MOVING THE FORCE
4-1. TRANSPORTATION SERVICE
Within an AO, transportation organizations provide support in three basic functional areas: mode operations, terminal operations, and movements management services.
a. Mode operations include physically moving personnel or materiel on a transportation conveyance. The basic modes of transportation are air, rail, road, and water transport. Pipeline is often referred to as a mode of transportation; however, since the transportation organization does not plan, manage, or operate pipelines, they will not be addressed in this summary.
b. Terminal operations consist of shifting cargo from one mode of transportation to a different mode or from one type of transport within a mode to a different type at an intermediate point within the transportation system. A transportation system's effectiveness depends on the efficiency of the terminal facilities that support it. There are two types of terminal operations: terminal service operations and terminal transfer operations.
(1) Terminal service operations support water terminals at either established ports or logistics- over-the-shore operations (LOTS) sites. Transportation terminal service units load, unload, and transship cargo to support the port operations. They also sort cargo by destination and prepare all required documentation to account for cargo moving through the terminal.
(a) Division modal operations include aviation and truck. The G3 controls aviation assets. The division transportation officer (DTO) coordinates CSS employment of aviation assets with the G3.
(b) The number and types of units assigned to the TMT battalions are variable.
(c) The number of movement control teams (MCTs) and movement regulating teams (MRTs) assigned to the MCC is variable.
(d) Terminal service and railway operating capabilities may be assigned to the COSCOM as required when a corps is operating independently.
(e) The corps or TA will provide required terminal operations within a division's AO.
(2) Terminal transfer operations include transshipping cargo at air, rail, motor, and inland barge terminals. This includes unloading, segregating, temporarily holding, documenting, and loading cargo whenever a change in mode occurs.
c. Movements management involves two major functions: transportation movement and highway regulation.
(1) Transportation movements management includes the staff planning and coordination required to use the transportation system effectively to move personnel and materiel to the right place, at the right time, and by the most economical means. This management is concerned with planning, coordinating, programming, monitoring, and supervising the allocation and use of the available transportation resources to meet the command's movement requirements. The transportation aspects and logistic readiness actions are continually reviewed, analyzed, and evaluated. This coordination is accomplished through the CMCC and its MCTs to coordinate the movements management program in support of the corps.
(2) The MRT established at locations of high-volume traffic (such as supply activities and terminals) performs highway regulation. The MCT acts as the interface between the transportation system users (customers), the mode operators, and the management system (see figure 4-1).
Figure 4-1. Division and corps transportation requests.
Transportation movements management is centralized at the highest organizational level to maintain flexibility of support and obtain maximum efficiency and effectiveness. The CMCC coordinates and monitors shipments within the corps area. The MCC is the nerve center of the transportation system where movement requirements are received and analyzed, where transportation resources are allocated, and where resources are committed to satisfy these movement requirements. Most corps movement planning and programming are accomplished at the CMCC.
4-2. CORPS TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS
a. Movements management.
(1) The CMCC implements the corps movement program. It will allocate corps transportation assets according to the priorities established in the corps movement program. The program will be developed based on known movement requirements by class and type of supply required in the corps area. The MCC will consolidate and tabulate requirements by class of supply, tonnage, and movement program line number. It will match requirements to transport capabilities and the mode selected.
The MCC receives requests for priority nonprogrammed movement requirements. It verifies the requirements with the origin MCT. If necessary, the MCC may make adjustments to the corps movement program. The MCC directs the origin MCT to coordinate with the destination MCT to confirm receiving capabilities and to obtain a transportation movement release. The destination MCT coordinates with the shipping unit to ensure the movement is completed by the required delivery date.
The COSCOM ACofS, Support Operations, Transportation Branch, chief validates competing priorities. Transportation priorities are based on the Uniform Materiel Movement and Issue Priority System (UMMIPS). MCTs ensure that the transportation priority is correct. If necessary, MCOs identify programmed movements that can be delayed and recommend relocating transportation support assets.
When possible, alternative modes and other assets within the corps area will be used. If not available, the MCC requests assistance from the theater army movement control agency (TAMCA). When requirements exceed transportation capabilities, supply and transportation priorities will be combined to provide the basis for allocating transport assets.
