FUELING THE FORCE
The modern US Army corps uses as much fuel per day as General George S. Patton's entire Third Army used in its race across France. More recently, during the ground offensive in Desert Storm, the VII Corps required 2.4 million gallons daily, and the XVIII Airborne Corps needed 2.1 million gallons of fuel. This equates to 900 tanker loads a day. These quantities of fuel presented a monumental task for the fuel haulers that was only compounded by the extended LOC. Obvisously, fuel consumption in the modern Army is tremendous, whether we are operating in a desert or jungle environment. Getting the right amount to the right place at the right time is a major sustainment challenge.
6-2. FUELING THE CORPS FORCE
The corps force can move and support the attack only as long as vehicles and aircraft have fuel. The COSCOM may need to supply more than 500,000 gallons of fuel per day to support a heavy division sector. Nondivision elements may require an additional 80,000 gallons each day. To support a corps' total requirement, its COSCOM petroleum supply units and DS supply units must stock sufficient quantities in dispersed class III points.
So that fuel does not become a logistics constraint, the supporting transportation distribution system will need to provide rapid fuel resupply distribution ranging in quantities from 1,500,000 to 1,800,000 gallons per day for committed forces. For surge operations, this requirement could increase to as much as 2,300,000 gallons per day.
6-3. DIVISION BULK FUEL DISTRIBUTION
Figure 6-1 depicts the bulk fuel distribution system. Requirements will flow from DMMCs, separate brigades, ACRs, and class III supply points. S4s will forecast requirements for the next 72 hours based on projected consumption data for the probable level of activity.
The DMMC class III and water supply branch centrally controls and manages the bulk fuel supply to division elements. It consolidates a 3-day fuel forecast from brigade and separate battalion S4s. Forecast frequency may vary depending on the intensity of operations. Priorities, allocations, and other controls for bulk fuels may be recommended to the division commander for approval through the G4. The DMMC will then provide fuel allocation guidance to the MSB.
The MSB S&S company receives, stores, and issues bulk class III. The MSB stores class III(b) in collapsible storage tanks or fuel bags. Storage capability is greater at the MSB than at the FSB; however, mobility is reduced. Site preparation is necessary to ensure the collapsible storage tanks are properly placed. The MSB provides either DS or reinforcing DS to all divisional units in the division rear and to the FSB supply companies.
The FSB supply company handles bulk fuel in DS of the manuever brigade and its slice elements. It submits daily status on quantities received, issued, and on hand to the DMMC. Medium trucks (petroleum) from the MSB S&S company deliver bulk fuel to FSB medium trucks (petroleum). [Note: Medium truck (petroleum) refers to POL tankers or trailers.] Deliveries are coordinated with the supply company commander through the FSB support operations officer. Fuel is transferred from one tanker to another or a trailer transfer operation will take place. If trailer transfer point operations take place, procedures are established in the division's SOP and routinely practiced within the division.
Figure 6-1. Bulk fuel distribution system.
The division ASB supports the aviation brigade. If the division cavalry squadron is positioned at a distance from the aviation brigade, the division ASB may have to coordinate to provide more effective support. The FSB and the division ASB use supply point distribution to support their customers. Tactical units pick up fuel in a BSA with organic refueling vehicles and deliver it by tailgate or service-station LOGPAC method.
6-4. ECHELON ABOVE DIVISION BULK FUEL DISTRIBUTION
DMMCs, separate brigades, and ACRs will forecast their requirements to the CMMC. The CMMC petroleum/water division will compare bulk requirements against quantities available for issue. The COSCOM support operations may direct that the CMMC adjust forecasted deliveries based on corps-issued priorities and tactical support requirements. It is in this manner that class III(b) is a scheduled supply for which we can "push" forward. As appropriate, the MMC submits consolidated requirements to the TAMMC or Joint Petroleum Office.
The TA petroleum group distributes bulk fuel either by pipeline, barge, railcar, truck, or a combination of transportation modes to the farthest points practicable in the corps. Transportation medium truck companies (petroleum) transport fuel from the corps area to class III supply points operated by petroleum supply companies and nondivision DS supply companies. A medium petroluem truck company then pushes the fuel from the petroleum supply company to the MSB in the DSA, division ASB, separate brigade support battalion, and ACR support squadron. To meet unexpected requirements, the COSCOM MMC may divert or reroute fuel being transported from COMMZ stocks to appropriate forward-located class III supply points. Throughput is not preferred for distributing bulk POL; however, the situation may dictate that coordination take place to meet tactical requirements.
A quartermaster (QM) DS supply company provides fuel by supply point distribution for nondivisional units. This means supported units drive organic POL tank vehicles to their supporting DS-level class III supply point. However, if the customer or using unit operates closer to a GS petroleum supply company, the administrative/ logistics plan may direct the unit to obtain fuel from the GS-level source. The effort should be to support customers within the unit's capability and to provide that support sensibly and however it best supports the tactical situation.
