air assault, and amphibious operations. See FMs 55-10, 71-100-3, 90-26, and 100-40.

serial assignment table (JP 1-02) - A table that is used in amphibious operations and shows the serial number, the title of the unit, the approximate number of personnel; the material, vehicles, or equipment in the serial; the number and type of landing craft and/or amphibious vehicles required to boat the serial; and the ship on which the serial is embarked. (Army) - Also used in airborne and air assault operations and may be used in noncombatant evacuation operations. See FMs 71-100, 71-100-3, and 90-26.

series of targets (NATO, Army) - In fire support, a number of targets and/or group(s) of targets planned in a predetermined time sequence to support a maneuver phase. A series of targets is indicated by a code name or nickname. See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

service ammunition (JP 1-02) - Ammunition intended for combat, rather than for training purposes. See FMs 7-91, 9-6, 17-12, and 23-1.

Service component command (JP 1-02) - A command consisting of the Service component commander and all those Service forces, such as individuals, units, detachments, organizations, and installations under the command including the support forces that have been assigned to a combatant command, or further assigned to a subordinate unified command or joint task force. (See also functional component command.) See FM 100-7 and JP 3-0.

severity - The expected consequence of an event in terms of degree of injury, property damage, or other mission-impairing factors (loss of combat power, adverse publicity, and so forth) that could occur.

shallow fording (JP 1-02) - The ability of a self-propelled gun or ground vehicle equipped with built-in waterproofing, with its wheels or tracks in contact with the ground, to negotiate a water obstacle without the use of a special waterproofing kit. (See also ford.)

shaped charge (JP 1-02, NATO) - A charge shaped so as to concentrate its explosive force in a particular direction. (Army) - The high-explosive antitank round is a type of shaped charge. This type charge is used for cutting holes in armor plate or concrete. See FMs 5-series and 9-6.

sheaf (JP 1-02) - In artillery and naval gunfire support, planned planes (lines) of fire that produce a desired pattern of bursts with rounds fired by two or more weapons. See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

shelling report (SHELREP) (JP 1-02, NATO) - Any report of enemy shelling containing information on caliber, direction, time, density and area shelled.

shift fire - The command to move the cone of fire in a direction away from a friendly maneuvering force so that enemy forces continue to be struck by the beaten zone at the same time the friendly unit moves. See FMs 6-series, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

shore party (JP 1-02, NATO) - A task organization of the landing force, formed for the purpose of facilitating the landing and movement off the beaches of troops, equipment, and supplies; for the evacuation from the beaches of casualties and enemy prisoners of war; and for facilitating the beaching, retraction, and salvaging of landing ships and craft. It comprises elements of both the naval and landing forces. It is also called beach group. See JP 3-02.1.

short (JP 1-02, NATO) - In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation, used by an observer to indicate that a burst(s) occurred short of the target in relation to the spotting line. (Army) - In direct fire, a sensing of a round hitting below the target or between the target and the firing system. See FMs 6-series, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

short-range air defense engagement zone (SHORADEZ) (JP 1-02) - In air defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air threats normally rests with short-range air defense weapons. It may be established within a low- or high-altitude missile engagement zone. See FMs 44-100 and 100-103.

short round (JP 1-02) - 1. The unintentional or inadvertent delivery of ordnance on friendly troops, installations, or civilians by a friendly weapon system. 2. A defective cartridge in which the projectile has been seated too deeply. See FMs 6-series, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

shot (JP 1-02, NATO) - In artillery and naval gunfire support, a report that indicates a gun, or guns, have been fired. (Army) - A message sent to the observer to alert him that rounds for his call for fire are in the air and to be prepared to provide a sensing of the relation of their impact to the target. See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

show of force - Operation designed to demonstrate US resolve that involves increased visibility of US deployed forces in an attempt to defuse a specific situation, which, if allowed to continue, may be detrimental to US interests or national objectives. (See also deception.) See FM 100-20.

signal operating instruction (SOI) - Series of orders issued for technical control and coordination of signal support activities of a command.

