CHAPTER 3

 

THE COSCOM

 

 

 

3-1. INTRODUCTION

 

a. General. FM 63-3 and FM 54-30 provide detailed information on the COSCOM's and CSGs' organizations, missions, and functions, respectively. The COSCOM provides logistics support to the corps. It enables the corps to sustain high levels of combat over the duration of major operations. Its battlefield support mission enables the corps commander to generate combat power at the decisive time and place. The COSCOM does this by,

 

! Arming corps weapon systems.

! Fueling stationary equipment, tracked/wheeled vehicles, and aircraft.

! Fixing damaged equipment.

! Moving soldiers, equipment, and supplies about the battlefield.

! Sustaining the soldier.

! Protecting the support structure.

 

b. Supporting the corps battle. The COSCOM maintains the support structure and supply levels to sustain the corps. It may support either a forward-deployed corps in an established theater of operations or a contingency corps force deployed to an underdeveloped theater.

 

c. Support AO and depth of support.  The corps AO encompasses an area of roughly 100 by 210 kilometers, or 21,000 square kilometers (see figure 3-1). These distances extend the lines of support. The COSCOM habitually employs units farther forward than it ever did in the past. Units that previously employed closer to the corps rear boundary now employ forward near division rear boundaries. Units that employed forward in the corps rear area now employ in the division AO. By also maintaining resources in depth, the COSCOM can weight the battle for the corps commander by realigning its resources throughout the corps area following corps priorities of support.

 

3-2. COSCOM SUPPORT MISSION AND FUNCTIONS

 

a. General.  The COSCOM provides logistics support to the corps and, when directed, to either a unified, specified, joint, or combined force. The latter support occurs when the corps forms senior US Army command in the theater. The COSCOM executes the corps support plan. The COSCOM provides,

 

! DS and GS supply support to nondivision units and GS supplies to divisions, separate brigades, and armored cavalry regiments (ACRs). Supply support includes ammunition; class III; water (GS in arid regions); classes I, II, and IV; repair parts; major end item replacement; airdrop; and reinforcing supply support to the FSBs/MSBs.

! Service support, including mortuary affairs, SLCR, and tactical post exchange.

! DSM and AVIM to nondivision units; reinforcing DSM and AVIM to divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs; and missile-rocket maintenance support.

! Transportation support, including mode operations, movement control, terminal operations, cargo transfer operations, and airdrop support.

! Medical treatment, hospitalization, evacuation, logistics, patient regulating, and medical services support.

 

Figure 3-1. The corps battle area.

 

b. Corpswide support. COSCOM logistics elements position in depth to minimize the effect of threat attacks on the overall logistics effort and allow for weighting the corps commander's efforts to gain and maintain the initiative. COSCOM functional battalions provide corpswide support. Transportation battalions provide intra- and intercorps transportation support. The petroleum supply battalion, ammunition battalion, and S&S battalion provide class III, V, and general supplies corpswide, respectively, supplying the bulk distribution systems. The S&S battalion also provides corpswide mortuary affairs, airdrop, and SLCR support. The AVIM battalion provides corpswide AVIM support. In an arid region, the water supply battalion provides potable water throughout the corps area.

 

c. Area support.  The COSCOM assigns area support missions to its subordinate CSGs and the medical brigade. CSG subordinate direct support units (DSUs) provide support on an area basis to units located in or passing through their AOR. Medical brigade medical groups provide level I and II CHS on an area basis to nondivision units lacking organic CHS and reinforce division level II CHS. In contrast to dedicated unit support, area support unit work loads depend on corps maneuver and positioning of units requiring support.

 

(1) Within the division area. The COSCOM normally provides area support to nondivision units whether they employ in the corps rear area or in the division area. This precludes generating an excessive work load on DISCOM MSBs/FSBs and provides a single support point of contact for supported units. However, nondivision units employed in the division area, which could number around 8,000 soldiers in a heavy division AO, may receive area support in one of several ways.

! From the DISCOM MSB/FSBs, but only within the DISCOM's capabilities. This normally occurs when the number of nondivision troops and their support requirements are very limited (one or two battalion equivalents).

! If the nondivision requirements exceed DISCOM capabilities, the COSCOM could augment the MSBs/FSBs with corps assets to enable the DISCOM to provide area support to the nondivision units. This support arrangement limits the number of support locations that must be established within the division area.

