ARMING THE FORCE
Much has been said and written about the increased lethality of today's battlefield, and an integral part of this lethality is a responsive and continuous supply of ammunition. Within the corps, ammunition operations' primary focus is to support the "big six" combat users,artillery, infantry, armor, air defense artillery, combat engineers, and combat aviation. The corps ammunition system is the maneuver-oriented ammunition distribution system,palletized loading system (MOADS/PLS).
When fighting as part of joint and combined forces, US Army ammunition units may also support other services and possibly coalition forces. In this era of force projection, ammunition planning must have the flexibility to support all types and combinations of forces.
This chapter focuses primarily on conventional ammunition support but also includes an overview of explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operations within a corps and unexploded ordnance (UXO) threats and procedures. The information in this chapter is derived from FMs 9-6, 9-15, 9-38, 54-30, and 63-3. The pre-ponderance of the information in this chapter is based on the example of a heavy division. Since the primary focus of this chapter is corps and division ammunition operations, information about the TA and CONUS is minimal. If this chapter conflicts with doctrinal sources, the doctrinal sources will prevail. You will find there is a blend of doctrine and emerging doctrine. Emerging doctrine will be identified as such. Do not use this chapter as a crutch to avoid becoming familiar with the doctrinal manuals.
Paragraph 5-7 includes several examples of how to apply the lift capability of ammunition units. Remember these are examples that are intended only to illustrate how lift may be used. Do not take them as the only possible solutions.
5-2. AMMUNITION SUPPORT
a. General. Providing the required quantity and type of ammunition to the combat user at the time and place it is needed requires a responsive and flexible ammunition supply system. MOADS/PLS provides this capability. The objective of MOADS/PLS is to deliver 100 percent of the "big six" users' ammunition require-ments through supporting ATPs. In addition to these combat users, other units may receive ammunition support on an area basis from the ammunition supply activity [e.g., ATP, ammunition supply point (ASP), or corps storage area (CSA)] closest to the unit. Other units operating in the division rear area receive ammunition support on an area basis from either a DS ammunition company ATP or an ASP unless the division directs otherwise. The ASP can support units and make direct shipments of selected items to the ATPs. MOADS/PLS maximizes the use of combat-configured loads (CCLs). GS companies that operate CSAs in the corps rear provide GS ammunition support.
b. Ammunition basic loads (ABLs). ABLs originate with tactical forces' planned deployment. Ammunition is allocated to units in peacetime so that in the event of deployment, units will have an initial issue of ammunition that can sustain the unit until resupply can be accomplished.
The ABL is that quantity of conventional ammunition a unit is authorized and required to sustain itself until normal resupply can be effected. ABL must be carried in one lift in a combination of weapon systems, unit personnel, and organic equipment. The ABL's size and makeup are designed to meet a unit's anticipated initial combat needs. ABL is normally expressed in rounds per weapon, but it can be expressed in its number of required combat loads (battalion loads for artillery systems). The following factors influence the ABL's composi-tion:
!Nature of the enemy threat.
!Type of mission.
!Intensity of engagement.
!Availability of resupply transport.
!Availability of ammunition.
!Number and types of weapons in unit.
The criticality of high-lethality, special purpose, high-cost ammunition such as the Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) requires extraordinary asset management, dispersion, and distribution to ensure availability. Limited availability of these types of ammunition may preclude their inclusion in individual ABLs. Rather than being allocated per weapon, these types of ammunition may be held back to attack preselected, high-priority targets as they appear.
c. Combat load (CL). Another unit of measure that has emerged is the CL. A CL is the designated quantity of munitions each deployable weapon system will carry to initiate combat operations. It is a standard unit of measure used to describe munitions for planning and resource programming. For most weapon systems, the CL is limited to the amount the weapon system can carry; e.g., 40 rounds in an M1A2 tank. The CL for artillery [including the multiple-launch rocket system (MLRS)] is actually a battalion load that includes rounds carried in the howitzer, a dedicated ammunition support vehicle, a field artillery ammunition support vehicle (FAASV), and battalion HEMTTs. CLs for attack helicopter units include more munitions than can be carried in one lift and provide enough munitions to assemble any combination of missiles, rockets, and ammunition the commander desires for a specific mission.