signal security (SIGSEC) (JP 1-02) - A generic term that includes both communications security and electronics security. (Army) - Measures intended to deny or counter hostile exploitation of electronic missions. SIGSEC includes communications security and electronic security. (See also security).

signals intelligence (SIGINT) (JP 1-02) - 1. A category of intelligence comprising either individually or in combination all communications intelligence, electronics intelligence, and foreign instrumentation signals intelligence, however transmitted. 2. Intelligence derived from communications, electronics, and foreign instrumentation signals. See FM 34-2.

signature - The visible or audible effects produced when a weapon is fired or a piece of equipment operated, such as noise, smoke, flame, heat, or debris; also, an electronic emission subject to detection and traceable to the equipment producing it.

simplicity - One of the nine principles of war. The preparation and execution of clear, uncomplicated, and concise orders and plans to facilitate mission execution in the stress, fatigue, and fog of war. See FM 100-5.

simulative electromagnetic deception - Actions to simulate friendly, notional, or actual capabilities to mislead hostile forces. (See also electromagnetic deception, imitative electromagnetic deception (IED), and manipulative electromagnetic deception (MED).)

simultaneous attack in depth - Concurrent firing on or attack of enemy reserves, logistics, headquarters, staging and assembly areas, airfields, and close forces (attacking or defending) by maneuver, fire support, and other combat support units in the close fight and fighting in depth with cannon artillery, rocket or missile artillery (land- and sea-based), attack helicopters, airborne forces, air assault forces, other maneuver and combat support forces, special operations forces, and fighter or bomber aircraft to create a synergistic and paralyzing effect on the enemy. See FMs 71-100 and 100-15.

situational obstacle - An obstacle that a unit plans and possibly prepares prior to starting an operation, but does not execute unless specific criteria are met. It provides the commander flexibility for emplacing tactical obstacles based on battlefield development. See FM 90-7.

situational template - A series of projections that portray, based on enemy doctrine, the most probable disposition and location of enemy forces within constraints imposed by weather and terrain. See FMs 34-130 and 101-5.

situation map (SITMAP) (JP 1-02, NATO) - A map showing the tactical or the administrative situation at a particular time. (See also map and overlay.) See FM 101-5.

situation report (SITREP) (JP 1-02, NATO) - A report giving the situation in the area of a reporting unit or formation. (Army) - The format is usually established by unit standard operating procedures.

skin decontamination technique - Process of removing or neutralizing contamination on the skin within one minute of exposure to prevent it from penetrating into the skin. Immediate decontamination techniques are skin decontamination, personal wipedown, and operator's spraydown. See FM 3-5.

slice (JP 1-02) - An average logistic planning factor used to obtain estimates of requirements for personnel and materiel. A personnel slice generally consists of the total strength of the stated basic combatant elements, plus its proportionate share of all supporting and higher headquarters personnel. (Army) - The normal apportionment of combat support and combat service support elements allocated to support a maneuver unit. (See also combat multiplier.)

small-scale map - See map.

smoke blanket - A dense horizontal concentration of smoke covering an area of ground with visibility inside the concentration less than 50 meters. The blanket is established over and around friendly areas to protect them from air visual observation and visual precision bombing attacks or established over enemy areas to protect attacking friendly aircraft from enemy air defense. See FM 3-50.

smoke curtain - A vertical smoke screen. (See also smoke screen.) See FM 3-50.

smoke haze - A light concentration that restricts accurate enemy observation and fire but which is not dense enough to hamper friendly operations (visibility 50 to 150 meters). See FM 3-50.

smoke screen (JP 1-02, NATO) - Cloud of smoke used to mask either friendly or enemy installations or maneuvers. (Army) - The smoke screen is used to conceal ground maneuver, obstacle breaching, recovery operations, amphibious assault operations, as well as key assembly areas, supply routes, and logistical facilities. See FM 3-50.

sortie (JP 1-02, NATO) - In air operations, an operational flight by one aircraft.

space defense (JP 1-02) - All defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy vehicles (including missiles) while in space, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack.