! Finally, the COSCOM normally supports nondivision units deployed within division boundaries, of the number noted above, through a CSB providing area support in the division area. The CSB establishes forward logistics points in the MSB/FSB area through coordinating with the appropriate terrain managers.

 

(2) Within a new division area. When nondivision units move to a new division area, area support continues in the same manner as described above from the new DISCOM and CSB. Assets from the previously supporting CSB and CSG may accompany the nondivision units to their new AO.

 

d. Out-of-sector support. When nondivision units move to a new corps AO, area support continues. Support requirements and assets are coordinated and transferred as required. When corps units move out of an Army AO, a different method of support is used. The COSCOM forms a support element/slice, usually a CSB task force, to accompany the corps units to the new AO. The task force's size and composition vary depending on the destination. The task force supporting corps forces in a sister service or allied area is normally larger and more diverse than one supporting in a new corps area. The task force supporting in an allied AO normally must be able to support all corps force requirements, including medical evacuation. In the case of either a sister service or allied area, a reliable and responsive line of support and transportation network must be established to supply the support task force. Area support may also be required along the route of march, including refueling on the move (ROM) and maintenance and recovery/evacuation assistance.

 

e. Mission support to other services and allies. The COSCOM provides logistics support to other services and allies taking part in a joint or combined operation. It routinely provides JP-4/JP-8 to the Air Force. It may provide food, water, common ammunition items, mortuary affairs services, petroleum laboratory support, and ground transportation support to Marine amphibious forces, Navy elements operating ashore, and the Air Force. Based on agreements with allied nations, the COSCOM may support a host of requirements common to both parties.

 

3-3. COSCOM SUPPORT ORGANIZATION

 

a. General. The COSCOM support organization depends on the number of soldiers to support, the number and types of weapon systems to repair, and the tonnage of supplies to issue and transport. As figure 3-2 shows, the COSCOM consists of a headquarters and special troops battalion, functional control centers, a variable number of CSGs, a medical brigade, and a transportation group under certain conditions.

 

The corps commander assigns or attaches units to the COSCOM. The number and types of units vary based on the corps force's logistics requirements. The COSCOM further attaches units to its MSCs. The corps commander may attach civil affairs or chemical units to the COSCOM's headquarters and special troops battalion. To effectively support the theater commander's operational plans, the TA commander may attach logistics units to the COSCOM from TA resources, including theater army area commands (TAACOMs).

 

b. Functional control centers.  Functional control centers implement COSCOM policies and directives. The corps materiel management center (CMMC) centrally manages and controls supply and maintenance. The corps movement control center (CMCC) provides centralized movement management and highway regulation for the corps. The centers task COSCOM subordinate units.

Figure 3-2. COSCOM organization.

 

3-4. CORPS SUPPORT GROUPS

 

a. General.  CSG headquarters provide command, control, staff planning, and supervision of three to seven subordinate logistics battalions. The COSCOM task organizes CSGs to meet the needs of supported forces based on the scheme of maneuver the corps G3 establishes and the CSGs' forward or rear employment missions. While there is no standard CSG organizational structure, the forward CSG consists of multifunctional CSBs providing direct and general support. The rear CSG consists of one or more CSBs providing DS and functional battalions providing GS.

 

b. Forward CSGs.  Forward CSGs serve as the source of logistics support (less medical) for all corps organizations within their AOR. They provide forward support on an area basis to nondivision forces operating in the division AO, either directly through a CSB or indirectly by augmenting or reinforcing MSBs/FSBs. They provide area support to nondivision units behind the division's rear boundary, and GS supply and reinforcing DSM and field services support to divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs. Usually one forward CSG is allocated per committed division AO.

 

Each forward CSG employs a tailored CSB in the division area to provide responsive support to forward-employed nondivision forces. Unlike the DISCOM's fixed-structure MSB and FSB supporting division elements, the CSB is task organized to provide DS-level supply, services, and maintenance support to corps forces operating in the division area. The CSB reduces the command, control, and communications problems caused by long distances between supported nondivisional elements and supporting corps units otherwise located in the corps rear area. Though employed in the division area and merged with division bases or base clusters for rear operations security, the CSB remains under the forward CSG's command and control. Terrain management and highway regulation are coordinated with the division.

