a. Army units accomplish combat, combat support, and combat service support (CSS) missions. Combat units fight the battle to defeat, destroy, or capture the enemy. Examples of combat elements are infantry, mechanized infantry, armor, and attack helicopter units. Combat support units provide "operational assistance" to combat elements. Examples of combat support units include signal battalions, combat engineer battalions, military police (MP) companies, and military intelligence companies. CSS units perform logistics functions. Examples of CSS units are maintenance companies, supply companies, transportation companies, medical companies, and personnel service battalions.
b. Logistics is the process of planning and executing support for military operations. It is an overarching process that occurs across the range of military operations. Geographic conditions, space and time dimensions, and a determined enemy work to make logistics operations difficult. Logistics operations are planned so they continue to resource forces throughout conflict, adapting as conditions change. A dependable uninterrupted logistics system helps commanders seize and maintain the initiative. The logistics objective is to ensure successful operations.
c. Logistics arrangements cannot be so meager that they do not meet commanders' needs as they execute operations, nor can they be so excessive that they overwhelm commanders' abilities to move, protect, and employ them. The logistics system must strike a balance, providing sufficient support to resource operations through the peaks and valleys of their duration without burdening commanders with more support than is necessary to succeed. Logistics is required at all levels of conflict.
(1) Strategic logistics is largely the purview of the continental United States (CONUS) industrial and civilian sector. Strategic logistics deals with mobilization, acquisition, projecting forces, strategic mobility, and the strategic concentration of logistics in a theater base and communications zone (COMMZ).
(2) Operational logistics focuses on force reception; infrastructure development; distribution; and managing materiel, movements, personnel, and health services. Operational logistics encompasses those support activities required to resource campaigns and major operations. It enables success at the tactical level of war.
(3) Tactical logistics enhances the tactical commander's ability to fight battles and engagements. Successful tactical logistics provides the right support at the right time and place. The focus at this level is on the tactical logistics functions of manning and arming tactical units, fixing and fueling their equipment, moving soldiers' equipment and supplies, and sustaining soldiers and their systems.
d. Certain logistics characteristics are prescribed by logistics doctrine. These characteristics provide a framework for logisticians to adhere to when planning and executing logistics operations. These characteristics are anticipation (of mission requirements), integration (of logistics plans and tactical plans), continuity (continuous support to the commander), responsiveness (of logistics support in meeting changing requirements), and improvisation (innovative methods of support). Logisticians can contribute greatly to success on the battlefield by adhering to these characteristics.
e. A variety of organizations provide support to Army forces in the field. Those organizations range in size from several individuals at company level to major commands like the transportation command (TRANSCOM) that consists of hundreds of soldiers at theater army (TA) level. CSS organizations are either fixed or "tailored" to meet anticipated logistic requirements. At corps and TA, the logistics organization is tailored to meet supported organizations' anticipated needs. The basic building block of the logistics system above division level is company-sized or detachment-sized elements. Up through division level, the logistics organization is essentially fixed by a table of organization and equipment (TOE). Augmentation can provide additional capabilities.
1-2. COMPANY-LEVEL SUPPORT (MANEUVER COMPANY)
a. A company team (battery, troop) is the lowest level administrative and tactical organization with personnel designated to perform logistics functions (the company supply section). A typical maneuver company team receives support from two principal sources: from within its own structure and from a battalion task force headquarters (HQ). The burden of logistics is largely removed from the company team commander and placed under the battalion task force's control. This allows the company team commander to concentrate on fighting his unit to accomplish the tactical mission. The company team's logistics responsibility is to report its status and requirements, and assure logistics operations are properly executed in the company area.
(1) The company team's executive officer (XO) is the logistics planner and coordinator. During preparations for combat, he coordinates closely with the first sergeant (1SG) to determine what CSS logistics support is required and makes sure arrangements have been made to support the tactical plan.
(2) The 1SG is the company team's CSS operator. He executes the company logistics plan. The 1SG directly supervises and controls the company trains (normally limited to medical and maintenance activities) and company resupply operations.
(3) The supply sergeant is the company team's representative in the battalion field trains. He organizes the standardized resupply logistics package (LOGPAC) and moves it forward to link up with the 1SG. The supply sergeant then assists the 1SG in conducting resupply operations at the company level.
b. The battalion task force HQ will normally provide the following support to a typical maneuver company team:
(1) A maintenance team with recovery vehicle from the maintenance platoon.
(2) An aidman from the medical platoon, along with an evacuation team consisting of an ambulance with an aidman and ambulance driver.