space operations - The employment of space system capabilities that provide the means to enhance command and control, facilitate the maneuver of forces, reduce the commander's uncertainty, and improve fire support, air defense, intelligence collection, and combat service support operations which will support strategic, operational, and tactical missions across the operational continuum in the near, mid, and far term. See FM 100-5.

special activities (JP 1-02) - Activities conducted in support of national foreign policy objectives which are planned and executed so that the role of the US Government is not apparent or acknowledged publicly. They are also functions in support of such activities but are not intended to influence United States political processes, public opinion, policies, or media and do not include diplomatic activities or the collection and production of intelligence or related support functions.

special air operation (JP 1-02) - An air operation conducted in support of special operations and other clandestine, covert, and psychological activities. See FM 100-25.

special forces operations base (SFOB) - A base formed and operated by the special forces group from organic and attached resources. It is the focal point for operational, administrative, logistical, and communication support functions. See FM 100-25.

special operations (SO) (JP 1-02) - Operations conducted by specially organized, trained, and equipped military and paramilitary forces to achieve military, political, economic, or psychological objectives by unconventional military means in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive areas. These operations are conducted during peacetime competition, conflict, and war, independently or in coordination with operations of conventional, nonspecial operations forces. Political-military considerations frequently shape special operations, requiring clandestine, covert, or low visibility techniques and over-sight at the national level. Special operations differ from conventional operations in degree of physical and political risk, operational techniques, mode of employment, independence from friendly support, and dependence on detailed operational intelligence and indigenous assets. See FM 100-25.

special operations-peculiar - Materiel, services, and training for special operations mission support for which there is no broad conventional requirement. See FM 100-25.

special operations forces (SOF) (JP 1-02) - Those active and reserve component forces of the military Services designated by the Secretary of Defense and specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations..

special reconnaissance - Complementing of national and theater intelligence collection assets and systems by obtaining specific, well-defined, and time-sensitive information of strategic or operational significance. It may complement other collection methods where there are constraints of weather, terrain-masking, hostile countermeasures, and/or other systems availability. Special reconnaissance is a human intelligence function that places US or US-controlled "eyes on target" in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive territory when authorized. SOF may conduct these missions unilaterally or in support of conventional operations. See JP 3-05.

special staff (JP 1-02) - All staff officers having duties at a headquarters and not included in the general (coordinating) staff group or in the personal staff group. The special staff includes certain technical specialists and heads of services, for example, quartermaster officer, antiaircraft officer, transportation officer, and so forth. See FM 101-5.

specified command (JP 1-02) - A command that has a broad, continuing mission, normally functional, and is established and so designated by the President through the Secretary of Defense with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It normally is composed of forces from a single Military Department. Also called specified combatant command. See FM 100-5 and JP 5-0.

splash (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. In artillery and naval gunfire support, word transmitted to an observer or spotter five seconds before the estimated time of the impact of a salvo or round. 2. In air interception, target destruction verified by visual or radar means. (See also shot and fire mission.) See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

split-based operation - The dividing of logistics, staff, and management and command functions so that only those functions absolutely necessary are deployed, allowing some logistics, staff, and management and command functions to be accomplished from CONUS or another theater. See FMs 100-7 and 100-10.

spoiling attack (JP 1-02) - A tactical maneuver employed to seriously impair a hostile attack while the enemy is in the process of forming or assembling for an attack. Usually employed by armored units in defense by an attack on enemy assembly positions in front of a main line of resistance or battle position. (Army) - A type of attack executed from a defensive posture to seriously impair a hostile attack by striking the enemy when he is preparing for his own attack and is vulnerable in assembly areas and attack positions. (See also attack.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

spore - An asexual, usually single-celled, reproductive body of plants such as fungi, mosses, and ferns; a microorganism, as a bacterium, in a resting or dormant state. See FM 3-9.

spot jamming (JP 1-02, NATO) - The jamming of a specific channel or frequency. (See also jamming.) See FM 34-2.