Aerial resupply using 500-gallon drums provides emergency resupply when ground LOCs are not secure or available, or when the enemy or tactical situation cuts the unit off from normal resupply. Aerial resupply may be the only way to sustain light forces or small-scale operations beyond the FLOT. An airdrop supply company will prepare loads for delivery by fixed-wing aircraft. As required, DS supply company personnel will sling load 500-gallon drums for helicopter external sling load. The receiving unit must be able to dispense from the drums, or essential components of the forward area refueling equipment (FARE) system must accompany the fuel delivery.
6-5. CONTROL PROCEDURES/MATERIEL MANAGEMENT
The CMMC centralizes inventory control. It receives requirements (forecasts) from the corps' subordinate units and usage reports from petroleum suppliers. The system supplies bulk petroleum by immediately replacing the quantities issued. The COSCOM commander must provide necessary information to the corps commander for decisions affecting current and future operations. Control measures such as fuel allocation, restricted fuel consumption, or prioritizing fuel distribution may be imposed to ensure tactical support requirements are met. The corps G4 in coordination with the COSCOM commander will recommend contol measures to the corps commander based on input from the G3 on the tactical operation.
The CMMC centrally manages bulk petroleum for the corps. Unlike any other supply commodity, the CMMC also centrally controls nondivisional bulk petroleum transportation assets within the corps. It receives and coordinates forecasted requirements and directs bulk petroleum distribution. It reports distribution problems that deviate from the routine to the COSCOM support operations that develop a solution and direct appropriate action.
6-6. HABITUAL SUPPORT REQUIREMENT
Bulk fuel distribution relies on the habitual support relationship between GS petroleum supply companies and transportation medium truck companies (petroleum). Assigning a petroleum supply company and a habitually supporting truck company to each forward CSG enables the CSG to control the fuel distribution system in support of daily operational requirements for bulk fuel in its AOR.
6-7. PLANNING FUEL SUSTAINMENT SUPPORT
To support the movement and momentum of initial clashes, the COSCOM must push fuel forward and deep from the very outset of the battle. Petroleum officers will preplan bulk fuel resupply. Plans will need to include uninterruptedthest points practicable in the corps. Transportation medium truck companies (petroleum) transport fuel from the corps area to class III supply points operated by petroleum supply companies and nondivision DS supply companies. A medium petroluem truck company then pushes the fuel from the petroleum supply company to the MSB in the DSA, division ASB, separate brigade support battalion, and ACR support squadron. To meet unexpected requirements, the COSCOM MMC may divert or reroute fuel being transported from COMMZ stocks to appropriate forward-located class III supply points. Throughput is not preferred for distributing bulk POL; however, the situation may dictate that coordination take place to meet tactical requirements.
A quartermaster (QM) DS supply company provides fuel by supply point distribution for nondivisional units. This means supported units drive organic POL tank vehicles to their supporting DS-level class III supply point. However, if the customer or using unit operates closer to a GS petroleum supply company, the administrative/ logistics plan may direct the unit to obtain fuel from the GS-level source. The effort should be to support customers within tSTIFY">6-8. FUEL ORGANIZATIONS
a. Supply Company. Assigned to each FSB to provide DS to a maneuver brigade and its associated slice elements. Its fuel capability consists of 10 5,000-gallon tankers.
b. S&S Company. Assigned to a MSB to provide DS or reinforcing DS to divisional units in the division rear and FSB supply companies. Two fuel system supply points (FSSPs) are available for storage and 34 tankers for distribution.
c. Headquarters and Supply Company. Assigned to a division ASB to provide DS to the avaition brigade and its associated slice elements. One FSSP, 15 HEMTTs, 3 tankers, and 8 FAREs are used for fuel support.
d. QM Supply Company (DS). Assigned to rear or forward CSGs with the basis of allocation to support 18,500 soldiers. Provides DS-level bulk fuel to nondivision units. Forward CSGs normally employ a DS supply company in the division area to provide support to nondivision units operating in the division sector. Also provides reinforcing support to FSBs and MSBs to enable them to support corps forces employing in the brigade or division area. Two FSSPs,120,000 gallons of bulk fuel storage,provide supply point distribution.
e. Petroleum Supply Company (GS). Assigned to a forward or rear CSG to provide corpswide GS-level bulk fuel support to nondivision DS supply companies, DISCOM MSBs, separate brigade support battalions, and ACR support squadrons. These companies also maintain a prescribed portion of the corps' petroleum reserve. Normally, a petroleum supply company cannot support more than one corps division slice. A total of 1,244,558 gallons of bulk fuel can be received or issued, and 2,520,000 gallons can be stored.
f. Medium Truck Company (Petroleum). Assigned to the forward and rear CSGs with a habitual relationship with the petroleum supply company. It transports bulk fuel from GS petroleum supply companies to DS supply companies and to divisions. Each company has 60 5,000-gallon tankers providing 900,000 gallons of local haul (4 round-trips per day) and 450,000 gallons of line-haul distribution (2 round-trips per day). (Note: The 7,500-gallon tankers are allocated at EAC only.)