(3) Fuel and ammunition transported by vehicles from the support platoon.
(4) A mess team from the support platoon when hot meals are available.
c. When company elements are cross-attached from one battalion to another, forming battalion task forces, the logistics assets necessary to provide support are also cross-attached. Higher HQ standing operating procedures (SOPs) normally establish the composition of logistics assets needed to support the cross-attached company. This organization usually includes medical and maintenance support, and supply and transportation assets to deliver classes I, III, V, and IX.
1-3. BATTALION-LEVEL SUPPORT
a. The maneuver battalions in a heavy division have organic CSS elements within the headquarters and headquarters company (HHC). The HHC has three platoons that provide logistics to the battalion,medical, maintenance, and support platoons. FM 71-2, The Tank and Mechanized Infantry Battalion Task Force, discusses in detail the CSS platoons organic to the battalion. The CSS elements of other battalion-sized combat organizations, such as cavalry squadrons and field artillery battalions, perform essentially the same logistic functions as the platoons mentioned previously.
b. Trains are any grouping of personnel, vehicles, and equipment organized to provide CSS at company team and battalion level. Trains may be centralized in one location (unit trains), or they may be echeloned in three or more locations (echeloned trains). There are three types of trains,unit trains, combat trains, and field trains.
(1) Unit trains consist of all battalion logistics assets, including company team assets, and any supporting assets from higher HQ. Unit trains are common in assembly areas and during extended tactical marches. Once combat operations begin, the battalion commander, based on the tactical situation, will either keep all logistics assets in one location as a unit train or echelon logistics forward (see figure 1-1).
Figure 1-1. Echeloned trains.
(2) Combat trains are organized at company and battalion levels to support combat operations.
(a) Company combat trains. The 1SG controls company combat trains that normally consist of medical and maintenance teams. The remainder of the company logistics assets (supply section) will be at either the battalion field trains or combat trains. The company combat trains will normally operate about 500 to 1,000 meters (or one terrain feature) to the rear of the company to provide immediate recovery, medical aid, and maintenance.
(b) Battalion combat trains. The battalion S4 controls the battalion combat trains. They nor-mally consist of a command post (CP), limited amounts of class III and V (for emergency resupply), medical platoon elements [battalion aid station (BAS)], and elements of the maintenance platoon at the unit maintenance collection point (UMCP). A maintenance support team (MST) from the forward support battalion (FSB) may also be located at the UMCP. The battalion combat trains should be close enough to the front lines to be responsive to the forward units but not within range of enemy direct fire.
(3) Battalion field trains consist of those remaining logistics resources not required for the combat element's immediate or critical support. The HHC commander controls the field trains, and they are usually located in the brigade support area (BSA).
c. The battalion commander often relies on his XO to supervise overall battalion-level logistics operations. Descriptions of the functions of several of the XO's staff members follow:
(1) The adjutant (S1) is responsible for the Personnel and Administration Center (PAC) that provides personnel and administrative support to the battalion's soldiers. This includes maintaining unit strength; managing personnel; and maintaining law and order, morale, and discipline. The S1 coordinates with the medical platoon leader (a physician) to ensure that patient treatment and evacuation are planned and coordinated throughout the task force area.
(2) The operations and training officer (S3) recommends supply and maintenance support priorities for subordinate units. The S3 does this based on his own knowledge of current and future operations and recommendations from the S4.
(3) The supply officer (S4) is the key coordinator of all battalion logistics activities. He plans, coordinates, and directly supervises the logistic effort, including preparing paragraph 4 (concept of support) of the operation order (OPORD). The S4 is responsible for battalion combat train arrangements, security, and movement.
(4) The HHC commander is located in the field trains and acts as the battalion task force logistics coordinator, assisting the S1 and S4 by ensuring that support from the field trains is smooth, timely, and efficient. He is responsible for field train coordination, security, and movement.
(5) The battalion maintenance officer (BMO) is located at the UMCP and plans, coordinates, and supervises the maintenance platoon's maintenance and recovery efforts.
(6) The support platoon leader assists the HHC commander in the field trains' operations. His primary function is organizing the convoy for moving all company LOGPACs for resupply and leading the convoy to a designated logistics release point (LRP).
d. Logistics packages (LOGPACs) provide the most efficient resupply of forward battalion task force units. Under the HHC commander and support platoon leader's supervision, the company supply sergeant organizes LOGPACs in the field trains. LOGPACs are organized for each company team and separate element in the task force and moved forward at least daily for routine resupply. When possible, all LOGPACs are moved forward in a single convoy under the support platoon leader's control. Special LOGPACs may be organized and dispatched as the tactical situation and logistic demand require. The S4 must plan and coordinate LOGPAC operations to ensure they fully support the battalion task force commander's tactical plan.
