FIXING THE FORCE
Maintenance is the logistics function that keeps materiel operational, restores it to an operational condition, and upgrades its usefulness through design modification. Maintenance management has assumed greater importance due to its critical role in sustaining and increasing combat power. The primary focus of maintenance resources in the combat zone (CZ) is directed toward weapon systems. Maintenance work is performed as far forward as practical within the limitations of the commander's priorities, resources and time available, the tactical situation, and other factors. To maintain weapon systems forward in the battle area, a variety of events must be preplanned and vigorously executed. This is accomplished by trained mechanics who are skilled in proper diagnostic techniques, equipped with the appropriate tools, and have the proper repair parts on hand. If any of these conditions are missing, the weapon systems will not become operational, thereby reducing the unit's combat power. When does the Army maintain?
!When a certain time elapses.
!When a failure occurs.
!When it sustains combat damage.
7-2. ARMY MAINTENANCE SYSTEM
The levels of maintenance (less aircraft) are unit maintenance, DSM, GSM, and depot maintenance (see table 7-1). These levels, together with innovations focusing on equipment design, represent an effort to reduce personnel requirements and simplify the maintenance effort. These efforts will provide responsive maintenance; improve operational mobility, flexibility, and readiness; and thereby increase battlefield efficiency. Maintenance support in the theater is depicted in figure 7-1.
Table 7-1. Levels of Maintenance
Service & replace
Repair & return
Replace & repair
TOE/MTOE maint unit
Repair & return to supply system
Repair & overhaul
TOE/MTOE maint unit,
Repair & return to supply system
Overhaul & rebuild
AMC, HNS, contract
a. A crew, the equipment operator, or unit maintenance personnel perform unit maintenance. Unit maintenance is characterized by quick turnaround based on service and replacement. Maintenance operations normally assigned to the unit level include lubrication, diagnosis, replacing easily accessible unserviceable parts, and recovering equipment to and from a supporting maintenance activity. Unit personnel also recover unserviceable but repairable equipment that is beyond their capability to repair at DS level. These items are submitted to supporting maintenance facilities for repair or exchange for like serviceable materiel if
operational readiness float (ORF) is available. The supporting FSB maintenance company, using MSTs, will
Figure 7-1. Maintenance on the battlefield
provide the required support forward in the UMCP or at the breakdown site (onsite). Units are also responsible for accomplishing required oil analysis tasks.
The BMO controls the maintenance within the battalion. As the battalion is task organized, the BMO releases maintenance assets for those companies that are detached and accepts maintenance assets from attached companies. It is imperative that he ensures that adequate personnel, tools, maintenance and recovery vehicles, test equipment, and manuals are on hand so he can task organize the maintenance platoon to support the task force combat requirements.
b. DSM is characterized by highly mobile, forward-oriented repair. Equipment is usually repaired by replacing unserviceable modules and returning it to the user. Divisional DSM units will support division maneuver elements. Nondivisional DSM units will provide dedicated DSM to nondivisional units on an area support basis within the corps rear area or the division area. Nondivisional maintenance also provides reinforcing/backup DSM to the division.
Other operations normally assigned to the DSM level include diagnosing and repairing unserviceable materiel and returning it to the user. DSM units also provide ASL repair parts, perform light body repairs, provide technical assistance, and stock and issue authorized ORF equipment.
c. GSM includes those maintenance actions selected maintenance activities authorize and perform to support a major Army command (MACOM) or other force as a whole rather than supporting specific users. Materiel managers at EAC schedule GSM programs (such as repair, modification, or upgrade) to respond to the theater supply system's needs. Scheduling is accomplished according to the availability of repair parts and other maintenance resources. GSM of the theater supply system generally will be performed outside a deployed corps. Operations normally assigned to the GSM level include supporting the lower maintenance levels; performing heavy body, hull, turret, and frame repair; performing area maintenance support, including technical assistance, onsite maintenance, and MSTs as required or requested; and collecting and classifying unserviceable or abandoned class VII materiel. Equipment is repaired and returned to the supply system. GSM companies are authorized at EAC (theater) and are assigned to an area support group maintenance battalion.
d. Depot maintenance supports both the combat forces and the overall DA Inventory Management Program. In support of the combat forces, depot maintenance operations can back up DSM and GSM units and provide assistance in technical training to the forces during mobilization and peacetime. In support of the overall DA Inventory Management Program, depot maintenance operations serve as a source of combat-ready materiel.