spot report (SPOTREP) (JP 1-02) - A concise narrative report of essential information covering events or conditions that may have an immediate and a significant effect on current planning and operations that is afforded the most expeditious means of transmission consistent with requisite security. (Note: In reconnaissance and surveillance usage, spot report is not to be used.) (Army) - The format is usually established by unit standard operating procedures.

stability and support operations (SASO) - The use of military capabilities for any purpose other than war. (See also counterdrug, counterinsurgency, domestic emergencies, humanitarian assistance (HA), military operations other than war (MOOTW), and peace operations .) See JP 3-07 and FM 100-20.

staff estimates (JP 1-02) - Assessments of courses of action by the various staff elements of a command that serve as the foundation of the commander's estimate. (Army) - The staff officer's evaluation of how factors in his particular field of interest will influence the courses of action under consideration by the commander. (See also commander's estimate of the situation.) See FM 101-5.

staging area (JP 1-02, NATO) - 1. Amphibious or airborne - A general locality between the mounting area and the objective of an amphibious or airborne expedition, through which the expedition or parts thereof pass after mounting, for refueling, regrouping of ships, and/or exercise, inspection, and redistribution of troops. 2. Other movements - A general locality established for the concentration of troop units and transient personnel between movements over the lines of communications. See FMs 55-10 and 55-30.

staging base (JP 1-02) - 1. An advanced naval base for the anchoring, fueling, and refitting of transports and cargo ships, and for replenishing mobile service squadrons. 2. A landing and takeoff area with minimum servicing, supply, and shelter provided for the temporary occupancy of military aircraft during the course of movement from one location to another.

staging field - A predetermined area where aircraft assemble prior to conducting an air assault operation.

staging plan - An air assault operation plan that is based on the loading plan and prescribes the arrival time of the ground units (troops, equipment, and supplies) at the pickup zone in the proper order for movement. See FM 90-4.

standard pattern (JP 1-02, NATO) - In landmine warfare, the agreed pattern to which mines are normally laid. See FMs 5-34, 5-102, and 20-32.

standard use Army aircraft flight route (SAAFR) (JP 1-02) - Routes established below the coordinating altitude to facilitate the movement of Army aviation assets. Routes are normally located in the corps through brigade rear areas of operation and do not require approval by the airspace control authority. (See airspace control measures.) See FM 100-103.

standing operating procedures (SOP) (JP 1-02, NATO) - A set of instructions covering those features of operations which lend themselves to a definite or standardized procedure without loss of effectiveness. The procedure is applicable unless ordered otherwise. See FM 101-5.

start point (SP) (NATO, Army) - A well-defined point on a route at which movement of vehicles begins to be under the control of the commander of this movement. It is at this point that the column is formed by the successive passing, at an appointed time, of each of the elements composing the column. In addition to the principal start point of a column there may be secondary start points for its different elements. (See also release point (RP).) See FM 55-30.

state of readiness (JP 1-02) - state 1 (safe) The state of a demolition target upon or within which the demolition charge has been placed and secured. The firing or initiating circuits have been installed, but not connected to the demolition charge. Detonators or initiators have not been connected nor installed. (JP 1-02, NATO) - state 2 (armed) The state of a demolition target in which the demolition charges are in place, the firing and priming circuits are installed and complete, ready for immediate firing. See FM 5-102.

status-of-forces agreement (SOFA) (JP 1-02) - An agreement which defines the legal position of a visiting military force deployed in the territory of a friendly state. Agreements delineating the status of visiting military forces may be bilateral or multilateral. Provisions pertaining to the status of visiting forces may be set forth in a separate agreement, or they may form a part of a more comprehensive agreement. These provisions describe how the authorities of a visiting force may control members of that force and the amenability of the force or its members to the local law or to the authority of local officials. To the extent that agreements delineate matters affecting the relations between a military force and civilian authorities and population, they may be considered as civil affairs agreements. (See also stability and support operations (SASO).) See FM 100-20.