Task force SOP establishes the standard LOGPAC. Normally, a company team LOGPAC includes the unit supply truck with water trailer carrying rations, mail, any other requested supplies, including replacement personnel; bulk fuel trucks; ammunition trucks; and vehicles carrying additional supplies and replacements as needed. LOGPACs move along the brigade main supply route to an LRP where the unit 1SG or a unit guide takes control of the company LOGPAC. At the company resupply point, the 1SG controls the LOGPAC and conducts resupply operations using one of two methods.
(1) Service-station method. Using the service-station method, individual vehicles move back to a centrally located rearm and refuel point. Based on the enemy situation, one vehicle per platoon or section, or even an entire platoon, will pull out of the positions, resupply, and return to position(s) until the company has been resupplied.
(2) Tailgate method. Using the tailgate method, combat vehicles remain in place or back out of their positions a short distance so the resupply vehicle is not exposed. Fuel and ammunition trucks go to each vehicle position in turn. The tailgate method is normally conducted in an assembly area only. If it is employed in forward positions, terrain must mask the resupply. This procedure takes much longer than the service-station method. Once resupply operations are completed, the 1SG or the supply sergeant returns the LOGPAC to the LRP where it meets up with the support platoon leader. When possible, the reunited task force LOGPAC convoy returns to the field trains together for greater security.
1-4. DIVISIONAL BRIGADE-LEVEL SUPPORT
a. Divisional brigades are tactical HQ assigned to divisions to which variable numbers of maneuver battalions and battalion task forces are assigned. Divisional brigades do not have an organic CSS element other than the support section of the HHC that supports the HQ. Each brigade relies on an FSB for logistics. The FSB is assigned to the division support command (DISCOM) and is given a mission of direct support (DS) to the divisional brigade. The brigade commander is responsible for overall planning and integrating all aspects of brigade operations, including logistics in the brigade area of operations (AO). The brigade S1, S4, the FSB commander, and the FSB support operations officer are the primary CSS planners and operators for the brigade commander.
(1) The brigade S1 normally operates in the brigade rear CP located in the BSA with the S4 section. The S1 is responsible to the brigade commander for maintaining unit strength, personnel, morale, discipline, and law and order. The S1 prepares personnel estimates that identify the strengths and weaknesses of tactical courses of action and identifies personnel requirements of the tactical plan.
(2) The brigade S4 provides logistics information to the commander and functions as the brigade's logistics planner. He coordinates with the battalion XOs and S4s about the status of equipment and supplies. The S4 has representatives in both the main and rear CPs and is normally located at the rear CP. The S4 coordinates with the FSB commander and support operations officer to ensure the brigade commander's logistics priorities are understood and supported.
(3) The FSB commander is the brigade commander's logistics operator. He advises the brigade commander concerning supply, maintenance, field and health services, and implementing the logistics functions throughout the brigade. The FSB commander has operational control over all units and elements within the BSA for CSS activity, movement, security, terrain management (positioning), and synchronization.
(4) The FSB support operations officer coordinates and provides technical supervision for the FSB's logistics mission. He advises the FSB commander on support requirements. He analyzes the FSB's ability to support requirements, plans and monitors support operations, and makes necessary adjustments to ensure support requirements are met. The support operations officer also coordinates with the DISCOM for reinforcing support as required.
(5) The FSB is part of the DISCOM and is task-organized to provide dedicated DS-level logistics support for a specific maneuver brigade in tactical operations. The FSB's primary role is to provide DS to the brigade and divisional units operating in the brigade area. The FSB must support current operations and monitor the implementation of the support plan in conjunction with the brigade S4. The FSB must also plan to support future operations. In addition, the FSB is responsible for organizing all units in the BSA for defense and is responsible to the brigade commander for this mission. The DISCOM reinforces maintenance, medical, and supply capabilities when the mission or size of the brigade dictates. When the FSB is tasked to provide support to nondivisional units in the brigade area, it must be augmented with elements from the corps logistics organization. The FSB is organized with a headquarters and headquarters detachment (HHD), supply company, maintenance company, and medical company (see figure 1-2).
Figure 1-2. FSB armored and mechanized infantry brigade.