The MCC coordinates highway use for all movements originating in, terminating in, or transiting the corps area. It coordinates movements coming into and leaving the corps with the DTO and the TAMCA. The MCC also coordinates with movement officers at all levels to ensure the receiving and unloading capabilities of supported units in the division and corps areas are not exceeded and that visibility of cargo in transit is provided.
The CMCC will coordinate circulation and security missions with the MP brigade. The MP brigade ensures that authorized traffic moves smoothly, quickly, and with little interference along the MSR. It routes traffic to meet changes in the situation, enforces MSR regulations, and reconnoiters MSRs.
(2) MCTs process requests for programmed or nonprogrammed movement and convoy clearance requests to the MCC's highway traffic HQ. That HQ notifies the origin MCT of the movement credit and number. The MCTs then forward the convoy clearance to the requesting unit. MCTs also forward requests exceeding mode capability to the MCC. After the transportation mode has been selected, MCTs issue a transportation movement release number and instructions to the shipping unit concerning shipping and handling. They also ensure that shipping units consolidate partial load shipments where practical.
As necessary, MCTs expedite handling frustrated cargo due to missing or improper documents, improper packaging, or mixing noncompatible hazardous material. Requests for follow-up, shipment status, or tracing will be submitted to the MCT that originally scheduled the shipment. The requesting unit must provide the shipment's transportation control number. To ensure effective use of transportation assets, MCTs coordinate the arrival and spotting of transportation assets to be as close together as possible. They will forward reports of movement status on cargo shipping actions (cargo held, diverted, reconsigned, transferred, traced, or expedited cargo) to the MCC.
MCTs will also maintain an inventory of containers and submit the status of containers arriving and departing within their AOR to the MCC. They coordinate with mode operators to ensure that assets arrive at the required time and check with the shipping unit to ensure prompt transportation assets. If required, MCTs arrange sensitive cargo movement.
If the mode is by air, MCTs will coordinate the cargo transfer from an aircraft to surface modes. As required, they will designate temporary storage sites for cargo requiring breakbulk. Destination MCTs will coordinate with receiving units to ensure the availability of transportation assets is not reduced due to unloading delays. As necessary, they will spot-check unloading procedures.
(3) MRTs coordinate authorized traffic movement. They report to the MCC on vehicle and convoy movement along routes. They also report disruptions in traffic flow due to vehicle breakdown, road conditions, or enemy action. As necessary, they adjust movement schedules and change truck or convoy routing. They then notify convoys of changes in routing and rate of march. MRTs also provide convoy commanders the latest intelligence on route conditions, possible threat action, and air or artillery support availability.
(a) Traffic circulation planning. This plan graphically portrays the road network and how it is to be used and maintained. The plan normally includes restrictive route features; route designations; direction of movement; and locations of boundaries, units, highway regulating points, traffic control points, and major supply or shipping activities.
(b) Traffic routing. Traffic is routed over designated routes to balance the vehicle and route characteristics (road surfaces, curves, and bridge capacities) and to reduce traffic congestion or conflicts.
(c) Traffic scheduling. Traffic scheduling is coordinating times for movement along specified routes to satisfy command movement priorities; minimize delays, conflicts, and congestion; and promote security and passive defense.
b. Mode and terminal operations.
COSCOM transportation forms the critical link in the theater distribution system. The actual organization depends on forecasted work load and units available in the force structure. A transportation group HQ is required when three or more transportation battalions are included in the force structure.
The transportation organization is structured to move cargo, equipment, and personnel by various modes of transport and provides transport resources in support of campaigns and major operations. It needs to move maneuver units on the battlefield as well as reposition the corps support structure. HNS can help offset shortfalls in US transportation units.
Motor transportation units consist of a variable number of truck companies and cargo transfer companies. The COSCOM commander attaches them to his subordinate CSGs or transportation group for allocation/reallocation to CSBs and transportation battalions. FM 55-30 describes truck unit operations.