 

The remaining CSBs of each forward CSG employ behind the division rear boundary. They consist of both GS- and DS-level units to support nondivision forces in their assigned AOR as well as provide GS and reinforcing DS to the division, any separate brigades, and the ACR if employed in their AOR. One of these CSBs can provide the nucleus to support regeneration operations.

 

c. Rear CSG.  A rear CSG is allocated per COSCOM. The rear CSG provides corpswide support and reinforcing support to the forward CSGs. Like the forward CSGs, it provides area support to units employed in or passing through its AOR. It can also provide the nucleus of logistics regeneration support in the corps rear area. The rear CSG may consist of multifunctional CSBs, functional battalions, and a base support battalion.

 

(1) The rear CSG's CSBs provide DS-level area support to units in or passing through its AOR. These include hospitals, replacement units, signal units, corps HQ elements, and corps units supporting a reserve division. A CSB may also be tailored to provide regeneration support in the corps rear area.

 

(2) The rear CSG's functional battalions provide corpswide logistics support to divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs as well as reinforcing support to the forward CSGs. The petroleum supply battalion, ammunition battalion, and S&S battalion maintain the corps reserve stocks. These stocks enable the corps commander to support combat and provide the surge capability to win in battle. The transportation battalions support the supply and replacement distribution systems. The AVIM battalion provides corpswide AVIM support and reinforcing AVUM. In an arid environment, a water supply battalion provides corpswide GS-level water supply.

 

(3) Theater dependent, a base support battalion maintains facilities in caretaker status for future reactivation to provide base operations support.

 

d. TA dependence. The COSCOM depends on TA general support units (GSUs) (heavy materiel supply companies, repair parts supply companies, and general supply companies) to resupply its subordinate GSUs. This dependence is particularly significant during reconstitution operations when the CMMC will arrange for push packages of class VII items and class IX repair parts required specifically for the units being reconstituted. The COSCOM also depends on TA transportation assets to supplement the corps transportation system assets. It depends on the general support maintenance (GSM) units to repair items beyond DSM unit capability for return to the supply system. If the CMMC's automation capability is disrupted, the COSCOM may depend on the theater army materiel management center (TAMMC) or TAACOM materiel management center (MMC), as written in the OPLAN, for continuity of operations.

 

3-5. MEDICAL BRIGADE

 

The medical brigade provides treatment, hospitalization, evacuation, logistics, patient regulating, PM, psychiatric, laboratory, dental, and veterinary support to the corps. The medical brigade HQ task organizes the COSCOM medical assets to meet the patient work load and CHS requirements corps forces generate. Medical assets are task organized under subordinate medical groups normally employed geographically in the corps rear area and directly under the brigade HQ. The medical brigade mission, functions, and organization are covered in more detail in chapter 9, section II.

 

3-6. TRANSPORTATION GROUP

 

A transportation group could be attached to the COSCOM to provide command, control, and staff planning if three or more functional transportation battalions are included in the corps force structure. The number of transportation battalions in the force structure is normally based on the number of truck and terminal operating units providing corpswide support under the rear CSG, not on those assigned or attached to forward CSGs.

3-7. SUPPORT TO DIVISIONS, SEPARATE BRIGADES, AND ACRs

 

DISCOMs, support battalions, and support squadrons provide most of the required logistics support. However, they depend on the COSCOM for GS-level supplies, medical supplies, evacuation and reinforcing medical treatment support, reinforcing DSM and AVIM, transportation and airdrop support, mortuary affairs support, and secondary field services support (such as SLCR). MSBs and FSBs rely on COSCOM augmentation or reinforcement to support nondivision units employed in their areas.

 

3-8. SUPPORT TO HEAVY DIVISIONS

 

Corps transportation assets deliver GS-level supplies to division DSU supply points and maintenance units. Division units go to their supporting supply point to pick up their supplies. In contrast, the COSCOM delivers class IV barrier or fortification material directly to emplacement sites and aviation fuel directly to division and corps aviation elements. When necessary, the corps airdrops critical fuels, ammunition, repair parts, rations, and blood supplies.

 

COSCOM DSM units or AVIM units provide reinforcing maintenance support to division DSM and AVIM units. The corps G4 determines the priority of maintenance support. The COSCOM may attach MSTs to a division, separate brigade, or ACR.