(a) The FSB HHD consists of a battalion HQ and an HQ detachment. The HQ detachment is responsible for billeting, discipline, security, training, and administration of personnel assigned to the HHD. The battalion HQ has five staff sections: command, S1/PAC, S2/S3, support operations, and S4. The battalion HQ missions include,
!Command and control (C2) of organic and attached units.
!C2 of all units in the BSA for security and terrain management.
!Planning, directing, and supervising the support the FSB provides to division units in the brigade area.
!Coordinating support to corps units in the brigade area.
!Providing information and advice on FSB support to the commander and staff of the supported brigade and the DISCOM.
(b) The supply company consists of a company HQ and a supply platoon. The company,
!Receives, stores, and issues class I, II, III (packaged), IV (limited), and VII supplies as well as unclassified maps.
!Receives, stores, and issues class III (bulk) petroleum using organic fuel transportation assets.
!Transloads class V supplies from corps transportation assets to unit vehicles.
!Operates a salvage point.
!Provides unit maintenance for organic vehicles and equipment as well as those of the HHD.
(c) The maintenance company consists of a company HQ and five other sections or platoons. The company's organization is further adjusted based on the number of tank or mechanized battalions it must support. The adjustment is made by task organizing system support teams into MSTs designed to provide DS-level maintenance support to an armor, artillery, or mechanized infantry battalion. The company,
!Provides DS maintenance (DSM) to supported units in the brigade area.
!Provides limited recovery assistance to supported units when required.
!Provides technical assistance to supported units that perform unit-level maintenance within the brigade.
!Provides technical supervision of supply of prescribed load list (PLL) items for supported units.
!Maintains an authorized stockage list (ASL) of class IX repair parts to support the items stocked in combat PLLs of support units.
(d) The medical company consists of a company HQ, treatment platoon, and ambulance platoon. The company,
!Provides combat health support (CHS) on an area basis for organic and attached elements of the brigade and other units operating in the BSA.
!Receives and sorts patients and provides initial medical and resuscitative care.
!Evacuates casualties from the maneuver BASs to its clearing station.
!Provides emergency dental care and limited lab, pharmacy, and radiology services.
!Provides medical resupply to units in the brigade area.
!Provides patient holding for up to 40 patients who are able to return to duty (RTD) within 72 hours.
1-5. SEPARATE BRIGADE-LEVEL SUPPORT
Separate brigades (armor, infantry, mechanized infantry, airborne, and air assault) are not assigned to divisions and are designed to be committed in combat as separate units. A separate brigade receives most of its DS CSS from an organic support battalion. The support battalion is organized with an HHC, a supply and transport (S&T) company, maintenance company, and medical company (see figure 1-3). The support battalion receives general support (GS) and reinforcing DS from corps support command (COSCOM) elements.
a. The HHC provides C2 for the support battalion in the same manner as a DISCOM HHC. Unlike the divisional support battalions, it has a brigade materiel management center (BMMC). The BMMC provides the link for CSS between the separate brigade and COSCOM.
Figure 1-3. Support battalion, separate armored and mechanized infantry brigade.
b. The S&T company performs a DS supply mission similar to a main support battalion (MSB) supply and service (S&S) company, plus provides transportation support for supply distribution and moving the brigade's supply reserve. When augmented, the company provides mortuary affairs; shower, laundry, and clothing repair (SLCR); and unclassified map supply.
c. The maintenance company furnishes separate brigade elements with DSM, repair parts supply, and technical assistance. It is organized with the required system support teams to maintain assigned brigade equipment and systems except in the areas of ammunition, medical equipment, airdrop equipment, and avionics.
d. The medical company provides CHS to the separate brigade at the same level as found in a division (level II). The company has treatment and ambulance platoons, a medical supply section, a preventive medicine (PM) section, mental health team section, an optometry section, and an area support section.
a. DS is a mission given to supply, services, transportation, and maintenance units that normally provide support directly to other specific units. This allows the DS unit to respond directly to the supported unit's requests for assistance or supplies.
b. GS is a mission given to supply, services, transportation, and maintenance units that normally provide support to DS units and other GS units.
c. Reconstitution is a total process that increases unit combat effectiveness using the three elements of reorganization, regeneration, and assessment.
(1) Reorganization is action taken to shift internal resources within a degraded unit to increase its level of combat effectiveness. Reorganization is normally done at unit level (company, battalion, brigade, etc.) and requires only limited external support such as supply replenishment, maintenance assistance, and personnel replacement.