The transportation battalion attached to the rear CSG provides direct as well as general support to corps nondivision units and reinforcing support to assigned divisions. It also provides throughput distribution as far forward as the BSA. When employed to support an independent corps operation, the battalion may need to operate the transportation service from the waterline to forward areas of combat. This situation requires that the troop list include terminal and rail units from an EAC rail or terminal battalion.
Light-medium truck companies move general cargo in support of the corps. They primarily operate to support the COSCOM's internal needs in the corps rear.
Medium truck companies are allocated to CSBs or transportation battalions. They haul containerized and breakbulk ammunition and general cargo within the corps rear area and to supply points located in the DSA/BSA.
Heavy truck companies move heavy or outsized cargo and vehicles such as tanks, howitzers, and personnel carriers. HETs support operational and tactical mobility. HETs move heavy armored forces from a port of debarkation (POD) to an initial assembly area in the corps rear area. HETs also move heavy armored forces with slice elements from corps or division areas as far forward as mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available (METT-T) factors will permit. Using HETs to move heavy armored forces reduces fuel requirements en route. It also reduces the maintenance work load due to fewer system breakdowns en route. Weapon systems are functional and crews are rested and prepared to fight. HETs may also support evacuation and weapon system replacement operations (WSRO). When HETs perform a battlefield evacuation role, they move as far forward as the most forward collection point operated by the maintenance company in the brigade area. Due to the low density of these assets, the HET company is not normally placed in a DS role.
Cargo transfer companies transship cargo at air, rail, motor, and inland barge terminals. This includes unloading, segregating, temporarily holding, documenting, and loading cargo whenever a change in mode occurs.
Trailer transfer point teams (TOE 55540LE00) are attached to the transportation battalion. They receive, segregate, assemble, and dispatch loaded or empty semitrailers for onward movement IAW CMCC-directed priorities. They also provide emergency refueling and minor repairs for arriving vehicles.
Depending on the theater, a US terminal transfer cellular logistics team (CLT) (TOE 55510LA00) could be allocated. This CLT provides liaison and serves as the interface in joint terminal transfer operations with HNS terminal transfer units. Based on the mission of HNS terminal transfer units, the CLT may operate at a railhead, airhead, seaport, inland waterway port, or depot. Though assigned to the COSCOM and attached to a CSG, the team collocates with the HNS transportation battalion and terminal transfer units. The HQ section collocates with the HNS transportation battalion HQ, serving as the HNS battalion logistic operations section. The two company sections collocate with HN terminal transfer companies. They serve as a portion of the terminal transfer company's operations section. CLT personnel,
!Provide operational mission coordination (taskings) to the HNS transportation battalion.
!Consolidate and forward transportation management reports from HN units to the CMCC.
!Coordinate mission taskings between the CMCC and HN terminal transfer units.
!Maintain visibility of intransit US shipments and supplies, providing status reports through US channels/organizations.
!Divert cargo when the CMCC directs.
!Assist HN documentation personnel in preparing US documentation.
!Provide technical guidance for loading US cargo on HN equipment.
An MCT passes taskings for transportation and terminal transfer support via an HN liaison officer (LO) team collocated with the MCT. The CLT headquarters section receives the terminal transfer tasking order with assigned transportation movement release number and relays the tasking information to the wartime host nation support (WHNS) transportation battalion S3. The WHNS terminal transfer company operations section tasks transfer platoons with the mission and provides cargo information. The CLT company sections assist with cargo documentation. Based on input from the MCT/CMCC, the CLT may alter transportation movement priority of shipments.
4-3. DIVISION TRANSPORTATION OPERATIONS
The DISCOM's principal transportation asset is the MSB TMT company. Its mission is to provide truck transportation to distribute supplies and to move heavy and outsized vehicles and cargo. It also provides vehicles to help division elements needing supplemental transportation, including class V emergency unit distribution.
The DISCOM MCO centrally controls division motor transport vehicle employment and coordinates priorities with the DTO. To the extent practicable, every transportation dispatch should serve two purposes. For example, trucks that transport supplies and personnel forward to supported units also, on the return trip, bring back damaged and captured equipment, salvage, and prisoners of war (PWs).
