CHAPTER 1


COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT (CSS) PLANNING AND CONSUMPTION DATA

Section 1 - General
Section 2 - Personnel Data
Section 3 - Hospitalization Data
Section 4 - Supply Data
Section 5 - Materiel Loss Data
Section 6 - Transportation Data


Table 1-1 Unit Tonnage Capacity Estimates - Local Hauls
Table 1-2 Unit Passenger Capability Estimates - Local Hauls/Line Hauls
Table 1-3 Unit Tonnage Capacity Estimates - Line Hauls
Table 1-4 Cargo Space Dimensions and Maximum Cargo Weights
Table 1-5 Inland Unit Movement Requirements Mechanized Division
Table 1-6 Inland Unit Movement Requirements Armored Division
Table 1-7 Inland Unit Movement Requirements Armored Cavalry Regiment
Table 1-8 Aircraft Characteristics and Capabilities

1-1. GENERAL

The following logistic planning information, data, and procedures represent estimates developed by using information contained in current staff planning manuals adjusted according to X (US) Corps' particular circumstances, organization, and historical combat experience. While the data included in the chapter is based in part on current operational planning factors, this information is designed for instructional use and should not be used as a basis for planning actual combat operations.

1-2. PERSONNEL DATA

a. Daily personnel loss rates (percents)[includes battle loss and disease and nonbattle injuries (DNBI)] [Field Manual (FM) 101-10-1/2, table 4-18, page 4-9].

(1) Offense (fortified zone) 1st Day Suc Day

Divs, sep mech bde, armored cav regt (ACR) 6.6 3.5
Corps troops and corps spt cmd (COSCOM) 0.8 0.6

(2) Covering force

Divs (based on div force strengths) 1.2 1.2
Corps (based on corps strengths) 0.4 0.4

(3) Defense (of sector)

Divs, sep mech bde, ACR 3.5 1.9
Corps troops and COSCOM 0.6 0.5

(4) Retirement and delaying action (retrograde)

Divs, sep mech bde, ACR in contact 1.0 1.0
Corps troops and COSCOM 0.4 0.4

(5) Inactive situation (forces in contact, neither side attacking)

Divs, sep mech/armor bde, ACR inactive situation 1.0
Divs in corps and reserve not in contact, inactive situation 0.6
Corps troops and COSCOM 0.4

Assume that units attached to divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs will be attrited at the same rate as the gaining organization.

b. Losses by type (of total losses) (FM 101-10-1/2, table 4-21, page 4-11):

Mech/AR Divisions Corps Troops and COSCOM

Killed 18% 16%
Wounded 72% 84%
Missing 10% negligible

c. Distribution of losses (FM 101-10-1/2, table 4-21, page 4-11):

Combat arms 92.1%
All others 7.9%

d. Friendly confinement (FM 101-10-1/2, page 4-4): 0.5%

e. Enemy prisoner of war (EPW) capture rates (per month)(FM 101-10-1/2, table 4-5, page 4-2):

Mech div 1.10% of enemy strength
Armd div 0.80% of enemy strength
Abn div 0.65% of enemy strength

1-3. HOSPITALIZATION DATA

a. The factors in the patient flow diagram (figure 1-1) are based on corps (intratheater) evacuation policies of 5, 7, 10, and 15 days, with theater (intertheater) evacuation policies of 15 and 30 days.

b. Approximately 64 percent of the casualties [wounded in action (WIA) and DNBI] will be returned to duty (RTD) after treatment at unit (level I) and division (level II) medical treatment facilities. About 1 percent will die of wounds at level I and II facilities.

c. Approximately 35 percent of the casualties (WIA and DNBI) will require evacuation to corps hospitals (level III). The evacuation policy begins when a patient is admitted to the first corps hospital.

d. All factors used in developing the patient flow diagram are in FM 101-10-1/2, chapter 5.

1-4. SUPPLY DATA

a. Stockage objectives [expressed in days of supply (DOS)].

Class DS GS

I 3 7
II 3 7
III (pkg) 3 7
III (bulk) 1 3
IV 2 4
V 3 7
VI 3 7
VII 1-day battle loss
VIII 3 10
IX 15 30



Notes: 1. Average accumulation of patients (D-day --> D+30) held in corps hospitals within parameters of evacuation policy.
2. Average accumulation of patients (D-day --> D+30) held in COMMZ hospitals within parameters of evacuation policy.
3. Average accumulation of patients (D-day --> D+30) remaining in CONUS hospitals after one year.
4. Corps evacuation policy.
5. Theater evacuation policy.
6. Returned to general replacement population.
7. Operated by Medical Platoon.
8. Operated by Forward/Main Support Medical Company.

Legend: DIH = Died in Hospital
RTD = Returned to duty
Evac = evacuated to next higher echelon of medical treatment
DD = Disability discharge from CONUS hospital

Figure 1-1. Patient flow diagram of disposition
of 52d Mech Div casualties from D-day.



b. Planning factors rate and source data.