In force-projection operations, the CL system will be used to manage ammunition operations. The intent is to match the required number of CLs to the particular mission, and the required quantity of CLs will flow into the theater.
d. Lift capability. Ammunition units' capabilities are measured in lift. A lift uses materials handling equipment (MHE) to pick up ammunition and put it down, with each pickup and put-down constituting one lift. Lift is usually measured in short tons (STON) (2,000 pounds). Lift capabilities are limited by availability of personnel and MHE. There are several categories of activities that constitute lift,receipts, issues, rewarehouse/ configure, and transload. At an ATP, the only lift required is transload. At all other ammunition storage areas, there will be a combination of all types of lift. The ammunition manager's goal is to effectively manage ammunition unit lift capabilities to adequately support ongoing operations.
5-3. CONTROL PROCEDURES
a. Ammunition supply rates. The procedures used to control ammunition consumption are the required supply rate (RSR) and the controlled supply rate (CSR). The Standard Army Ammunition System (SAAS) is the management information system used to support these control procedures.
(1) The RSR is the amount of ammunition a maneuver commander estimates will be needed to sustain tactical operations, without restrictions, over a specified time period or for a specific mission. The RSR is expressed as rounds per weapon per day or, for selected items, as a bulk allotment per day or per mission. As the threat or missions change, RSRs should change to reflect revised ammunition forecasts. Maneuver com-manders develop RSRs and submit them to the next higher HQ through operations channels. Each HQ reviews, adjusts, and consolidates RSRs and forwards them through operations channels. At the HQ that has ammunition management responsibilities, normally at TA level, the total ammunition requirements are compared against total ammunition assets expected for that period. If there is a restriction, a CSR will be established.
(2) The CSR is that amount of ammunition that can be allocated based on the availability of ammuni-tion types or quantities, class V storage facilities, and transportation assets over a specific time period. The CSR is expressed in the same terms as the RSR. Commanders should use CSRs to allocate or prioritize the flow of ammunition assets to units engaged in combat and to units held in reserve. They should also withhold some ammunition, especially high-lethality, low-density ammunition, to meet unforeseen requirements.
The commander with ammunition management responsibilities, normally the TA commander, will announce the CSR for each item of ammunition to the corps commanders through logistics channels. The rates may vary from corps to corps depending on priorities, the projected threat, and ammunition availability. Each maneuver commander announces a CSR to the next subordinate maneuver commander. Commanders making CSR allocations to subordinate units should not allocate 100 percent of the CSR received from the higher HQ. They should retain a portion to meet unforeseen contingencies.
The CSRs should be published in the OPORD, a fragmentary order (FRAGO), a service support annex, or a fire support annex. The CSR may change daily. If there are no restrictions, the statement, "The CSR is the RSR," is used. The next higher commander may give permission for a unit to exceed its CSR. The commander granting permission for a unit to exceed its CSR must release contingency stocks, withhold or reduce issues to other units, or request an increase in his own CSR from the next higher commander before permitting a unit to increase its CSR.
b. The division ammunition officer (DAO). DAOs are responsible for ammunition distribution in the division. They are located in the DMMC where they can oversee the division's class V assets. The DAO maintains constant communication with the users, the MSC staffs, the CMMC, and ATPs while coordinating ATP operations/resupply with corps and division units. This communications capability and knowledge of planned and current operations enables the DAO to anticipate the ammunition consumption of supported units, thereby ensuring ammunition is available to support user requirements.
The division commander determines the quantity of ammunition to supply each brigade based on planned operations, the current CSR, and subordinate commanders' ammunition requirements. The DAO then coordinates with the CMMC for the required or authorized ammunition to be shipped to the designated ATP for the using unit to pick up. The DAO notifies the ATP representative and MSC S4s of inbound ammunition shipments. The MSC S4s must notify subordinate units when and where to pick up ammunition. Based on the division commander's concept of the operation, the DAO specifies which units (division, corps, or other) each ATP supports. The DAO also recommends locations for the ATPs to the command organizations responsible for their positioning.