g. Petroleum Product Laboratory (Mobile) Team. Normally attached to the petroleum supply battalion in the rear CSG to test fuel and provide technical assistance.
h. Petroleum Pipeline and Terminal Operating Company. Normally assigned to EAC but could be assigned in a COSCOM for independent corps operations. It operates a tactical petroleum terminal or existing fixed facilities and loading facilities, and can operate petroleum pipelines. Current doctrine requires a pipeline construction engineer company to initially lay the pipeline and establish the pump stations for turnover to the QM petroleum pipeline and terminal operating company for its operation. Pipeline equipment is not TOE, but it is included in operational project stocks Department of the Army (DA) controls.
i. HQ, Petroleum Supply Battalion. May be required for C2 if three or more petroleum supply companies are assigned to the corps.
j. HQ, Petroleum Pipeline and Terminal Operation Battalion. May be required for C2 if three or more petroleum pipeline and terminal operating companies are assigned to the independent/contingency corps.
k. Petroleum Supply CLT. Normally assigned to a CSG to provide liaison with and interface between an HNS petroleum supply battalion and the US petroleum distribution system.
6-9. A REFUELING TECHNIQUE
ROM for ground vehicles is a technique of resupply that is synonymous with rapid or hot refueling for aircraft). When vehicles enter a ROM site for refueling, they receive a short burst of fuel (usually timed for 1 to 2 minutes) and move out to return to their convoy or formation. It is normally accomplished far forward on the battlefield before reaching the tactical assembly area. This differs from normal resupply that will "top off" the receiving vehicle.
METT-T must be considered when planning for a ROM. The S3, S4, and support operations officer must identify, plan, and conduct the type of ROM operation that best supports the commander's scheme of maneuver. Consideration must be given to the risk for scarce petroleum resources to enemy interdiction, the availability of sufficient space to establish ROM operations, and masking friendly actions so as not to reveal our intent to the enemy. ROM operations are equipment-intensive, high-risk, and may require support from higher organizations.
ROM is equipment-independent. As long as the concept is followed, we can use any number of current equipment configurations to accomplish a ROM operation. Any unit can employ a ROM operation anywhere on the battlefield where there is a need to rapidly refuel combat vehicles. A number of equipment configurations can be employed:
a. ROM kit,consists of enough hoses, valves, and fittings to refuel up to eight combat vehicles simulta-neously. In addition, a fuel source [one or more 5,000-gallon semitrailers, HEMTTs, tank and pump units (TPUs), or collapsible fuel bags] must be added to the configuration. If JP-4/JP-8 or MOGAS is issued, a filter separator is also required. A 350-gallon per minute (GPM) pump can be added to provide a greater flow rate than the organic pump on the fuel carrier. The common table of allowances (CTA) authorizes ROM kits. (Note: Divisions received free issue of two ROM kits during Desert Shield/Desert Storm.)
b. Bulk fuel carriers,one or more 5,000-gallon semitrailers, HEMTTs, or TPUs can be emplaced to ROM combat vehicles. Equipment and their flow rates follow:
!HEMTT,50 GPM from two organic nozzles (2,500-gallon capacity, cross-country capability, organic to maneuver battalions).
!TPU,20 GPM from two organic nozzles (1,200-gallon capacity with two 600-gallon pods mounted on a 5-ton truck with a pump can pull an additional 600-gallon pod mounted on a 5-ton trailer). TPUs are replaced by HEMTTs. Very few are in the field now.
!5,000-gallon tanker and ROM kit,35 PGM from each of eight nozzles.
!5,000-gallon tanker,50 GPM from two organic nozzles.
Organic pumps on fuel carriers are actually greater than these figures; i.e., the 5,000-gallon tanker model M969 has a 600-GPM pump. The limiting factor here is based on the receiving vehicle's acceptance rate, the number, and the size of the nozzles. A ROM kit has eight 1½-inch nozzles. Most vehicles' acceptance rate is 50 GPM or less. For example, you can plan for an M1 tank receiving approximately 100 gallons in a 2-minute ROM.
6-10. SINGLE FUEL ON THE BATTLEFIELD
All US military services are converting to JP-8, the single fuel on the battlefield. A single fuel on the battlefield greatly facilitates managing and distributing fuel on the battlefield. JP-8 has a higher flash point than JP-4, a petroleum characteristic that provides greater safety. It is a suitable substitute for JP-4, diesel fuel, and MOGAS. Total conversion for the US Army is scheduled this year. The US Navy continues to use JP-5 when refueling aircraft at sea. The goal is for JP-8 to be issued to all US military organizations around the world.
Army MOGAS-burning equipment; i.e., M-2 burners, generators, etc., must be replaced with a multifuel burning piece of equipment. The projected date for replaceing all MOGAS-burning equipment is 2005. Obviously, this depends heavily on budget constraints. MOGAS is available as a packaged product.