(1) Type of Supply Planning Factors Source

Class I A-Ration 2.549 lbs/meal SB 10-260, FM 10-13
B-Ration 1.278 lbs/meal SB 10-495
T-Ration 2.575 lbs/meal Natick Pam 30-2
MRE 1.570 lbs/meal Natick Pam 30-2
LRP (I) 1.250 PMD Natick Pam 30-2
R/CW 2.750 PMD Natick Pam 30-2
HCP1 .770 PMD Natick Pam 30-2
HCP2 .055 PMD Natick Pam 30-2

LRP = long-range recon pack
R/CW = ration/cold weather
HCP1/2 = health and comfort pack 1 and 2
PMD = pounds/man/day
GMD = gals/man/day
Example ration policy:
1A + 1T + 1MRE + HCP1 + HCP2 = 7.52 PMD (D-day to D+60)
1A + 1T + 1MRE = 6.69 PMD (after D+60, AAFES in theater)

Class II Southwest Asia (SWA) SWA = 2.091 PMD ATCOM Study, 9 Mar 94
Northeast Asia (NEA) NEA = 3.367 PMD (see * for CDE)

Class III package (IIIp) .51 PMD SB 710-2, Jan 91

Class IV 8.50 PMD FM 101-10-1/2, made up of 4.0 barrier mat and 4.5 base construction

Class VI (after D + 60) 2.06 PMD Temperate AAFES Regulation 8-4,
3.40 PMD Trop/Arid** change 1, Mar 93

Class VIII (PMD) Ech 1/2 Ech1/2/3 Theater Theater AMEDD Center &
(Div) (Cbt Zone) (Army) (Joint) School study, 13 Jun 94

MRC-E (SWA) 1.03 0.56 0.44 0.59

MRC-W (NEA) 0.80 0.61 0.57 0.64

*Per Institute of Defense Analysis (IDA) study on chemical defense equipment (CDE), 1986-1988, add the following CDE modifiers for:
NATO + 2.205 PMD
NEA + 3.270 PMD
SWA + 4.038 PMD
CDE notes:
1. CDE consumption planning factors are for up to 30 days.
2. CDE consumption planning factors assume troops change chemical protective suit and chemical protective boots every 30 days unless mandated earlier by mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available (METT-T).
**Per AAFES Reg 8-4, Emergency Operations, appendix 8, page AB-1, "for operations beyond D+180, add 0.3580 PMD for supplemental stock assortments."



Class IX 2.5 lbs (heavy force rated)

Water (GMD) Temperate Arctic Tropic Arid FM 10-52, 1990

Co 3.9 4.4 5.7 5.9
Bn 6.6 7.2 8.5 8.7
Bde 7.0 7.6 8.9 11.1
Div 7.0 7.6 8.9 11.9
Above div 7.8 8.4 9.9 18.4

(2) Class III (bulk) per day.

(a) Unit consumption: MRC-W (NEA) Attack, Heavy-Intensity, 1st day

SRC Unit JP-8* MOGAS Total

01385L100 Attack hel bn (AH-1) 22,124 596 22,720
01385L200 Attack hel bn (AH-64) 17,880 544 18,424
01400L300 Aviation brigade, corps 332,825 7,146 339,971
05145L000 Engr bn, hvy div 23,941 3,103 27,044
06365L600 FA bn, 155 SP, hvy div, (3x8) 13,525 1,659 15,184
06398L000 FA btry, MLRS 2,225 225 2,450
06445L300 FA bn, 8-in SP, (3x8) 10,519 1,305 11,824
06465L000 FA bn, MLRS 7,842 1,147 8,989
06705L000 FA bn, 105mm towed 637 554 1,191
07245L200 Infantry battalion (mech) 19,212 1,979 21,191
07400L100 Separate infantry brigade 13,694 5,809 19,503
17375L000 Tank battalion (hvy div) 39,917 1,885 41,802
17440L100 Armored cavalry regt (1x6) 173,708 10,331 184,039
17440L400 Armored cavalry regt (1x8) 181,755 10,481 192,236
44175L200 ADA bn, hvy div 8,902 1,631 10,533
44177L200 ADA btry (SFV-8/Stgr) 2,579 355 2,934
57000A000 Airborne division 93,186 24,690 117,876
67000A000 Air assault division 321,769 29,307 351,076
77000L000 Infantry division, light 92,754 13,890 106,644
87000L300 AR Div, 6 M1, 4 BFV, 2 AHB 565,741 46,431 612,172
87000L400 Mech Div, 5 M1, 5 BFV, 2 AHB 543,751 46,389 590,140
87100L300 Heavy sep brigade, armor 140,076 11,648 151,724
87100L400 Heavy sep brigade, mech 119,666 11,739 131,405

*JP-8 requirements are a compilation of the JP-8 and diesel figures given in the operations logistics planner (OPLOGPLN).

(b) The US Army Combined Arms Support Command (CASCOM) provided the class III (bulk) consumption data from Operations Logistics Planner 1996 (OPLOGPLN 96), Version 1.30, 4 Jan For corps troops without an SRC, use 8 GMD.

(c) Class III(b) hauling capacities:

Collapsible drum 500 gallons
Tank and pump unit w/trailer 1,800 gallons
HEMTT 2,500 gallons
Railcars (European) 10,500 or 15,800 gallons
C-130 (Bladderbirds) 6,000 gallons
Semitrailer 5,000 or 7,500 gallons (EAC)
PLS tanker flatrack 3,500 gallons
MTV tanker 1,500 gallons

(3) Class V per day.

(a) Listed below are projected daily class V requirements (NEA/MRC-W heavy intensity), stated in short tons (STON), that can be used to estimate ammunition handling and transportation requirements for a supported force (classroom use only). Div/sep bde/ACR requirements include all organic weapon systems. Requirements were determined using CASCOM's OPLOGPLN 1.30, Jan 96, program.