7-3. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE
The organization for Army aircraft maintenance consists of three levels of maintenance:
a. Aviation unit maintenance (AVUM). Units perform AVUM on their assigned aircraft. Company-sized aviation units perform primarily preventive maintenance tasks and maintenance repair and replacement functions associated with sustaining a high level of aircraft operational readiness.
b. AVIM. AVIM units support AVUM units. This support includes all maintenance functions authorized at the AVUM level plus repairing selected items that cannot be accomplished at the AVUM level.
c. Depot. Depot-level maintenance for aircraft is not designed for field applications. It supports the "repair and return to the supply system" concept and includes maintenance that is above the AVIM level. Most depot-level aviation maintenance is performed in CONUS.
Doctrinal passback maintenance is the percent of the divisional AVIM work load that is "passed back" to the supporting corps AVIM battalion. All divisional TOEs are decremented to compensate for doctrinal maintenance passback, and the corps AVIM battalions are designed to accommodate it.
7-4. FORWARD SUPPORT MAINTENANCE
Forward support maintenance is designed to support combat units' weapon systems as far forward as possible. When division equipment requires repair, maintenance personnel organic to the unit (unit level) or the forward battalion's MSTs (DSM level) conduct repair at the UMCP or the breakdown site. Corps (COSCOM) maintenance companies, as required, provide MSTs to work with the FSB (DSM reinforcing). These COSCOM MSTs are tailored from the mobile maintenance team and normally from DSM units with a backup/reinforcing maintenance mission, but they may be from any DSM unit with available support capacity. MSTs provide technical assistance, higher-level maintenance support, and special tools far forward on the battlefield, usually at a UMCP. Corps (COSCOM) MSTs return to their organic HQ when no longer needed in the forward location. The FSB MST remains at the unit level (combat trains) to provide continuous support forward.
The MMC centrally manages maintenance within the division or corps. The MMC determines what, where, when, how, and by whom equipment will be repaired. The DSM units evacuate equipment to the DSM backup units or they can request assistance from reinforcing MSTs. This support is based on preplanned directives the MMC issues (automatic evacuation instructions) or by direct communications with the MMC. The MMC shifts repair priority within the division or corps to various units and/or weapon systems to ensure maximum combat power.
Another important aspect of forward support maintenance is battlefield damage assessment and repair (BDAR). Operator, crew, and unit maintenance teams may perform BDAR on disabled equipment. This repair could significantly impact the outcome of a specific combat mission. The objective is to rapidly return the item to combat. However, personnel will only perform BDAR when standard maintenance procedures are impractical.
The "reinforcing" maintenance intent is to support the repair and return to the user as rapidly and as far forward as possible. It involves DSM units providing maintenance support to other DSM units. This concept ensures that maintenance assets are fully committed based on requirements. The reinforcing DSM unit will send MSTs forward to repair equipment onsite or in forward maintenance collection points (MCPs). The reinforcing unit may supply the repair parts required to repair equipment DSM units evacuate. Automatic evacuation instructions and repair-time limitations are fundamental components of the maintenance reinforcing concept.
7-5. INTEGRATED FORWARD MAINTENANCE SUPPORT
Battlefield maintenance support integrates unit- and DS-level maintenance. This integration occurs at the UMCP and is accomplished using MSTs assigned to the forward support maintenance company. The forward support maintenance company's mission is to provide dedicated DSM to a maneuver brigade. The maintenance company TOE provides mobile SSTs that are authorized on the basis of one per maneuver battalion. The authorization is based on supporting a pure battalion (armor or infantry). As the battalions task organize, the maintenance company commander task organizes his SST assets into an MST capable of supporting a task force. This MST is sent forward to the UMCP. The team remains with the UMCP, is integrated into the UMCP defense plan, and receives routine administrative logistics support from the supported units. Team elements may be sent forward to the breakdown site, and while the team is able to perform more extensive repairs than the company maintenance team, they adhere to repair-time limitations. Figure 7-2 shows how SST assets can be task organiz-ed into MSTs to support task force operations.