In some situations, the DAO may designate an ASP rather than an ATP to provide more responsive ammunition resupply to units operating in the division rear. Upon issuing, the users may reconfigure the ammunition into appropriate LOGPACs for movement forward and distribution. Munitions barrier material should be delivered directly to an engineer supply point (ESP) near the emplacement site.
c. The CMMC. The CMMC's missile and munitions division interfaces with the DAOs and MSC S4s. The CMMC performs the following ammunition support functions:
(1) Approves stockage objectives for CSAs/ASPs.
(2) Recommends CSRs to the corps staff.
(3) Directs ammunition distribution in the corps.
(4) Provides requirements for moving ammunition to the MCC.
(5) Coordinates with the theater army MMC (TAMMC) and or national inventory control point (NICP) to fill ammunition requirements.
(6) Operates the SAAS 1/3 to maintain visibility of ammunition assets on hand and in transit and determines authorized levels.
5-4. COMBAT-CONFIGURED LOADS
A CCL is a preplanned package of ammunition designed to support a specific weapon system or unit and is transported as a single unit. CCLs' primary purpose is to simplify planning and coordination for ammunition resupply. CCLs are a predetermined mix of ammunition designed to fit on a specific vehicle; i.e., a stake and platform (S&P) trailer or a PLS flatrack. CCL design should consider both US and HN transportation assets.
CCL planning is done in peacetime to enhance wartime resupply coordination between the ATP and DAO and from the DAO to the CMMC. MSC S4s should submit proposed CCL configurations to the DAO based on their type of unit, task force, or weapon system. The DAO reviews CCL submissions and submits a consolidated division CCL listing to the corps. The CMMC, in coordination with the corps staff, reviews all CCL requests and establishes a corps set of standard CCLs to support the corps maneuver units. Using CCLs does not preclude ordering single Department of Defense identification code (DODIC) loads.
Battalion-level CCLs are the general building block used for CCL design. However, within a brigade, use caution not to design CCLs for pure battalions. Plan CCLs based on typical task organization within the brigade.
5-5. AMMUNITION UNITS
a. Supply Company, FSB,operates an ATP in its respective BSA and provides ammunition support to its combat brigade and other units that may be operating in the brigade area.
b. Ordnance Company, Ammunition (DS) (MOADS/PLS),operates up to three geographically dispersed ASPs and one ATP in a division area. Basis of allocation is one company per division. It is normally attached to a forward CSB in a forward COSCOM CSG.
c. Ordnance Company, Ammunition (MOADS/PLS)(CSA),operates CSAs in support of corps operations. The basis of allocation for these companies is one per 3,500 STON of ammunition expenditure. It is normally attached to either the rear CSG's ammunition battalion, the S&S battalion, or to a CSB. In contingency opera-tions or to shorten the distance between the CSAs and ASPs and ATPs, this company may be attached to a forward CSG's CSB to operate a CSA behind each division.
d. Ordnance Battalion, Conventional Ammunition,is attached to the rear CSG to establish and operate ammunition supply facilities. Only one ammunition battalion is required to support a fully deployed corps. This battalion provides corpswide GS ammunition support to divisions, separate brigades, and ACRs. This battalion is one of the few functional battalions remaining in the COSCOM.
5-6. AMMUNITION FLOW
Ammunition support in a theater of operations is based on a continuous refill system distribution to the ATPs and ASPs in the division areas. The general flow of ammunition under MOADS/PLS is depicted in figure 5-1. Ammunition is received from CONUS or other supply sources by containership or breakbulk transport. Selected items may be shipped by air. Once ammunition clears the port area, it is shipped to the theater storage areas (TSAs) or CSAs. Air transport may be employed to move critical items to forward areas.
Figure 5-1. Flow of ammunition using MOADS/PLS.
The CSAs ship ammunition to the ASPs. At the ASPs, the ammunition is either issued to units located within the ASP's AO or shipped forward to the ATPs. ATPs provide supply point distribution to all customer units. All ammunition shipments from TA will flow through CSAs. MOADS/PLS is designed to provide up to 3,500 STON of ammunition to a heavy division per day. All unit capabilities are built to meet this projected worst-case scenario.