Defend Attack Protracted Period SRC Type Unit Day 1 Day 2-4 Day 1 Day 2-4 Day 5-15

01385L100* Attack hel bn (AH-1) 37 28 33 24 17 01385L200* Attack hel bn (AH-64) 84 63 83 57 55 01400L300* Aviation brigade, corps 560 416 521 350 343 05145L000 Eng bn, hvy div 39 29 15 10 13 05330L000 Eng brigade 152 172 58 59 78 06365L400 FA bn, 155 SP, hvy div 288 228 433 345 30 06398L000 FA btry, MLRS 141 113 215 142 14 06465L000 FA bn, MLRS 424 338 645 425 42 06705L000 FA bn, 105mm towed 245 269 218 220 121 07245L000 Infantry battalion (mech) 76 61 62 47 25 07400L100 Separate infantry brigade 443 407 377 319 180 17375L000 Tank battalion (hvy div) 48 32 50 33 9 17440L500 Armored cavalry regt (1x8) 638 497 729 562 147 44175L400 ADA bn, hvy div 26 24 21 18 10 44175L200 ADA btry (SFV-8/Stgr) 9 8 7 6 4 57000A000 Airborne division 1,258 1,200 1,070 953 582 67000L200 Air assault division 1,247 1,186 1,053 932 559 77000L500 Infantry division, light 1,163 1,125 1,050 936 491 87000L300 AR Div, 6 M1, 4 BFV, 2 AHB 1,954 1,563 2,250 1,696 409 87000L400 Mech Div, 5 M1, 5 BFV, 2 AHB 1,966 1,575 2,250 1,697 418 87100L300 Heavy sep brigade, armor 501 383 625 478 86 87100L400 Heavy sep brigade, mech 527 410 637 491 101

*Data for this unit was taken from OPLOGPLN 1.2 (1995).

(b) To estimate requirements for moderate and light intensity, use the following:

Heavy intensity = 100 percent
Moderate intensity = 65 percent of heavy
Light intensity = 35 percent of heavy

(c) To estimate requirements for missions other than defend and attack, use the following (for heavy intensity):

Covering force = 100 percent of defend
Retrograde (delay) = 59 percent of defend
Meeting engagement = 200 percent of protracted period
Pursuit = 80 percent of protracted period
Inactive = 40 percent of protracted period

(d) The following are required supply rates (RSRs), stated in rounds per weapon per day, that can be used to determine supportability of selected ammunition items. These rates are for heavy-intensity combat (NEA) and were obtained from OPLOGPLN 1.30. For moderate and light intensity, apply the percentages provided in para (3)(b).

Protracted Basic Defend Attack Period Ammo Type Wpn System Load Day 1 Day 2-4 Day 1 Day 2-4 Day 5-15 20mm, HEI AH-1S 3,000 1,050 700 875 480 350 20mm, HEIT Vulcan 5,000 3,915 2,439 3,250 1,755 979 25mm, APDS-T CFV 500 106 83 86 64 38 IFV 360 80 62 65 48 28 25mm, HEIT CFV 1,510 171 133 139 102 60 IFV 1,050 134 105 109 81 48 30mm, HEDP AH-64 1,200 2,400 1,800 2,400 1,200 1,600 105mm, HE How, 105mm 84 206 227 183 185 102 120mm, HEAT Tank, 120mm 9 2 2 3 3 1 120mm, APFSDS-T Tank, 120mm 31 4 3 5 4 1 107mm, HE 4.2 mortar 125 144 88 121 66 36 120mm, HE 120mm mortar 125 128 78 108 59 32 155mm, ADAM How, 155mm 7 3 2 4 3 1 155mm, RAMMS How, 155mm 19 7 5 10 8 1 155mm, CLGP (Copperhead) How, 155mm 9 2 1 1 1 1 155mm, HE How, 155mm 18 59 47 90 72 6 155mm, DPICM (HE) How, 155mm 135 68 54 103 83 7 155mm, RAP How, 155mm 24 7 5 10 8 1 203mm, RAP How, 8-inch 16 56 52 41 40 37 203mm, DPICM How, 8-inch 93 87 81 64 63 58 203mm, HE How, 8-inch 28 21 19 15 15 14 LP/C (6 rkts) MLRS 18 6 5 9 6 1 Rkt, HE, 2.75 AH-1S 11 42 28 36 24 14 " AH-64 76 13 9 13 13 8 Hellfire (AT) AH-64 16 20 15 20 15 13 TOW AH-1S 20 24 16 18 12 8 " CFV (M3) 16 9 10 7 8 4 " IFV (M2) 16 9 10 7 8 4 " TOW-HMMWV 8 7 8 5 6 3 Dragon/Javelin Dragon/Javelin 6 4 3 2 3 1

(e) The previous ammunition expenditure rates are provided for classroom purposes and may not be appropriate for all combat operations. RSRs will vary based on mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available (METT-T) as the commander and/or operations officer determines.

1-5. MATERIEL LOSS DATA

a. Equipment loss rates (percent).
Out of Defense Offense Delay/Cov Force Contact Item 1st day Suc/day 1st day Suc/day 1st day Suc/day Each Day
Tank 20 25 25 25 25 25 5 APC 20 15 25 20 20 20 5 155mm how 10 10 10 10 10 10 5 203mm how 10 10 10 10 10 10 5 Atk hel 30 25 30 25 30 25 5 Cgo hel 20 20 20 20 20 20 5 Spt sys 15 15 15 15 15 15 5

b. Loss category (of total losses) (percent).

Defense Offense Delay/Cov Force Out of Contact
Nonrepairable 15 20 25 10 Repairable 85 80 75 90

c. Repair estimations (of repairable items) except helicopter (percent).

Category Defense Delay Offense Out of Contact Evacuate to TA maint units 35 40 30 20 Repair onsite (Organizational/BDAR) 20 20 20 30 Repair at DS 25 20 20 30 Repair at DS (backup) 20 20 30 20

d. Helicopter repair estimates (for repairable items) (percents).

Category All Conditions
Evac to TA AVIM unit 20 Repair onsite (BDAR) 20 Repair at AVUM (24 hr) 30 Repair at AVIM (72 hr) 30

1-6. TRANSPORTATION DATA

a. Total (approximate) vehicles per unit.