The TMT company is usually located close to the MSB headquarters near mainland LOCs. The TMT company's mission is to,
! Provide truck transportation to move supplies from the DSA to the BSA.
! Transport division reserve supplies for which the MSB is responsible.
!Furnish vehicles to assist division elements with requirements for supplemental transportation, including emergency unit distribution of class V supplies.
The DTO plans and establishes movement priorities based on the division commander's overall mission priorities. The division G3 assigns motor transportation mission priorities for tactical support and the G4 for logistic support. The DTO is the staff's communications link for transportation between the division and the corps. The DTO gives the DISCOM MCO broad policy guidance and basic plans and policies. He also provides staff supervision and assistance in transportation matters concerning all modes of transport. The MCO controls motor transportation asset employment and allocated CSS air assets within the division. The DTO coordinates with the G3 and the division aviation officer to allocate division air assets. All users forward their transportation requirements within the division to the MCO. Transportation capabilities are then balanced against requirements and division-level priorities. When routine requirements exceed available division motor transport capabilities, the MCO requests additional transport support through a supporting MCT. The DTO will still request all required nondivisional air support and nonroutine motor transport requirements from the MCC (if a supporting MCT cannot meet requirements).
There must be close and continuous coordination between the MCO and the DISCOM S2/S3, the DTO, the MCC, the MCT, the FSB support operations section, and the provost marshal's office operations officer. The MCO is the link between the division transportation mode operators and the division transportation users.
4-4. AIRLIFT RESUPPLY SUPPORT
Air resupply is accomplished using both air-land and airdrop. Although Army and Air Force assets are both used for these delivery methods, the Air Force performs most of the airdrop missions. The air-land delivery method is preferred because it does not require special airdrop equipment or rigging. The Army, however, furnishes the airdrop equipment and prepares the loads for airdrop missions. The request procedures for both airdrop and air-land resupply are the same. Airlift request procedures must be responsive and flexible to accommodate deliberate and rapidly changing situations. The planners must direct their efforts to optimally use scarce and vital airlift assets.
The Air Force supplements the Army's transportation capability within a theater of operations. At each level of command, staff elements are designated to control and manage transportation asset use (motor, rail, and Army aviation) and to monitor Air Force airlift requirements. The corps transportation officer, under the corps G4's staff supervision, performs these critical transportation staff functions and integrates airlift requirements into the overall corps transportation requirements.
The ACofS, Support Operations, Transportation Support Branch, chief, COSCOM, supervises the CMCC that, in turn, controls all CSS transportation movement activities in the corps sector. Transportation Support Branch personnel also validate airlift requests generated within the corps. The transportation requests are considered validated when forwarded through designated channels to the next command echelon for subsequent validation or to the transportation unit for execution. For reinforcement, the DTO in a division normally validates preplanned airlift requests while the G3 staff personnel validate immediate airlift requests. At corps, the MCC validates preplanned airlift requests. Coordinating or special staff agencies may receive authority to validate immediate requests to facilitate the request process.
Tactical operations and special missions use preplanned airlift support when sufficient time is available to schedule necessary assets. Immediate requests result from unanticipated, urgent, or priority requirements. These requirements may be met by providing aircraft on a quick-reaction basis at designated locations, by diverting or canceling preplanned missions, or by generating a standing sortie. Therefore, an emergency airlift mission may use a preplanned airlift sortie; however, it would normally be filled by an immediate mission using the highest priority the theater commander establishes. Ground force requirements for airlift normally originate as requests for transportation or resupply support. The S3/G3 develops the requirements for airlift and coordinates its use when requesting airlift for tactical air movements. The S4/G4 processes the actual request for air transport to support the air movement through logistic channels.
4-5. TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS
The transportation planning process must be followed regardless of the type of transportation planning being done. First, determine what must be moved. Second, determine what transportation resources are available. Third, balance requirements against resources. Fourth, determine shortfalls and critical points and apply priorities. Fifth, and most important, coordinate the plan with all units affected. The transportation planner must determine what the units need and then attempt to develop a transportation network to satisfy those needs.
a. Determining requirements.