 

DS field services companies provide SLCR support to division as well as nondivision troops. The collection company in the BSA and DSA will establish a forward collection point to begin the mortuary affairs collection and evacuation process.

 

Corps ambulances evacuate patients from division treatment stations to corps hospitals. The medical brigade provides reinforcing treatment, dental, and PM support. The Medical Logistics (MEDLOG) Bn (Fwd) builds prepackaged resupply sets of consumable medical supplies to support division requirements.

 

In addition to supporting the supply distribution system from the corps GS level to division DSUs, corps truck units support personnel and heavy equipment movement and cargo transfer operations in the division.

 

3-9. SUPPORT TO LIGHT DIVISIONS

 

a. General.  The light infantry division (LID), airborne division, and air assault division require more logistics support from the COSCOM than heavy divisions. These divisions perform only essential logistics support and CHS functions and stock only mission-essential supplies with their organic assets. They depend heavily on corps and echelon above corps (EAC) units to provide resupply to the DISCOM, reinforcing DSM, transportation, medical support, SLCR, and airdrop support.

 

(1) The LID requires more throughput from the corps rear area to the BSA due to the MSB's limited capability to resupply FSBs. However, the COSCOM cannot throughput too many supplies or it will overwhelm the LID's limited ability to move assets around the battlefield.

 

(2) Light division maintenance support and capabilities are limited. They rely on replacement versus repair of components and pass an increased maintenance work load to nondivision DSM units.

 

(3) LID and airborne divisions place heavy transportation requirements on the COSCOM for personnel, cargo, and airdrop support.

 

(4) The COSCOM provides CHS augmentation, including positioning medical evacuation assets forward.

b. LID augmentation.  Although the LID was designed for low-intensity conflict and was limited on total personnel, projected combat intensities quickly drive support requirements beyond LID DISCOMs' organic capabilities. Specific COSCOM elements have been designed or identified to perform required functions to offset these excessive work loads. This augmented support, over and above the normal COSCOM support organization, is sometimes referred to as the "corps slice." The following corps teams, detachments, and platoons augment the LID support organization:

 

(1) The LID QM supply support detachment provides materiel management support functions and performs data processing-related processes beyond the LID's organic capabilities. It may either collocate with the CMMC or the LID's DISCOM.

 

(2) The light/medium truck company offsets the driver shortfall in the LID that results from allocating only one driver per vehicle for single-shift operations.

 

(3) The LID missile support team from the corps DS missile support maintenance company augments the division missile support capability. LID missile maintenance support is limited to reparable exchange (RX) with repairs being performed at corps.

 

(4) The LID AVIM support team is attached to a COSCOM AVIM company to offset an estimated 21 percent of the AVIM work load passed back to the corps.

 

(5) The LID MST augments an estimated 20 percent of the ground maintenance work load passed back to a nondivision DSM company providing DS to a LID.

 

(6) The perishable subsistence platoon assigned to the COSCOM general supply company augments the LID's MSB, providing A- and B-ration storage and issue capability.

 

(7) The LID graves registration team augments the MSB. This team can process 79 remains per day, perform search and recovery as required, and operate a collection and evacuation point. Fielding of the corps mortuary affairs collection company will eliminate this augmentation.

 

(8) The hot/arid environment water team provides potable water storage and distribution system assets in arid regions.

 

3-10. SUPPORT TO SEPARATE BRIGADES AND ACRs

 

Similar to support to divisions, the COSCOM provides medical, GS supply, reinforcing DSM, field services, and transportation support to separate brigades and ACRs. When one of these corps forces employs in advance of a corps-sized force, elements of a forward CSG deploy to provide support. The support could consist of a forward logistics element formed by a forward CSB or a full tailored CSB depending on the force's requirements. In either case, a forward CSB and the CSG provide all required DS- and GS-level support, including heavy-equipment transporter (HET) movement support to the separate brigade or ACR.

 

If a separate brigade or ACR deploys in an allied force area adjacent to US forces, forward CSG/CSB support elements from the adjacent US forces provide out-of-sector support. They may support from their sector if an adequate line of support can be established, or they may deploy with the corps force to augment the support battalion or squadron capabilities.