Wheeled Tracked Aircraft
Corps HHC 24 3 0 Armd div 3,603 1,661 127 Mech div 3,618 1,673 127 LID 1,817 0 97 Corps arty (4 FA bdes) 1,574 722 0 ACR 1,023 516 74 ADA bde 637 102 0 Engr bde 1,705 92 14 MI gp 367 7 26 Sig bde 1,103 0 15 Chem bde 305 69 0 MP gp 335 0 5

Data is compiled for instructional purposes only. Numbers may not match individual SRCs.


Judgment calls were required in counting vehicles that were capable of long-distance road marching, particularly in the area of engineer equipment. Vehicles that would probably or normally move by lowbed (bulldozers, forklifts, etc.) were not counted.

Division bands are not listed because they have no organic vehicles.

b. Corps Army of Excellence (AOE) march computations.
Day Day Night March March March (20 VPK) (10 VPK) (40 VPK) Road Road Road Unit/ No of No of No of PST Space PST Space PST Space Convoy Vehicles Serials MUs (hr:min) (km) (hr:min) (km) (hr:min) (km) Armd Div 1 Bde 904 5 30 3:40 82.74 4:40 127.94 3:40 41.37 2 Bde 904 5 30 3:40 82.74 4:40 127.94 3:40 41.27 3 Bde* 1,131 6 37 4:32 103.21 5:46 159.76 4:32 51.61 CAB 222 2 7 :50 19.15 1:09 30.25 :50 9.27 DIVARTY 726 4 24 2:55 65.80 3:43 102.10 2:55 32.90 HHC/div trps 664 4 22 2:41 60.55 3:25 93.75 2:41 30.28 Cav sqdn 163 1 5 :36 12.44 :48 20.59 :36 6.23 DISCOM 502 3 16 1:56 41.73 2:34 66.83 1:56 20.86
Mech Div 1 Bde 904 5 30 3:40 82.74 4:40 127.94 3:40 41.37 2 Bde 939 5 31 3:47 85.57 4:49 132.54 3:47 42.79 3 Bde* 1,131 6 37 4:32 103.21 5:46 159.76 4:32 51.61 CAB 222 2 7 :50 19.15 1:09 30.25 :50 9.57 DIVARTY 725 4 24 2:55 65.75 3:43 102.00 2:55 32.88 HHC/div trps 657 4 21 2:34 59.13 3:22 91.98 2:34 29.57 Cav sqd 163 1 5 :36 12.44 :48 20.59 :36 6.23 DISCOM 502 3 16 1:56 41.73 2:34 66.83 1:56 20.86
Corps Assets FA bde (155/203) 591 3 19 2:17 46.71 2:57 76.26 2:17 23.36 FA bde (MLRS) 523 3 17 2:03 41.17 2:37 67.32 2:03 20.59 ACR 1,539 5 51 6:07 137.02 7:49 213.97 6:07 68.51 ADA bde 739 4 24 2:55 66.45 3:43 103.40 2:55 33.23 Engr bde 1,797 8 59 7:12 163.33 9:10 253.18 7:12 81.67 MI gp 374 3 12 1:28 33.72 1:54 52.42 1:28 16.86 Sig bde 1,103 5 36 4:22 99.13 5:34 154.28 4:22 49.57 Avn bde 896 5 30 3:40 82.74 4:40 127.94 3:40 41.37 Chem bde 374 2 12 1:25 32.11 1:51 50.81 1:25 16.05

NOTE: Unit organization and vehicle counts shown above do not include military police (MP) organizations (as they are being used for traffic control).
*Denotes a four-battalion brigade.

(1) Number of serials roughly equates to battalion equivalents and contains from three to seven march units (MUs).

(a) MUs include from 30 to 33 vehicles.
(b) The day march [20 vehicles per kilometer (VPK)] was planned with a vehicle interval of 50 meters, a rate of march of 20 MPH (32.18 KMPH), an MU time gap of 2 minutes, and a serial time gap of 5 minutes.
(c) The day march (10 VPK) was planned with the same data as the 20 VPK march except the vehicle interval was increased to 100 meters.
(d) The night march (40 VPK) was planned with a 25-meter vehicle interval, rate of march of 10 MPH (16.09 KMPH), an MU time gap of 2 minutes, and a serial time gap of 5 minutes.

(2) Pass times (PSTs) for individual MUs (the aggregate of which, coupled with MU time gaps and serial time gaps, provide the overall convoy PSTs listed previously) were calculated using the Pass Time Table, ExtraTime Allowance (EXTAL) Table, and procedures outlined in FM 71-2, The Tank and Mechanized Infantry Battalion Task Force, appendix C (Road Marches and Assembly Areas).

(3) Road space [the number of kilometers (km) a convoy will occupy while marching] was determined using a formula found in FM 55-10, Army Movement Management Units and Procedures, appendix E (Computation of a Highway Move).

(4) Road gaps between convoys (not shown in the previous calculations) will be planned using a 15-minute time gap that results in 8.05 km of road gap during the day and 4.02 km at night. Total road space for a division can thus be obtained by adding the PST for the division's subordinate convoys as listed and adding in the road gaps between convoys. The same procedure applies for total PST, adding in the convoy time gaps.

(5) Clearance time = time distance (TDIS) + PST. (TDIS = distance/rate)

c. General planning factors.

(1) Motor transport planning, particularly in its earliest stages, must often be based on broad planning factors and assumptions. However, because of the varied services performed, the type of load carried, and the varied terrain features over which motor transport operations are conducted, general planning factors should be used with caution and only in the absence of specific data on the local situation. FMs 55-15 and 55-30 and Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 2156 pertain to this section.