(1) Each requirement to move troops or supplies generates at least one requirement for transportation. Initial transportation requirements can be expressed in terms of tonnage (or numbers of personnel) and distance. In the later stages of planning, the tonnages become classes of supply or even distinct items.
(2) The transportation planner provides adequate transportation support for the operation. He estimates total requirements based on the supplies required to support the forces and distances involved. This estimate serves as a point of departure. It functions as a general check on whether the requirements the users submitted are realistic.
(3) Some requirements may be within the capability of transport organic to the requesting unit. The planner must determine the extent of such capabilities and urge their use.
(4) Special requirements will be generated when the corps includes an airborne or air assault division. These divisions have limited organic transport capabilities. Therefore, when committed to sustained ground combat operations, they will require significant, dedicated corps transportation.
b. Determining resources. Resources are determined by assessing transportation resources and con-sidering,
!What types of transportation units are available.
!Characteristics and capabilities of each mode of transport.
!Capabilities of available civilian transport based on a facility survey, equipment inspection, and agreements negotiated with civilian transportation operators.
!Capabilities of HN transport, both civil and military, based on a facility survey, equipment inspection, and agreements negotiated with the host nation.
c. Balancing requirements and resources. Balancing requirements and resources is a process that determines if the transportation capability is adequate to meet the requirements. It also establishes the work load for each segment of the transportation service. This is the most time-consuming portion of the planning process.
(1) Providing complete transportation support requires considering factors other than the necessary operating units. The planner provides for adequate C2 by organizing units according to their missions, proposed locations, and area of coverage. He coordinates with other service planners to make certain their plans include the necessary capability to support the transportation units. He makes recommendations on the location of S&S units according to their transportation requirements.
(2) A composite statement of total transportation requirements speeds up the planning process. Each planner selects the format he finds most usable. One may use a chart listing all requirements showing origin, destination, required delivery date, weight, quantity, and class of supply for each shipment.
(3) The process of establishing work loads for each transport mode varies according to the phase of the operation. Usually, the plan for the initial phase should provide sufficient motor transport for all cargo and personnel movements. Though some priority items will move by air, this quantity will normally be only a small percentage of the total supplies.
(4) Work loads are computed individually for each transport mode according to the characteristics and capabilities of the operating units of that mode. The final plan, however, must combine the units and operations of all modes into a single, integrated transportation system.
(5) During actual operation, the theater commander allocates a portion of the available airlift to TA for its requirements. For planning purposes, however, air movement capacity is an assumption based on coordination with Army aviation and Air Force planners. This assumed capacity seldom exceeds the requirement for moving priority cargo. If there is an excess, planners should use it for nonprogrammed priority movements. Army transport aircraft capacity seldom exceeds the amount required for DS of combat operations. Therefore, there should be no plans for routine air movements of other than priority cargo.
(6) Rarely will a transportation plan extensively use inland waterways. In only a few areas of the world are there extensive inland waterway systems compatible with transportation requirements. Inland waterway systems are relatively vulnerable to enemy action and sabotage and are difficult to restore to usefulness.
(7) The planner must be certain to include all types of work loads. They may include successive, direct, and retrograde shipments of some cargo; documentation for rehandling; requirements for rewarehousing; augmentation of units' transportation; assistance to the medical evacuation plan; and requirements to support allied and civilian organizations.
d. Determining critical points, shortfalls, and priorities. Determining critical points along the proposed transportation system is done early in the planning process to identify points such as supply facilities, aerial and water ports, terminal transfer locations, and other points that may create bottlenecks. Accompanying this critical point determination is analyzing which alternative plans would alleviate possible bottlenecks. This builds flexibility into the system. Determining capabilities results in an assessment of the number of transportation units and their equipment available to support common-user movement requirements. Included in this assessment is the total number of HN transportation assets allocated, the number of third-country and US-contracted assets and reception materials handling, and in-transit storage capabilities. Balancing known or projected requirements against this assessment requires movement planning according to command priorities and the transportation priority or the shipment when capabilities fall short of meeting requirements. The remaining shortfall will be adjusted, and these adjustments will be coordinated with the shipper, receiver, materiel manager, and logistic staffs.
e. Coordinating among planners. Complete coordination among all planners is mandatory to ensure integrated support. Original guidance is seldom valid throughout the planning period. Therefore, constant coordination with the other staff planners on changes to the mission, commander's concepts, assumptions, intelligence, policies, priorities, allocations, locations of facilities, and other elements necessary to keep planning current is an absolute necessity.