(a) Immediate reorganization,quickly and temporarily restores degraded units to their minimum required levels of effectiveness. It is normally implemented in combat positions or as close as possible to meet near-term needs. Platoons usually conduct immediate reorganization after seizing an objective.
(b) Deliberate reorganization,conducted when more time and resources are available. It occurs farther to the rear than immediate reorganization. Equipment repair and cross-leveling are more extensive.
(2) Regeneration is action taken to rebuild a unit through external resources using large-scale replacement of personnel, equipment, and supplies; reestablishing essential C2; and conducting mission-essential training. This effort is directed toward restoring the organization's cohesion, discipline, and fighting effective-ness. The echelon two levels above the organization to be regenerated normally conducts regeneration,battalion by division, brigade by corps.
(3) Assessment measures a unit's capability to perform its mission. It occurs in two phases. The unit commander conducts the first phase by assessing his unit before, during, and after operations. The second phase is assessing a unit after it has been removed from combat. External elements conduct this assessment.
d. Classes of supply. The Army has divided supplies into 10 classes for planning and administrative purposes. Definitions and "examples" of each supply class, symbols, and a miscellaneous grouping follow:
Supply Class Symbol Definition and Examples
I Subsistence items and gratuitous health and welfare items [B-rations; meals, ready to eat (MREs); fresh fruits; water; and vegetables].
II Equipment, other than principal items, prescribed in author- ization and allowance tables (individual equipment, clothing items, tentage, tool sets, administrative supplies, and housekeeping supplies).
III Petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL),fuel, hydraulic and insulating oils, chemical products, antifreeze compounds, compressed gases, and coal. Class III (bulk) is POL in containers that hold more than 55 gallons [e.g., diesel fuel, motor gasoline (MOGAS), and aviation fuel]. Class III (package) is POL in containers that hold 55 gallons or less.
IV Construction and barrier materials (lumber, sandbags, and barbed wire).
V Ammunition (small-arms ammunition, artillery rounds, hand grenades, explosives, mines, fuzes, detonators, missiles, bombs, and chemical ammunition).
VI Personal demand items; the items that are normally sold through the exchange system (cigarettes, candy, soap, etc., contained in ration supplemental sundries packs).
VII Major end items (final combinations of items that are assembled for their intended use: vehicles, self-propelled artillery pieces, missile launchers, and major weapon systems,the weapons themselves, not the crews).
VIII Medical material (medicines, stretchers, surgical instruments, and medical equipment repair parts).
IX Repair parts and components, including kits and assemblies, and items required for maintenance support of all equipment (batteries, spark plugs, and axles).
X Material required to support nonmilitary programs; the items used to support civil affairs operations (commercial design tractor for use by local civilians, farm tools, etc.).
Miscellaneous Miscellaneous items that do not fit into any of the 10 supply classes (maps, captured enemy materiel, or salvage material). [A complete symbols list is in Field Manual (FM) 101-5-1.]
Supplies are further divided into subclasses that are denoted by adding a letter designation to the Roman numeral supply class designator. For example, class III-A is the descriptor for all petroleum and chemical products used to support aircraft.
e. Categories of supplies. With regard to how supplies are requested and issued, there are three categories of supplies: scheduled, demanded, and regulated.
(1) Scheduled supplies are those for which we can reasonably predict requirements. Normally, users do not need to submit requisitions to replenish scheduled supplies. Requirements are based, for the most part, on troop strength, equipment density, forecasts, and/or daily usage factors. Scheduled supplies are normally shipped to users based on preplanned distribution schemes. Supply classes I, III (bulk), V, and VI are normally treated as scheduled supplies.
(a) Class I and VI (subsistence and personal demand items) requirements are based on troop strength.
(b) Class III (bulk) requirements are based on long-range forecasts, equipment densities, and historical usage factors (experience).
(c) Class V (ammunition) requirements are based on densities of authorized weapons and intensity of mission(s).
(2) Demanded supplies require a requisition. Items in supply classes II, III (packaged), IV, VII, and IX are considered demanded supplies.
(3) Regulated supplies can be scheduled or demanded, but the commander must closely control these supplies because of scarcity, high cost, or mission need. Any item or group of items can be designated as regulated, but normally, some items in supply classes II, III (bulk), IV, V, and VII are regulated. If an item is regulated, the commander who so designates it must approve its release before issue. Items designated as command regulated are identified in operation plans (OPLANs) and OPORDs that are issued during the period of time the items are regulated.