(2) When specific data are not available, the following factors are used in motor transport planning to compute vehicle and truck company requirements:

(a) Average number of assigned task vehicles not in maintenance and, therefore, available for daily operations include:

1. Operational short range - 83 percent (maximum sustained effort; use only for all-out effort and then only for a period of less than 30 days).
2. Long-range planning - 75 percent.

(b) Anticipated payload per vehicle. Previously, vehicle payload was classified as being either off-road or highway. The planning factor or allowable load for highway operations exceeded those loads for off-road operations. The off-road payload factor will be used for 2 1 /2-ton and 5-ton cargo trucks only.

(c) Daily round-trips a vehicle averages (these vary with running and delay times) include:

1. Line-haul - two per day (one per operating shift).
2. Local haul - four per day (two per operating shift).

(d) One-way distance that cargo is to be hauled from which round-trip mileage may be computed as follows:

1. Line-haul - 144 km (90 miles) one way per operating shift.
2. Local haul - 32 km (20 miles) one way per trip.

(e) Average number of km (miles) covered in an hour, including short halts during the period of movement, are listed below. (Note: Under road conditions, not only the surface must be considered but also terrain, weather, and hostile activity that may affect the rate of march.)

1. Poor roads - 16 km (10 miles) in the hour.
2. Good roads - 32 km (20 miles) in the hour.

(f) Turnaround time - time consumed in round-trip movement, including delays.

(g) Delay - time consumed in loading/unloading and relay time in line-haul relay operations. (Time for halts and delays en route, such as mess halts and ferrying operations that can be anticipated but are not included in the rate of march/miles in the hour, must be included in delay time.)

1. Straight trucks - 2.5 hours' loading and unloading time per round-trip (straight haul).
2. Semitrailers - 2.5 hours' loading and unloading time per round-trip (straight haul).
3. Container transporters - 1.5 hours' loading and unloading time per round-trip (straight haul).
4. Truck tractors in semitrailer relay operations - 1 hour per relay (round-trip per line-haul leg).

(h) Number of hours per day in which vehicles with drivers are normally employed include:

1. One shift - 10 hours.
2. Round-the-clock (two shifts) - 20 hours.

(i) Unit lift and daily lift -unit lift is the amount of cargo a truck company can move at one time; daily lift is that which it can move in a day, making a number of trips.

(j) Ton miles and passenger miles - the product of the number of tons or passengers times the number of miles moved.

(3) Types of road marches:

(a) Administrative - enemy action not expected.
(b) Tactical - normally conducted by maneuver units in a combat environment during darkness.

(4) Types of march columns:

(a) Close - normally used during limited visibility or during hours of darkness. Approximately 25 meters' vehicle separation. Traffic density is approximately 30 vehicles per km.
(b) Open - daylight. Vehicles 50 to 100 meters apart. Fifteen vehicles per km for 50-meter vehicle separation. Twelve vehicles/km for 75 meters. Ten vehicles for 100 meters.
(c) Infiltration - best passive defense. Maximum security and dispersion. Reduces traffic density. May be part of your deception plan.

(5) March organization:

(a) March column - all elements using the same route for a single movement under a single commander's control. Used to maintain unit integrity and task organization. Each column has a head (sets the pace), a main body, and a trail element. Major elements of the main body are called serials.
(b) Serial - major subdivision of a march column. A single unit under one commander for planning, regulation, and control. A battalion-sized unit normally forms a serial.
(c) March unit - subdivision of a serial, usually a company-sized unit. Moves/halts under a single commander's control.
(d) Trail party - follows the march column. Performs emergency vehicle repair, recovery, medical aid, evacuation, and unscheduled refueling.

(6) March column control:

(a) Start point (SP) - common point for starting movement. Must be recognizable, not a hill or sharp curve; far enough from assembly area to allow units to be at prescribed march rate when they cross.
(b) Release point (RP) - common point for reverting to control of their parent unit. Same characteristics as the SP. No unit should countermarch or cross the path of another unit after RP. It allows for rapid dispersion.
(c) Check point (CP) - used as a reference for providing instructions or places where timing may be critical.
(d) Critical point - determined from route reconnaissance or map study. Actions must be taken to ensure uninterrupted movement; may use road guides or signs.

(7) Distance factors:

(a) Vehicle interval - space between two consecutive vehicles.
(b) Column gap - space between two organized elements, one following the other on the same route.
(c) Traffic density - average number of VPK.
(d) Length of a column - length of roadway occupied by a column, including gaps in the column, measured from front to rear, inclusive.
(e) Speed - actual velocity of a vehicle at a given moment as shown on the speedometer.
(f) Pace - regulated speed of a column or element set by the lead vehicle to maintain the prescribed average speed.
(g) Rate of march - average number of kilometers traveled in any given period of time, including short periodic halts and delays. Expressed in kilometers per hour (KMPH).

(8) Time factors:

(a) Arrival time - when the head of a column reaches a designated point.
(b) Clearance time - when the tail of a column passes a designated point.
(c) Completion time - when the last vehicle of a column passes the RP.
(d) EXTAL - usually 1 minute for 25 vehicles is allocated above the calculated PST of a column moving under one identification serial number.
(e) PST - time between the moment the first vehicle passes a given point and the moment the last vehicle passes the same point.
(f) Road gap - distance between two march elements.
(g) Road clearance time - total time a column requires to travel over and clear a section of road.
(h) TDISCtime a column requires to move from one point to another at a given rate of march. Normally, the head vehicle moving from the SP to the RP.
(i) Time gap - time measured between the rear and front of successive vehicles of elements as they move past any given point.