 

3-11. HOST NATION SUPPORT (HNS)

 

HNS includes civilian and military support services the host nation (HN) furnishes to forces stationed on HN territory during peace and war. HNS helps to offset manpower, equipment, and supply requirements. It is the preferred method of meeting unsatisfied military support requirements. In times of crisis, using HNS will significantly reduce the time required to deploy and establish US reinforcing units.

 

The two categories of HNS that offset US requirements are direct HNS and indirect HNS. Direct HNS consists of HN military or paramilitary units organized similarly to US units. This HNS relates to comparable US organizations and capabilities. Indirect wartime HNS refers to support that is anticipated based on agreements with the host country. The type and volume of HNS services provided will depend on agreements between the nations involved and the host nation's actual capabilities. Unless other provisions apply, the United States will reimburse costs.

 

Due to the proximity of combat operations, only the HN military should perform some HNS functions. HN civilian firms may provide bath, laundry, and bakery services. HN buildings and facilities, as well as transportation and distribution systems, can offset logistics support requirements, particularly in port areas. The COSCOM Assistant Chief of Staff (ACofS), Support Operations Procurement Support Branch, should consider these areas when planning and requesting HNS. It should conduct a risk assessment to determine the impact should planned logistic area HNS not be available.

 

COSCOM ACofS, Support Operations Procurement Support Branch, personnel manage and coordinate HNS that has been negotiated and agreed upon by the host nation in peacetime and is expected to be provided in wartime to support the COSCOM's logistics mission. The COSCOM ACofS, G5 section personnel manage and coordinate available HNS for COSCOM units. As appropriate, section personnel manage and coordinate any additional ad hoc HNS the appropriate HN authorities have agreed upon. They coordinate requirements with civil affairs teams, the corps G5, and subordinate CSGs.

 

To support contingency operations, an HNS coordination team (contingency) can be assigned to the task force's senior logistics HQ. This team locates, obtains, and coordinates available HNS resources. It coordinates closely with the civil affairs organization operating with the contingency force. The team obtains HNS resources through local purchase or contracts and coordinates with finance and legal activities to execute HNS contracts.

 

3-12. JOINT OPERATION SUPPORT

 

Corps forces can operate as part of a joint task force. As the corps logistics command, the COSCOM supports corps units conducting joint operations. The COSCOM assumes the role of theater-level logistics manager and operator in a single corps contingency situation. While each military service provides its own logistics support in principle, the joint task force commander normally tasks the dominant user to provide or coordinate support for all service components. The commander in chief (CINC) allocates critical logistics assets among services and issues directives to transfer logistics functions between service components.

 

3-13. COSCOM CONTROL CENTERS

 

a. CMMC. The CMMC centrally controls all GS supply within the corps. It also manages DSM support operations. CMMC commodity managers perform centralized stock management of a specific supply class. Materiel managers provide consolidated materiel management of a specific commodity. They manage supply classes by exception using selective controls. Commodity managers compile, interpret, and report data to the appropriate logistics branch in the COSCOM's support operations section. Centralized management uses input from automated management information systems and communications to interface with the movement control center (MCC). FM 54-23 provides additional information on the CMMC.

(1) CMMC mission.  The CMMC performs integrated materiel management for the corps for all classes of supply [except medical supply, classified communications security (COMSEC), and classified maps]. Integrated materiel management involves computing requirements, establishing stockage levels, directing and distributing procurement, disposal, and developing guidance for maintenance priorities. The CMMC also performs maintenance management for all assigned or attached maintenance activities.

 

(2) Split-base operations.  The CMMC must be able to displace in increments to provide onsite materiel management support of a force-projection response to a crisis, from the force's initial entry into theater through the culmination of operations. The remaining part of the CMMC remains in a secure sanctuary installation location. The home-based main CMMC is augmented with table of distribution and allowances (TDA)-authorized civilians. The CMMC element in the sanctuary area processes the requirements for units in the sanctuary area and for those activities the forward CMMC elements support. Assured communication between the forward and sanctuary-based CMMC elements is required. A military or commercial system may provide the link.

 

b. CMCC. The CMCC provides centralized movement control and highway regulation. It uses its subordinate movement control teams (MCTs) and movement regulating teams to commit and allocate corps transportation assets. In response to unusual transportation support requirements, the CMCC controls transportation assets in truck companies attached to TMT battalions or CSBs. The CMCC is discussed in detail in chapter 4.