Figure 7-2. SSTs task organized into MSTs.
7-6. RECOVERY AND EVACUATION
Another aspect of forward support maintenance is battlefield recovery and evacuation. Recovery or evacuation moves inoperable equipment to the maintenance activity best suited for the repair or to balance the work of forward elements so they can meet new requirements. Battlefield recovery is the first step in reclaiming and reissuing military equipment. The using unit is primarily responsible for recovering damaged equipment. Recovery by tactical units is usually to UMCPs along MSRs. Sometimes the tactical units will be forced to leave damaged equipment in place in the offense, and with coordination, supporting maintenance units may be required to recover this equipment.
Evacuating damaged equipment begins where recovery operations stop at the UMCP. Evacuation is a coordinated effort among maintenance, supply, and transportation elements. The equipment is transported on HETs rearward to another DSM repair facility.
The MMC provides automatic evacuation instructions to DSM units. These instructions identify the specific DSM units or GSM units that will provide reinforcing maintenance support to other DSM units. Automatic evacuation instructions are intended to simplify and streamline the evacuation of unserviceable equipment. This is accomplished by eliminating the need for DSM units to contact the MMC each time an unserviceable piece of equipment requires evacuation. These instructions allow the DSM units and their backups to work together, and when possible, the backup DSM unit can send MSTs forward to repair the unserviceable equipment onsite.
7-7. CANNIBALIZATION AND CONTROLLED EXCHANGE
Cannibalization and controlled exchange may be used when parts are not available from the supply system and an item of equipment can be repaired using parts from other unserviceable equipment. The appropriate commander decides to cannibalize or effect controlled exchange on unserviceable equipment. Higher HQ establishes the guidelines on which he will base his decisions. Cannibalization is the authorized removal, under specific conditions, of serviceable and unserviceable parts, components, and assemblies from materiel authorized for disposal. Controlled exchange is removing serviceable parts, components, and assemblies from unserv-iceable, economically repairable equipment and immediately reusing them in restoring like items of equipment to a combat-operable or serviceable condition. Controlled exchange decisions should be made as close to the site of damaged equipment as possible, preferably by using unit personnel in coordination with MST personnel. In controlled exchange, the unserviceable part is exchanged with the replacement, which ensures the end item remains complete, if not serviceable. The needed repair part is then ordered.
7-8. REPAIR-TIME LIMITATIONS
a. General. Repair-time limitations will concentrate the entire maintenance effort on making quick repairs forward to ensure the maximum number of combat weapon systems are available to commanders. Figure 7-1 provides guidelines for repair-time limitations. The COSCOM will establish repair-time criteria.
b. Guidelines. The first step in determining what level of maintenance is required to repair a piece of equipment is to identify the deficiency. The deficiency is compared with the maintenance allocation chart (MAC) to determine if the repair can be accomplished at the unit, DSM, GSM, or depot level of maintenance. If the repair requires GSM or depot-level maintenance, the piece of equipment is evacuated to EAC for repair and then returned to the supply system. If DSM is required for the repair, an estimate is made of the number of hours it will take for repair. This estimate should include all activities that must be completed to return the piece of equipment to the user.
Generally, if the estimate is less than 36 hours, the normal assigned DSM unit will repair the equipment. If the estimate is between 36 and 96 hours, the backup DSM unit will make the repair. If the estimate is greater than 96 hours, the equipment is a candidate for evacuation to EAC.
These repair-time limitations are provided for planning purposes only and can be changed by division and corps-level commanders to support a specific mission or situation. The appropriate-level command will publish the changes to the repair-time limitations in its CSS annex or FRAGO. In a static type of defense, the repair-time limitations may be extended to reduce the amount of evacuation required to higher-level or backup DSM units. In a pursuit type of offensive operation, the repair-time limitations may be reduced to allow higher-level or reinforcing DSM units to move forward and repair the equipment in MCPs.