(9) Calculations:

(a) Rate = distance/time.
(b) Distance = rate x time.
(c) Time = distance/rate.
(d) PST = (number of vehicles x 60)/(traffic density x speed). To this figure add EXTAL and time gaps between march elements. See FM 55-15, pages 3-54 through 3-57.



d. Unit and vehicle capability estimates. For planning purposes, and in the absence of other specific operational data, motor transport unit capability estimates based on tables of organization and equipment (TOE) capabilities are shown in tables 1-1 through 1-4.

Table 1-1. Unit Tonnage Capability Estimates - Local Hauls
(Vehicle availability x average tons per vehicle x trips per day = STON capability per day)

No. Vehicles Average Available STON/Veh Total STON (75% of total Carried No. Cargo Moved authorized Per Trip Trips Per Day
Light truck company (2 1/2-ton truck) 45 2.5 (off-road) 4 450 4 (on-road) 720 Light truck company (5-ton truck) 45 5 (off-road) 4 900 6 (on-road) 1,080 Medium truck company (cargo) 15 4 2,700 Flatbed breakbulk transporter 45 (22 1/2-ton trailer)(M871) Medium truck company (cargo) Flatbed breakbulk/transporter 45 22 4 3,960 (34-ton trailer)(M872) Medium truck company (petroleum) (5,000-gallon tanker) 45 5,000 gal 4 900,000 gal (7,500-gallon tanker) 45 7,500 gal 4 1,350,000 gal Medium truck company (reefer) (7 1/2-ton reefer van) 45 6 4 1,080 Medium truck company (PLS) (cl V) 36 14 4 4,032 (all other classess of supply) 36 11 4 3,168 Heavy truck company (70-ton trailer) 86* 40 4 2,880 (40 STON gen cgo or 1 tank per 86 1 tank 4 344 transport) 40 4 13,760 Light-medium truck company (5-ton 38 5 4 760 cargo) (22 1/2 -ton trailer) 8 15 4 480

*HET planning factor is 90-percent operationally ready.

Table 1-2. Unit Passenger Capability Estimates - Local Hauls/Line-Hauls
(Vehicle availability x passengers per vehicle x trips per day = passenger capability per day)


No. Vehicles Average Available Passengers (75% of total Carried No. authorized) Per Trip Trips Passengers

Light truck company (2 1/2-ton truck) 45 20/16 4/2 3,600/1,440
Light truck company (5-ton truck) 45 20/18 4/2 3,600/1,620
Medium trk (22 1/2-ton trailer)* 45 35/35 4/2 6,300/3,150
Light-medium truck company (5-ton cargo) 45 20/16 4/2 3,600/1,400
(22 1/2-ton trailer)* 8 35/35 4/2 1,120/560

*Emergency only.

Table 1-3. Unit Tonnage Capability Estimates - Line-Hauls

(Vehicle availability x average tons per vehicle x trips per day = STON capability per day)
No. Vehicles Average Available STON/Veh Total STON (75% of total Carried No. Cargo Moved Authorized) Per Trip Trips Per Day
Light truck company (2 1/2-ton truck) 45 2 1/2 2 225 Light truck company (5-ton truck) 45 5 2 450 Medium truck company (cargo)(22 1/2-ton 45 15 2 1,350 flatbed breakbulk/transporter) Medium truck company flatbed breakbulk/ 45 22 2 1,980 transporter (34-ton trailer) Medium truck company (petroleum) (5,000-gallon tanker) 45 5,000 2 450,000 (7,500-gallon tanker) 45 7,500 2 675,000 Medium truck company (reefer)(7 1/2-ton 45 6 2 540 reefer van) Heavy truck company (70-ton trailer) 86* 40 2 6,880 (1 tank per transport) 86* 1 tank 2 172 Medium truck company (PLS) (cl V) 36 14 2 2,016 (all other classes of supply) 36 11 2 1,584 Light-medium truck company (5-ton cargo) 38 5 2 280 (22 1/2-ton trailer) 8 15 2 240

*HET planning factor 90-percent operationally ready.


Table 1-4. Cargo Space Dimensions and Maximum Cargo Weights

Cargo Space Max Cargo
Length Width Number of Weight
Model Nomenclature (inches) (inches) Pallets (STON)

Ground Systems
M 977/985 HEMMT truck 90 8 11
M 989A1 HEMAT trailer 216 90 6 11
PLS PLS flatrack 240 96 10 11
M 871 22.5-ton trailer 348 90 14 22.5
M 872 34-ton trailer 484 90 18 34

(Number of pallets based on 40" x 48" standard wooden pallets. Specific cl V, barrier, or cl IX pallets may differ.)

Air Systems See aircraft characteristics for information.

Note: 463L air cargo pallets are 108 L x 88" W with max load of 4.85 STON. Air system loads may reach max weight allowance before filling all stations.

Source: From Ordnance School ST 9-38-4, Ammunition Reference Data.

e. Highway and rail movement. Tables 1-5 through 1-8 provide data on moving units by highway and rail, and characteristics of Army helicopters. To determine movement characteristics of US Air Force aircraft, refer to ST 100-2.