stay behind force (JP 1-02, NATO) - A force which is left in position to conduct a specified mission when the remainder of the force withdraws or retires from the area. See FMs 17-95 and 71-100.

stick (air transport) (JP 1-02) - A number of paratroopers who jump from one aperture or door of an aircraft during one run over a drop zone. See FM 90-26.

stowage plan (JP 1-02) - A completed stowage diagram showing what materiel has been loaded and its stowage location in each hold, between-deck compartment, or other space in a ship, including deck space. Each port of discharge is indicated by colors or other appropriate means. Deck and between-deck cargo normally is shown in perspective, while cargo stowed in the lower hold is shown in profile, except that vehicles usually are shown in perspective regardless of stowage.

straggler (JP 1-02, NATO) - Any personnel, vehicles, ships, or aircraft which, without apparent purpose or assigned mission, become separated from their unit, column or formation.

straggler control - Operations conducted to regulate friendly forces who have become separated from their commands by events on the battlefield.

strategic air transport operations (JP 1-02, NATO) - The carriage of passengers and cargo between theaters by means of: a. scheduled service; b. special flight; c. air logistic support; d. aeromedical evacuation. See FMs 8-10-6, 100-5, and 100-15.

strategic intelligence (JP 1-02) - Intelligence that is required for the formulation of strategy, policy, and military plans and operations at national and theater levels. (See also intelligence.) See FM 100-5.

strategic level of war (JP 1-02) - The level of war at which a nation, often as a member of a group of nations, determines national or multinational (alliance or coalition) security objectives and guidance, and develops and uses national resources to accomplish these objectives. Activities at this level establish national and multinational military objectives; sequence initiatives; define limits and assess risks for the use of military and other instruments of national power; develop global plans or theater war plans to achieve these objectives; and provide military forces and other capabilities in accordance with strategic plans. (See also operational level of war and tactical level of war.) See FM 100-5.

strategic mobility (JP 1-02) - The capability to deploy and sustain military forces worldwide in support of national strategy.

strategic operating systems - The functions and subfunctions that describe the activities performed within a theater by unified, joint, or combined forces. The eight operating systems are theater force requirements and readiness, alliance and regional relations, theater strategic intelligence, theater strategic direction and integration, intra-theater strategic deployment and maneuver, theater strategic fires, theater strategic protection, and theater strategic sustainment.

strategic psychological activities (JP 1-02, NATO) - Planned psychological activities in peace and war which normally pursue objectives to gain the support and cooperation of friendly and neutral countries and to reduce the will and the capacity of hostile or potentially hostile countries to wage war.

strategy (JP 1-02) - The art and science of developing and using political, economic, psychological, and military forces as necessary during peace and war, to afford the maximum support to policies, in order to increase the probabilities and favorable consequences of victory and to lessen the chances of defeat.

striking force - A committed force organized to conduct the decisive attack in a mobile defense. It normally comprises the maximum combat power available to the commander at the time of the attack.

STRIKEWARN - A message transmitted to give advance warning of a friendly nuclear attack to ensure friendly forces can protect themselves from the effects of the attack.

strong point (SP) (JP 1-02, NATO) - A key point in a defensive position, usually strongly fortified and heavily armed with automatic weapons, around which other positions are grouped for its protection. (Army) - A position requiring extensive engineer effort for obstacles and survivability positions and positioned to control or block an avenue of approach. Normally, command and control, aid stations, and critical supply stockpiles will be dug in with overhead protection. Trenches and other protective construction will be done to protect soldiers and weapons from damage during assault by mounted and dismounted forces. (See also battle position (BP) and mobile defense.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

subsequent operations phase - The phase of an airborne, air assault, or amphibious operation conducted after the assault phase. Operations in the objective area may consist of offense, defense, linkup, or withdrawal. (See also air movement, assault phase, and mounting phase.)

subsequent position - A planned and, to some extent, prepared location for defense or delay that is behind (away from the enemy) the primary positions initially occupied for a defense. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

subversion (JP 1-02) - Action designed to undermine the military, economic, psychological, or political strength or morale of a regime. (See also unconventional warfare (UW).) See FM 100-20.