5-7. AMMUNITION SUPPLY SUPPORT ACTIVITIES
a. ATPs. In support of a typical division, three ATPs will normally provide the majority of the ammunition to the combat units. These ATPs are assigned to the FSB supply companies. The ATPs move (less ammunition stocks) whenever the brigade or division moves using organic transportation assets. The ATP's terrain layout will be designed to meet the mission of the ATP and the supported brigade. The divisional ATPs will not normally cover more than 1 square kilometer. The DAO provides mission guidance to these ATPs through a representative assigned to each of the ATPs. These ATPs may provide ammunition as coordinated with the DAO to corps units operating in the brigade area. Each ATP can provide 550 STON of ammunition per day. For light forces, this amount is lessened to 350 STON of ammunition per ATP.
An Ordnance Company, Ammunition (DS) (MOADS/PLS) is able to deploy an ATP in the division rear area. While this corps ATP is manned by personnel from the DS company, the DAO provides mission guidance. This ATP can provide up to 970 STON of ammunition per day. This will normally be provided to corps artillery, aviation units, and other nondivisional units operating in the division sector. The ATP can be used to augment the divisional ATPs and provide high-tonnage artillery ammunition such as the MLRS. When corps artillery and engineer units move from one division to another division in the same corps, they will normally receive ammunition support from the ATPs in the new division areas. ATPs receive ammunition loaded on corps transportation assets.
Under MOADS/PLS the CCLs will arrive in the ATP secured to PLS flatracks also called sideless containers (SCs). These flatracks will be offloaded from the corps transportation assets and set on the ground where they will remain until the PLS-equipped user arrives with his vehicle that is designed to pick up the PLS flatrack and transport it to the user area. Under the initial concept, the only users who will receive PLS will be field artillery units. All other units must still transload ammunition from flatracks to their particular type of ammunition vehicles. This transload is accomplished using the users' resupply vehicles with onboard MHE, such as the HEMTT, or using the ATP's organic MHE. The ATPs will have a limited number of PLS trucks that can move some of the PLS flatracks around as needed within the ATP area. If the ATP must be relocated and has ammunition stocks on hand, transportation assets will have to be requested to make the move.
Under the MOADS/PLS distribution system, the ATPs receive 75 percent of their ammunition in CCLs from the CSA. The remaining 25 percent comes from the ASPs. When an ATP issues ammunition loaded on PLS flatracks to a using unit, the using unit exchanges empty PLS flatracks for loaded PLS flatracks. After an ATP issues CCL ammunition to using units, the combat users reconfigure the load into appropriate LOGPACs.
b. ASPs. An Ordnance Company, Ammunition (DS) (MOADS/PLS) establishes three geographically dispersed ASPs as well as the ATP discussed in paragraph 5-7a. Normally one company will provide ammunition support per division. Each ASP will normally maintain 1 to 3 days of supply (DOS) of ammunition to meet surge and emergency requirements for divisional and nondivisional units. This could be as much as 10,500 STON depending on the situation. The CMMC provides the mission directives and priorities of issues to the ASPs.
Under MOADS/PLS, the ASPs will receive 100 percent of their ammunition stock from the CSAs using corps transportation assets. The ASPs will provide 25 percent of the ammunition going to ATPs. The ASPs must also provide emergency ammunition supply backup in the event the CSA to ATP LOC is interrupted.
The ASPs will be positioned to provide maximum support for the tactical mission. The ASP layout will be designed to accommodate the mission and terrain assigned. It will cover approximately 5 to 6 square kilometers. The distance between the CSA and the ASP will not normally exceed line-haul transportation distance.
Each MOADS/PLS ASP can normally lift 844 STON. Company totals are 2,530 STON (3 x 844) at the ASPs and 970 STON at the ATP. This total lift capability must be applied to ammunition receipts, configuring CCLs, rewarehousing, and issues.
FM 9-6 does not yet address the lift capability of MOADS/PLS units; therefore, the following example will illustrate how the lift capability can be used. If a MOADS/PLS ASP received 281 STON of ammunition that is not configured in CCLs and the ASP was preconfiguring another 281 STON of ammunition, the ASP would be limited to being able to issue only 282 STON of ammunition (281 + 281 + 282 = 844 STON). In an ASP, rather than having an even flow of ammunition with equal amounts of lift required for receipts, configuring, and issues, it will be more realistic for the ASP in MOADS/PLS operations to receive a large portion of the ammunition preconfigured. Ammunition that has been preconfigured in CCLs on PLS flatracks is ready for issue and will require little manpower from the ASP personnel to complete the issue.