Table 1-5. Inland Unit Movement Requirements
Mechanized Division
SRC 87000L800
(with minimum containerization)

All Rail Option Motor/Rail/Convoy Option
ID # Unit Name SRC Mult Pers 89' Flat 68' Flat 20' Cont 40' Semi HET 89' Flat 68' Flat 20' Cont Driven Towed 1 HHC, Infantry Division 87004L200 1 284 24 0 14 11 0 0 0 14 58 27 2 MP Co, Hvy Div 19333L000 1 153 16 0 7 5 0 0 0 7 49 23 3 Sig Bn, Hvy Div 11035L000 1 688 115 0 71 36 0 0 0 71 248 247 4 ADA Bn, Heavy Div 44165L100 1 639 78 1 20 49 3 0 0 20 210 89 5 Engr Bn, Hvy Div-RI 05145L000 1 899 102 76 37 57 171 0 0 37 204 132 6 MI Bn, Hvy Div 34285L000 1 451 44 2 28 31 2 0 0 28 95 53 7 Chemical Co, Hvy Div 03157L000 1 162 26 2 11 9 4 0 0 11 52 43 8 HHC, Hvy Div Bde (Arm) 87042L100 1 83 8 1 6 6 1 0 0 6 18 7 9 HHC, Inf Div (Mech) Bde 87042L200 2 85 8 1 6 6 1 0 0 6 18 7 10 Tank Bn (Hvy Div) 17375L000 5 559 45 38 12 18 78 0 0 12 113 38 11 Inf Bn (Mech) 07245L000 5 851 47 27 20 37 76 0 0 20 104 44 12 HHB, Div Arty Hvy Div 06302L000 1 184 23 0 14 10 0 0 0 14 51 32 13 Tgt Acq Btry Hvy Div 06303L000 1 93 11 0 4 4 0 0 0 4 28 11 14 FA Btry MLRS 06398L000 1 137 21 5 5 7 10 0 0 5 40 25 15 FA Bn 155 SP Hvy Div 06365L400 1 713 42 42 31 41 31 0 24 31 86 59 16 FA Bn 155 Sp Hvy Div 06365L500 1 738 43 42 32 42 31 0 24 32 86 59 17 FA Bn 155 Sp Hvy Div 06365L600 1 758 44 42 33 47 31 0 24 33 87 59 18 HHC, Div Avn Bde (Hvy) 01302L000 1 81 12 0 6 3 0 0 0 6 29 18 19 Assault Hel Co (UH-60) 01303L200 1 133 20 1 15 14 2 0 0 15 28 28 20 Command Aviation Comp 01304L000 1 149 17 1 11 12 2 0 0 11 25 25 21 Attack Hel Bn (AH-64) 01385L200 1 257 33 2 16 15 3 0 0 16 55 55 22 Div Sqdn, CBAA AH1S H 17385L200 1 537 45 18 24 25 49 0 0 24 121 54 23 HHC/MMC, Spt Cmd, Hvy 63002L000 1 222 21 0 5 4 0 0 0 5 53 36 24 Avn Maint Co, AH-64 Hvy 01933L400 1 226 35 1 6 30 0 0 0 16 40 40 25 Fwd Spt Bn (2X1) Hvy 63005L100 1 441 70 7 20 21 11 0 0 20 151 106 26 Fwd Spt Bn (2X2) Hvy 63005L200 1 470 72 7 21 21 12 0 0 21 157 110 27 Fwd Spt Bn (1X2) Hvy 63005L300 1 433 70 7 20 20 11 0 0 20 152 109 28 Main Support Bn, Hvy 63135L000 1 1043 189 55 17 22 2 0 0 17 408 359 29 Div and Army Band 12113L000 1 41 2 0 5 3 0 0 0 5 2 1
Mechanized Division 87000L800 1723 1659 639 661 832 1148 0 72 661 3654 2231

NOTE: Division SRC data includes unit multipliers--unit SRC data is for one unit.

Table 1-6. Inland Unit Movement Requirements
Armored Division
SRC 87000L700
(with minimum containerization)

All Rail Option Motor/Rail/Convoy Option
ID # Unit Name SRC Mult Pers 89' Flat 68' Flat 20' Cont 40' Semi HET 89' Flat 68' Flat 20' Cont Driven Towed 1 HHC, Armored Division 87004L100 1 281 24 0 13 12 0 0 0 13 58 27 2 MP Co, Hvy Div 19333L000 1 153 16 0 7 5 0 0 0 7 49 23 3 Sig Bn, Hvy Div 11035L000 1 688 115 0 71 36 0 0 0 71 248 247 4 ADA Bn, Heavy Div 44165L100 1 639 78 1 20 49 3 0 0 20 210 89 5 Engr Bn, Hvy Div-RI 05145L000 1 899 102 76 37 57 171 0 0 37 204 132 6 MI Bn, Hvy Div 34285L000 1 51 44 2 28 31 2 0 0 28 95 53 7 Chemical Co, Hvy Div 03157L000 1 162 26 2 11 9 4 0 0 11 52 43 8 HHC, Hvy Div Bde (Arm) 87042L100 2 83 8 1 6 6 1 0 0 6 18 7 9 HHC, Inf Div (Mech) Bde 87042L200 1 85 8 1 6 6 1 0 0 6 18 7 10 Tank Battalion (Hvy Div) 17375L000 5 559 45 38 12 18 78 0 0 12 113 38 11 Inf Bn (Mech) 07245L000 5 851 47 27 20 37 76 0 0 20 104 44 12 HHB, Div Arty Hvy Div 06302L000 1 184 23 0 14 10 0 0 0 14 51 32 13 Tgt Acq Btry Hvy Div 06303L000 1 93 11 0 4 4 0 0 0 4 28 11 14 FA Btry MLRS 06398L000 1 137 21 5 5 7 10 0 0 5 40 25 15 FA Bn 155 SP Hvy Div 06365L400 2 713 42 42 31 41 31 0 24 31 86 59 16 FA Bn 155 Sp Hvy Div 06365L600 1 758 44 42 33 47 31 0 24 33 87 59 17 HHC, Div Avn Bde (Hvy) 01302L000 1 81 12 0 6 3 0 0 0 6 29 18 18 Assault Hel Co (UH-60) 01303L200 1 133 20 1 15 14 2 0 0 15 28 28 19 Command Aviation Comp 01304L000 1 149 17 1 11 12 2 0 0 11 25 25 20 Attack Hel Bn (AH-64) 01385L200 1 257 33 2 16 15 3 0 0 16 55 55 21 Div Sqdn, CBAA AH1S H 17385L200 1 537 45 18 24 25 49 0 0 24 121 54 22 HHC/MMC, Spt Cmd, Hvy 63002L000 1 222 21 0 5 4 0 0 0 5 53 36 23 Avn Maint Co, AH-64 Hvy 01933L400 1 226 35 1 16 30 0 0 0 16 40 40 24 Fwd Spt Bn (2X1) Hvy 63005L100 2 441 70 7 20 21 11 0 0 20 151 106 25 Fwd Spt Bn (2X2) Hvy 63005L200 1 470 72 7 21 21 12 0 0 21 157 110 26 Main Support Bn, Hvy 63135L000 1 1043 189 55 17 22 2 0 0 17 408 359 27 Div and Army Band 12113L000 1 41 2 0 5 3 0 0 0 5 2 1 Armored Division 87000L700 16921 1656 650 651 814 1150 0 72 651 3662 2222