4-8. DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following selected transportation terms are useful in understanding transportation operations in combat.
a. Backhaul,shipping materiel to or through an area from which the materiel has previously been shipped.
b. Consignee,the receiving agency, unit, depot, or person to whom the shipment unit is addressed or consigned.
c. Consignor,the activity from which a shipment unit is made.
d. Diversion,rerouting cargo or passengers to a new transshipment point or destination or on a different mode of transportation before arriving at the ultimate destination.
e. Highway regulating point,point on the highway where the MRT records and reports arriving and departing highway movements and regulates those elements by issuing instructions for continuing the march, detours, diversions, schedules, etc.
f. Highway regulation,planning, routing, scheduling, and directing actual highway use by vehicles; personnel afoot (including troops, refugees, and civilians); and animals using highway transportation facilities and equipment most effectively to meet operational requirements. This is a highway traffic division function.
g. Highway traffic control,enforcing the rules of the road, traffic regulations, and road discipline, including spot direction. This is a provost marshal and MP function.
h. Intertheater shipments,shipments moving into or out of the theater.
i. Intratheater shipments,shipments originating and terminating within the theater.
j. Line-haul,in highway transportation, a type of haul involving long trips over the road in which the portion of driving time is high in relation to the time consumed in loading and unloading. Line-hauls normally involve one trip or a portion of a trip per operating shift of 10 hours, or two trips per day.
k. Local haul,in highway transportation, a type of haul characterized by short driving time in relation to the loading and unloading time. These hauls normally involve four or more trips per day.
l. LOTS,loading and unloading ships without the benefit of fixed port facilities in friendly or unfriendly territory.
m. Mode operations,a collective term used to indicate operations of one or more transport modes (highway, rail, water, and air).
n. Movement capability,the total capability of the shipping and receiving agencies and the transport services to effect transportation between two or more points or areas over a stated period of time.
o. Movement control,planning, routing, scheduling, and controlling personnel and supply movements over LOCs; also an organization responsible for these functions.
p. Movement control agency (MCA),a major functional TA control element that coordinates and administers transportation policy. This agency balances and coordinates the capabilities of shipping, transporting, and receiving activities theaterwide; maintains a close relationship with CONUS transportation activities; and technically supervises the CMCC.
q. Movement control center (MCC),a functional control center at corps level (assigned to a COSCOM) that balances and coordinates the capabilities of shipping, transporting, and receiving activities to provide a responsive transportation system capable of satisfying the commander's movements requirements.
r. Movements program,a command directive prepared by the transportation movement element and issued in the commander's name giving plans for future movements. It is based on the commander's overall plan and coordinated with all interested agencies. The movements program allocates the available transport mode capability to satisfy the movements requirements according to priorities the commander establishes. These priorities provide an orderly basis for resolving competition among the various users of the available transport. The movements program normally contains information on origins, destinations, weight and cube of cargo, type and number of personnel to be moved, the movement priority, and the transportation organization assigned the movement responsibility.
s. Terminal,those military and commercial facilities used to load, unload, and transit handling cargo or personnel by various modes of transportation.
t. Terminal operations,command and control of Army operations at water terminals (established ports, beaches, and inland waterways), air terminals (Air Force and Army), and in-transit areas.
u. Throughput,shipping supplies or moving personnel from points of origin as far forward as possible, bypassing intermediate supply or personnel activities.
v. MCT,coordinates all assigned movements and ensures that available resources are maximally effective and economically used. These MCTs are assigned to the corps and to EAC.
w. Transshipment,transferring a load from one transport facility or vehicle to another using the same or different means of transport.
x. Transportation component command (TCC),a generic phrase that describes the various transportation agencies within the US Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM),the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC), Air Mobility Command, and Military Sealift Command,that move personnel and cargo during peace and war.