If the ASPs had to temporarily perform a CSA's mission (assuming sufficient stocks were on hand), two of the ASPs could surge operations and each issue approximately 1,167 STON of ammunition, and the third ASP could issue 1,166 STON of ammunition (1,167 STON + 1,167 STON + 1,166 STON = 3,500 STON). The 1,167 or 1,166 STON exceeds an ASP's normal lift capability of 843. This can be done for short periods in a surge mode provided most of the onhand stocks have been preconfigured and will require minimal lifting and handling. Also, with the CSA destroyed or cut off, the ASPs will not be conducting receipt operations from the CSA, thus providing more available lift. But at some point the ASPs may be required to receive ammunition shipments from TA.
The ASPs have limited assets for preconfiguring loads and building CCLs. During periods when an ASP is not using its full resources for receiving and issuing ammunition, it can be building its onhand stocks into ready-for-issue CCLs. If a corps plans for its ASPs to provide any large percentage of its ammunition stocks as CCLs continually, these CCLs should be built at the CSAs and delivered to the ASPs ready for issue. Otherwise, the ASP will receive most of its ammunition as breakbulk, single DODIC ammunition. When additional ammunition is required, which was not included in the CCLs received from the CSA, customers will receive it directly from the ASP or through their respective ATP as directed.
c. CSA. One or more Ordnance Company, Ammunition (MOADS/PLS)(CSA) will operate a CSA in the corps rear area. Normally one CSA will provide ammunition support per division. A MOADS/PLS CSA company can normally provide 7,000 STON of lift per day. The basis of allocation for the GS company is one per 3,500 STON of ammunition required per day. When additional ammunition tonnage is needed to support nondivisional, separate brigades or special units, either an additional company needs to be assigned to the CSA or another CSA must be established.
Normally, the CSA will cover an area of about 40 square kilometers. A CSA should be established in a semifixed or field location, and when practical, it should be located near railheads and MSRs. When possible, choose an area with a good road network capable of supporting at least 250 trailer loads of ammunition per day. The CSA should be located within line-haul transportation range of the ASPs and ATPs it will support.
The CSA stockage objective will normally be 7 to 10 DOS of ammunition and will not exceed 25,000 STON. The CMMC will give mission directives, stockage objectives, and priorities of issue. Under MOADS/PLS, the CSA will normally receive 50 percent of its ammunition from the POD and the other 50 percent from a TSA.
Also under MOADS/PLS, a CSA can normally provide a total ammunition lift capability of 7,000 STON per day. Ideally, the CSA should be able to receive 3,500 STON of ammunition, and preconfigure and issue another 3,500 STON of ammunition per day. This is the intent by doctrine, but these numbers are situationally dependent and could be adjusted to fit a specific scenario. Because the CSA's normal lift capability is a total of 7,000 STON, if the CSA is receiving, preconfiguring, and issuing an even flow, a possible breakdown might be receipts of 2,333 STON, reconfiguring 2,333 STON, and issuing 2,334 STON of ammunition (2,333 + 2,333 + 2,334 = 7,000 STON). This type of even flow is not likely. A large percentage of the ammunition the CSA will handle will require little handling with minimal to no preconfiguring; e.g., MLRS ammunition.
The actual tonnage capabilities for the CSA, as well as other supply points, may vary considerably based on the types and configurations of ammunition being received and issued. The tonnage capabilities may surge above the planned peak load or fall well below the planned, normal capabilities due to changes in types and config-urations of ammunition being received and issued and the efficiency with which it is handled.
Corps-level ammunition units must rely on corps-level transportation units to distribute ammunition stocks. As a general rule, once ammunition has been delivered to a CSA, corps transportation units move all ammunition within the corps.
Truck companies from the rear CSG's transportation battalion normally support CSAs. They move ammunition from the CSA to the ASPs and ATPs. These truck companies provide support on an area support basis. Their areas are adjusted based on the intensity of combat and density of maneuver forces.