7-9. CONTROL PROCEDURES
Maintenance repair-time guidelines assist CSS leaders in deciding where to repair equipment. This prevents equipment from accumulating in the forward area and aids in distributing the work load. Times are based on
command policy and the factors of METT-T. The guidelines are flexible and nonrestrictive, and the commander who imposed the guidelines may change them. The time begins with the operator and crew's diagnosis and ends when the equipment is returned to battle (released to the user).
MACs authorize certain repairs to be made at each level. When used in conjunction with the time guidelines, they help determine who performs a given repair and how long it will take to complete the action. Repairs not authorized at a specific level or that will exceed the time allowed are usually evacuated to the next level of maintenance.
7-10. FORCE DEVELOPMENT
The number of maintenance units required to support a combat force depends on the density of that force's combat equipment. To this information, planners add analysis of the combat area METT-T, transportation facilities, HNS, pre-positioned war reserve stocks, and anticipated combat length and intensity. These factors vary depending on the political situation and the geographic area to which forces are being deployed. For example, planners would structure a support force to sustain the land combat of a corps in Europe differently than they would a contingency corps deployed to the Middle East.
7-11. REPAIR PARTS
Each level of maintenance and the supply system (GS) at COSCOM stock and issue maintenance repair parts. All units maintain a PLL of parts designed to sustain the unit for a specified number of days. These parts are limited to essential quantities.
a. General. The DSU maintains a more extensive repair parts stockage designed to replenish the needs of its supported units and its own needs. The divisional DSU stockage is part of the division's ASL and is usually limited to about 3,000 line items. The heavy division's light maintenance company, part of the MSB, maintains a division ASL of 6,000 to 10,000 line items. COSCOM DSUs maintain approximately 5,000 line items in their ASL. The repair parts supply company (GS) is the source of repair parts for the DSUs. This unit stocks approximately 35,000 to 45,000 line items.
b. Requests. Supported units submit requests and pick up repair parts at their supporting DSM company. The DSM units' ASLs must support the combat PLLs of supported units in their area of support. The ASL should also include parts that DSM companies will need to perform authorized DS-level maintenance tasks. DSM units will fill deadlined and emergency requests immediately on receipt and by the most expeditious means.
c. Requisition. When DSM companies cannot fill the requests from their ASL, the DMMC transmits requisitions to the COSCOM MMC. The COSCOM MMC also receives requisitions from corps, their supported divisions, nondivisional units, and from DMMCs. Applicable MMC parts supply branches will process requisitions daily and initiate followup actions to determine each requisition's status. The MMC will screen, consolidate, and forward specified units' requisitions to appropriate CONUS NICPs to be delivered via air lines of communication (ALOCs). It will transmit all other routine requisitions, including requisitions for TA-controlled items, to the TAMMC.
d. Issue. The repair parts supply company (GS) supplies non-ALOC-designated class IX items. The COSCOM MMC controls the repair parts inventory maintained in the repair parts supply company.
e. Distribution. COSCOM and the TAACOM repair parts supply companies make up the GS base of supply for repair parts. Once surface-delivered repair parts arrive in theater, theater transportation assets will transport them to a TAACOM or COSCOM GS repair parts supply company. Repair parts will then be transported to DSM units. CONUS NICPs provide class IX and maintenance-related class II items to support ALOC units. Repair parts requisitioned from the NICP will be shipped by air to the aerial port nearest the ALOC-designated requesting unit.
7-12. AVIATION REPAIR PARTS
Aviation units (AVUM companies) submit class IX requests to their supporting division ASB. The division ASB's ground maintenance company maintains both ground and aviation repair parts for the aviation brigade. The division ASB's ASL includes repair parts that support the aviation brigade's PLLs. The ASL will also include repair parts required to provide AVIM-level authorized repairs. The division ASB will transmit consolidated requisitions for aircraft repair parts to the MMC. It will also requisition replenishment repair parts for its ASL. The DMMC processes the requisitions, arranges to cross-level spares, and initiates any required followup action.
In contrast to scrap items, salvage items retain some value in excess of their basic materiel content. A CSG should set up supply unit salvage points near MCPs. The MCPs will turn serviceable items over to the salvage point for return through supply channels. Salvage collecting points will turn over mechanical items to the MCP for classification, repair, and disposition.