successive positions - Defensive fighting positions located one after another on the battlefield. A force can conduct a delaying action or defense from successive positions. (See also defend and delaying operation.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

supervised route (JP 1-02, NATO) - In road traffic, a roadway over which limited control is exercised by means of traffic control posts, traffic patrols, or both. Movement authorization is required for its use by a column of vehicles or a vehicle of exceptional size or weight. See FMs 55-10 and 55-30.

supplementary position - That location which provides the best sectors of fire and defensive terrain along an avenue of approach other than the primary avenue the enemy is expected to attack along, for example, a flank avenue of approach. (See also alternate position, battle position (BP) , position and successive positions.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

supply control (JP 1-02) - The process by which an item of supply is controlled within the supply system, including requisitioning, receipt, storage, stock control, shipment, disposition, identification, and accounting.

supply discipline - Command responsibility to identify and redistribute excess materiels, observe senior commander's priorities, and ensure subordinates operate within the legal boundaries of the logistics system.

supply point (JP 1-02, NATO) - Any point where supplies are issued in detail. (Army) - A location where supplies, services, and materiels are located and issued. These locations are temporary and mobile, normally being occupied for up to 72 hours.

supply point distribution - A method of distributing supplies to the receiving unit at a supply point, railhead, or truckhead. The unit then moves the supplies to its own area using its own transportation.

supply site - A location where supplies, services, and materiels are located or stored in a permanent or semipermanent facility.

support (JP 1-02) - 1. The action of a force which aids, protects, complements, or sustains another force in accordance with a directive requiring such action. 2. A unit which helps another unit in battle. Aviation, artillery, or naval gunfire may be used as a support for infantry. 3. A part of any unit held back at the beginning of an attack as a reserve. 4. An element of a command which assists, protects, or supplies other forces in combat. (See also common servicing, direct support (DS), and general support (GS).)

support area - A designated area in which combat service support elements and some staff elements locate to support a unit. (See also brigade support area (BSA) and division support area (DSA).)

support by fire - A tactical task in which a maneuver element moves to a position on the battlefield where it can engage the enemy by direct fire to support a maneuvering force by either support by fire by overwatching or by establishing a base of fire. The maneuver element does not attempt to maneuver to capture enemy forces or terrain. (See also attack by fire and overwatch.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

support force - Those forces charged with providing intense direct overwatching fires to the assault and breaching forces or a force that supports a river crossing and other combat operations. (See also breach force.)

supporting arms (JP 1-02) - Air, sea, and land weapons of all types employed to support ground units.

supporting attack (JP 1-02, NATO) - An offensive operation carried out in conjunction with a main attack and designed to achieve one or more of the following: deceive the enemy; destroy or pin down enemy forces which could interfere with the main attack; control ground whose occupation by the enemy will hinder the main attack; or force the enemy to commit reserves prematurely or in an indecisive area. (See also main attack.) See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

supporting distance - Distance between two units that can be traveled in time for one to come to the aid of the other. For small units, it is the distance between two units that can be covered effectively by their fires.

supporting effort - The unit, battle position, sector, zone, axis, avenue of approach, area of operations, theater of operations, and so forth, whose purpose supports the success of the main effort. The supporting effort, either directly or indirectly, creates a necessary condition for the main effort to succeed. The higher commander will use other operations, such as economy of force, deep operations, interdiction, deception operations (feints and demonstrations), counterattacks, and supporting attacks as part of the supporting effort. (See also economy of force, main attack, main effort, and supporting attack. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, and 101-5.

supporting forces (JP 1-02) - Forces stationed in, or to be deployed to, an area of operations to provide support for the execution of an operation order. Combatant command (command authority) of supporting forces is not passed to the supported commander.