A truck company from the CSB will normally support the Ordnance Company, Ammunition (DS) (MOADS/PLS). The CSG may allocate additional transportation assets to support the ammunition company in the division sector based on movement priorities, anticipated ammunition consumption, ammunition availability, and other such factors.
5-9. HOST NATION SUPPORT
Support agreements identify dedicated sources of host nation support (HNS). During combined operations, an HNS organization can augment the corps' conventional ammunition support organization. National agreements define the interaction between HNS and US units. Depending on the support agreements for the theater of operations, the host nation could provide ammunition supply units and battalions to augment conventional GS ammunition operations.
In more mature theaters, the host nation may provide ammunition units under the WHNS system. This system includes ammunition units manned in peacetime by local nationals who are also members of the HN military reserves. Upon mobilization of the HN reserves, the local nationals would stay in place and operate under the C2 of a US CLT.
The CLTs are assigned to the COSCOM and attached to a CSG. The CLTs control US ammunition in WHNS ammunition supply units' custody. They provide ammunition accountability interface among the CMMC, US ammunition supply system, and WHNS ammunition companies.
5-10. EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL OVERVIEW
The continuing development and availability of foreign and US high-technology munitions that disperse numerous submunitions and area-denial ordnance have led to the proliferation of UXO on the battlefield. Battlefields will be littered with UXO from two sources: ordnance that has failed to function as designed or area-denial ordnance. UXO limits battlefield mobility, denies the use of critical assets, and threatens to injure or kill soldiers at levels unprecedented in past conflicts. Because of this threat, commanders at all levels must incorpo-rate EOD support into the planning process. Graphic Training Aid (GTA) 9-12-1 provides more details on UXO hazards.
EOD's function is to protect the commander's combat power. Its mission is to eliminate or reduce the hazards of domestic or foreign conventional, nuclear, chemical, and biological munitions and improvised explosive devices that threaten personnel, military operations, facilities, and materiel. In a theater of operations, the TA is allocated one ordnance group (EOD) whenever two or more EOD control teams (EODCTs) are deployed. This group provides C2 for all US Army EOD units in theater.
At the corps level, EOD support is provided by an EODCT with up to 10 subordinate EOD detachments allocated from the ordnance group (EOD). This EODCT operates out of the COSCOM and provides a coordina-tion team to the corps rear CP while providing C2 for all EOD detachments operating in the corps area. Each rear area operations center (RAOC) in the corps rear, up to four, will have an EOD detachment in DS. Each division in the corps, up to five, will have an EOD detachment in DS. These detachments, each with their five EOD response teams, operate out of the division rear CP with DISCOM support. The five response teams provide EOD support down to the brigade level within the division. Remaining EOD detachments provide GS to the corps.
5-11. EMERGING DOCTRINE,AMMUNITION XXI LOGISTICS
Due to recent changes and the realities of the future battlefield, arming the CONUS-based force-projection Army requires a new cultural thought process in logistics operations. The focus will remain on support to the combat soldier, however, the conditions under which the future force will operate demand that the ammunition logistics system undergo significant changes. There are more than 20 Ammunition XXI initiatives being studied. In keeping with the scope of this student text (ST), a few merit mention in this chapter.
a. Modular ammunition units. These ammunition units are capable of providing support elements that are interchangeable, expandable, and tailorable to meet the Army's changing needs. Essentially, the modular ammunition company consists of an HQ platoon, heavy-lift platoon(s) (HLP), and medium-lift platoon(s) (MLP). The number of MLPs and HLPs can be increased or decreased based on mission requirements and will be deployed in the required numbers to functional locations as required to provide the quantity of ammunition required.
b. Strategic-configured loads (SCLs). An SCL consists of ammunition that is configured at a CONUS depot or facility in a complete round mix for artillery and in a weapon system mix for other systems (e.g., tanks, attack helicopters, etc.). It is loaded into an ISO container/ISO-compatible flatrack for shipment to the theater. This would significantly reduce the lift requirements within the theater of operations.
c. Mission-configured loads (MCLs). An MCL is ammunition that is configured/reconfigured from SCLs and breakbulk munitions into complete round mixes/weapon system mixes to meet a specific theater of operation requirement. Building MCLs is essentially "fine-tuning" SCLs.