7-14. EQUIPMENT REPLACEMENT
Another component of the fixing process is providing replacement equipment when damaged or inoperable equipment cannot be fixed and returned to the user within a reasonable time. To ensure the most effective use of end items, these items are normally command controlled. Issuing weapon systems follows the normal distribution route,EAC to the heavy materiel supply company (GS) and on to the issuing DS supply company.
The daily battle loss report serves as the requisition for selected major end items. The COSCOM MMC publishes and updates the list of corps- or theater-controlled items. The COSCOM HQ designates these items as "reportable items." Their inclusion in the logistics status report serves as their requisition. The COSCOM MMC will report the battle loss of critical, command-controlled weapon systems to the corps G3 and G4. The corps commander will approve their issue. The corps commander also directs their distribution to the units he regards as the most critical to the corps battle's success. Following command approval, the TAMMC or COSCOM MMC directs issue from a heavy materiel supply company to the supporting DS supply company. WSRO-controlled weapon systems need to link up with a replacement crew. Depending on METT-T, linkup could occur in the BSA, DSA, or heavy materiel supply company area.
7-15. WEAPON SYSTEM REPLACEMENT OPERATIONS
Efficient allocation of limited weapon system resources and crew members is best accomplished by managing weapon components separately. The corps commander will designate a WSM to intensively manage corps weapon system replacement. Due to the criticality of weapon system replacement to the corps battle, the corps commander could appoint the corps G3 as the WSM. The G3 would then coordinate the COSCOM's weapon system repair, replacement, and transportation resources with the personnel group's crew replacement resources. The work load associated with keeping track of all assigned crew-served weapon systems, their units of assignment, mechanical condition, and expected date of return from maintenance units may best be handled at the COSCOM level.
WSRO is a management tool used to supply the combat commander with fully operational major weapon systems, including required equipment and trained crews. Two terms that are often used to describe WSRO are "ready for issue" and "ready to fight." A ready-for-issue weapon system is mechanically operable, including additional equipment [radios, machineguns, fuel, and basic issue items (BII)]. A ready-to-fight system is a manned ready-for-issue weapon with ammunition stowed aboard and is boresighted. The WSM can also use critical HETs or available rail assets to push the weapon forward to the linkup point.
7-16. CLASS VII
Class VII stocks are maintained at corps level and higher. Division units submit their requests for class VII items to the DMMC property book class VII section. If stocks are available within the division, the section directs lateral transfer of stocks between units to satisfy the requirement. If stocks are not available within the division, the DMMC requisitions them from the COSCOM MMC. Physical distribution of incoming stocks is handled through the same channels as classes II, III (packaged), and IV.
7-17. OPERATIONAL READINESS FLOAT
Upon the outbreak of general hostilities, nondeployed MACOMs will use ORFs to improve the readiness posture and fill shortages per the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans' guidance. Deployed MACOMs will do the same and also use ORF to fill initial battle losses. Units deploying before the outbreak of hostilities will deploy with unit-allocated ORF equipment from the installation. Unit ORF authorization for peacetime deployment is based on a ratio of unit equipment density by line item number (LIN) supported by the installation ORF from which the unit is deploying.
7-18. COSCOM MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS
The COSCOM's maintenance system is a combat multiplier. It ensures corps units remain operationally ready for war. It also repairs and returns corps weapon systems and equipment to battle or provides replacements for battle losses. COSCOM DSM units repair and return damaged or disabled equipment to their using units. Whenever possible, they send MSTs forward into the division sector to repair damaged or inoperable equipment onsite. When weapon systems or other major end items are destroyed, the COSCOM's heavy materiel supply unit provides a class VII battle loss replacement.
The COSCOM tailors its DSM organization with the primary focus to repair and return weapon systems to the battlefield quickly. The COSCOM will use its class VII supply system to provide battle loss replacements to those units that can most influence the corps battle.
7-19. REINFORCING MAINTENANCE
Each nondivisional DSM unit can provide four organic mobile maintenance teams to perform onsite reinforcing maintenance, malfunction diagnosis, and battle damage assessment. These teams may be task organized into appropriate MSTs to provide reinforcing maintenance to other DSM units. The MMC assigns these reinforcing MSTs to weigh the maintenance effort or to better use available maintenance assets. The reinforcing MSTs are located with and supported by the DSM unit they are reinforcing.