suppression (JP 1-02) - Temporary or transient degradation by an opposing force of the performance of a weapons system below the level needed to fulfill its mission objectives. (Army) - A tactical task to employ direct or indirect fires, electronic countermeasures (ECM), or smoke on enemy personnel, weapons, or equipment to prevent or degrade enemy fires and observation of the friendly forces. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD) (JP 1-02) - That activity which neutralizes, destroys, or temporarily degrades surface-based enemy air defenses by destructive and/or disruptive means. (Army) - The Army has primary responsibility for suppressing ground-based enemy air defense weapons to the limits of observed fire. The United States Air Force (USAF) has responsibility from beyond the limits of observed fire out to the range limits of Army weapons systems; the Army, secondary responsibility. Even if the USAF can target or observe, the Army may still have to attack the target. Beyond the range limits of Army weapons, the USAF is responsible. (See also suppression.) See FM 6-series. (Army) - campaign SEAD - SEAD operations that are preplanned, theaterwide efforts conducted concurrently over an extended period against air defense systems normally located well behind enemy lines. complementary SEAD - SEAD operations that involve continuously seeking enemy air defense system targets to destroy them. localized SEAD - SEAD operations that support tactical air operations, Army aviation operations, reconnaissance, and the establishment of corridors for Air Force and Army assets.

surprise - One of the nine principles of war. The enemy is attacked at a time or place, or in a manner for which he is unprepared and which he did not expect. See FM 100-5.

surveillance (JP 1-02, NATO) - The systematic observation of airspace, surface or subsurface areas, places, persons, or things, by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, or other means. (Army) - This includes the use of special NBC and air defense equipment. (See also sensor.)

survey - 1. The act of determining a precise location with various instruments. 2. The directed effort to determine the location and the nature of contamination within an area. See FMs 3-3 and 3-19. 3. The element of an artillery unit which determines an exact location and marks it as a point of reference for laying in the artillery unit. See FMs 6-series and 7-90.

survivability - 1. Includes all aspects of protecting personnel, weapons, and supplies while simultaneously deceiving the enemy. 2. Encompasses planning and locating position sites, designing adequate overhead cover, analyzing terrain conditions and construction materials, selecting excavation methods, and countering the effects of direct and indirect fire weapons. See FM 5-103.

survivability operations - The development and construction of protective positions such as earth berms, dug-in positions, overhead protection, and countersurveillance means to reduce the effectiveness of enemy weapon systems. See FM 5-103.

survival, evasion, resistance, and escape (SERE) - Training and actions taken by military members to assist them in surviving in hostile environments, resisting enemy activities, escaping enemy forces, and evading enemy forces until the individual or unit can be reunited with friendly forces. See FM 1-111.

suspect (JP 1-02) - In counterdrug operations, a track of interest where correlating information actually ties the track of interest to alleged narcotics operations. See FM 100-20.

sustained rate of fire (JP 1-02, NATO) - Actual rate of fire that a weapon can continue to deliver for an indefinite length of time without seriously overheating. (Army) - Or without doing other mechanical damage to the weapon or weapon system. (See also maximum rate of fire.) See FMs 6-series, 7-90, 7-91, 17-12, and 23-1.

sustainment (JP 1-02) - The provision of personnel, logistic, and other support required to maintain and prolong operations or combat until successful accomplishment or revision of the mission or of the national objective.

sweep jamming (JP 1-02, NATO) - A narrow band of jamming that is swept back and forth over a relatively wide operating band of frequencies.

synchronization (JP 1-02) - 1. The arrangement of military actions in time, space, and purpose to produce maximum relative combat power at a decisive place and time. 2. In the intelligence context, application of intelligence sources and methods in concert with the operational plan. See FMs 1-111, 6-20, 7-20, 7-30, 17-95, 71-100, 71-123, 100-5, 100-15, 100-40, and 101-5.

synchronization matrix - A format for the staff to record the results of wargaming and synchronize the course of action (COA) across time, space, and purpose in relation to the enemy's most likely COA. The staff can readily translate a synchronization matrix into a graphic decision-making product such as a decision support matrix. Each battlefield operating system can develop its own synchronization matrix for more detail on specific tasks. See FM 101-5.


Updated 27 July 1997.

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