NOTE: Division SRC data includes unit multipliers--unit SRC data is for one unit.

Table 1-7. Inland Unit Movement Requirements

Armored Cavalry Regiment
SRC 17440L400
(with minimum containerization)

All Rail Option Motor/Rail/Convoy Option ID # Unit Name SRC Mult Pers 89' Flat 68' Flat 20' Cont 40' Semi HET 89' Flat 68' Flat 20' Cont Driven Towed 1 HHT, ACR 17442L000 1 150 16 2 8 11 3 0 0 8 37 17 2 Armd Cav Sqdn, ACR 1X 17485L200 3 864 62 53 26 38 109 0 8 26 167 54 3 Regt Aviation Sqdb (U) 01315L200 1 489 54 0 31 29 0 0 0 31 84 84 4 ADA Btry Vul/Stinger 44468J310 1 172 20 1 8 19 1 0 0 8 54 11 5 Engr Co, ACR 05113L000 1 200 19 8 9 13 18 0 0 9 34 31 6 MI Co, ACR 34114L000 1 159 19 1 14 17 1 0 0 14 40 15 7 Cml Co (Smk/Decon/Reco) 03377L000 1 73 12 0 5 6 0 0 0 5 26 17 8 Spt Sqdn, ACR 63065L000 1 828 124 19 22 25 15 0 0 22 280 183 Armored Cavalry Regiment 17440L400 4663 450 190 175 234 365 0 24 175 1056 520

NOTE: Regiment SRC data includes unit multipliers--unit SRC data is for one unit.

Table 1-8. Aircraft Characteristics and Capabilities

AIRCRAFT OH-58C AH-58D UH-1H UH-60A UH-60L AH-1S AH-64A/D CH-47D CH-46E CH-53E C-130E/H C-141B C-17A CREW 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 4 - - - - - EXTERNAL CARGO Max External Load 4000 8000 9000 28,000 9,000 16,000 Max Rescue Hoist Load 600 600 600 600 600 600 Winch Capacity 3,000 3,000 PASSENGERS (PAX) Troop Seats* 2 0 8 13 13 0 0 33 18 56 91 186 170 Litters 0 6 4 UH-60Q 6 24 10 30 74 103 135 Paratroopers 0 0 0 0 24+ 0 0 64 110 102 OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Maximum Allowable gross weight (lbs) 3,200 5,400 9,500 20,250 22,000 10,000 17,650 50,000 24,300 Basic Weight (lbs) 1,800 3,100 4,900 10,984 11,000 6,900 9,500 2,500 12,500 Useful load (lbs)** 1,400 2,300 4,100 9,266 11,000 3,100 7,900 27,500 11,800 35,000 45,000 70,000 172,200 Internal fuel capacity (gal) 73 73 224 362 362 262 361 1,030 650 External/Auxiliary capacity (gal) 0 0 150 920 920 0 920 2,100 0 Normal cruising speed (knots)*** 100 110 100 135 135 120 135 140 130 150 Endurance at cruising speed (hrs+mins) Internal tanks 2+00 1+45 2+00 2+00 2+00 2+00 2+00 2+00 2+00 1+30 External/auxiliary tanks 0 0 3+30 8+30 8+00 0 8+00 7+00 0 Fuel consumption per hr (gal)*** 33 36 93 140 145 110 145 400 300 Grade of fuel JP-4/5/8 JP-4/5/8 JP-4/5/8 JP-4/5/8 JP-4/5/8 JP-4/5/8 JP-4/5/8 JP-4/5/8 JP-4/5/8 JP-4/5 JP-4 JP-4 JP-4 Max number of 463L pallets 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 2 6 6 13 18 Take-Off Ground Run (ft) MAX GW 4,700 7,600 5,900 Landing Roll (ft): MAX ACL 2,400 1,880 2,100 Min Wartime Runway L x W (ft) 3,000 x 60 3,000 x 90 5,000 x 90

*Aircraft subsystem configuration will determine troop seat availability.
**The load-carrying capability of an aircraft. It includes the payload, crew and usable fuel and oil required for the mission. It is the difference between "maximum allowable gross weight" and the "basic weight."
***Endurance, airpseed, and fuel consumption are only representative of the aircraft shown. Actual endurance and fuel consumption vary widely with the altitude, temperature, mission, gross weight, an airspeed at which the aircraft is being operated.