The COSCOM/CSG will attach repair teams (MSTs) to DSM units to support units or task forces deploying forward into divisional areas, provide specialized maintenance on low-density equipment, support reconstitution, or provide reinforcing maintenance capabilities. When the COSCOM designates a corps DSM unit to provide maintenance to a division, it must augment that unit with the appropriate MSTs to perform the additional maintenance work load.
7-20. OTHER CORPS MAINTENANCE CAPABILITIES
The COSCOM's DS missile maintenance sustainment organization consists of those elements necessary to support the corps. The actual support structure will depend on the system-unique missile systems requiring support. The elements attached to a maintenance battalion will vary due to the types and density of supported missile systems.
The COSCOM's heavy materiel supply company provides class VII battle loss replacement items. This company can receive, store, and issue 1,400 STON of GS-level class VII items per day. It maintains storage sites for COSCOM war reserve class VII stocks. Upon receipt of the end items from a TAACOM storage site, heavy materiel supply company personnel will deprocess the items. As necessary, they will ensure weapon systems are ready for issue and link them up with a replacement crew.
Owning units recover unserviceable equipment to the MCP established by their supporting DSM unit. Based on METT-T, DSM units may provide recovery and evacuation assistance. Owning units also recover aircraft. However, the AVIM unit responsible for the area where the aircraft is located may provide backup support. Evacuation begins at the MCP, and evacuation is coordinated between maintenance, supply, and transportation elements. The COSCOM will evacuate items not repairable at the DSM units to GSM units in the COMMZ. The COSCOM MMC will provide disposition instructions to damaged equipment. As appropriate, the DISCOM or COSCOM will coordinate the transportation required to support evacuation operations.
7-21. COSCOM MMC MANAGEMENT
The COSCOM MMC provides routine day-to-day maintenance management IAW guidance and direction COSCOM support operations furnish. It focuses COSCOM maintenance resources on repairing and returning critical weapon systems to their users. Officers assigned to the commodity-oriented maintenance management branches of the COSCOM MMC will analyze and manage all aspects of repair, readiness, and supply of their respective commodities.
7-22. DISCOM MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS
DISCOM maintenance elements operate throughout the division area (see figure 7-3). They typically perform their functions onsite, at MCPs, and at company maintenance shops. Guidelines for time to repair at specific levels are provided for planning purposes, but the ultimate decision concerning maintenance timelines is a command consideration.
a. MMC. The MMC materiel section manages repair parts supply and maintenance. It designs and manages the division class IX inventory and directs class IX issue. The section also monitors unit maintenance throughout the division. It collects, analyzes, and reports maintenance statistics. It records modification work order (MWO) status and compiles reports on the operational status of division equipment. The section also provides disposition instructions on all unserviceable materiel.
b. MSB. The MSB's mission is to provide maintenance support for division and other designated units located in the division rear and reinforcing support to the FSBs. Some of the specific maintenance-related functions provided are division-level supply support for class IX, operating a salvage collection point, the motor transport of heavy or oversized cargo and equipment to the FSBs, and evacuating equipment from forward areas.
c. Light maintenance company. The MSB light maintenance company provides DSM to division units the FSB maintenance companies do not support. It also provides reinforcing maintenance for the three FSB maintenance companies. It provides an ASL of up to 6,000 lines, RX service for selected common repair parts, onsite maintenance support, and COMSEC maintenance for all division units (less signal and military intelligence battalion items). The company, when required, sends MSTs throughout the division area to provide required support consistent with tactical limitations and their support capabilities.
d. Heavy maintenance company. The MSB heavy maintenance company provides DSM to units within the division. This DSM includes metalworking; machining; and repairing automotive equipment, small-arms and artillery pieces, power-generation items, engineer equipment, fire control instruments, and tank turret systems. This company provides technical and limited recovery assistance to units employed in the division rear. MSTs from the heavy maintenance company provide reinforcing support to the FSB maintenance companies. The company also provides teams to support the cavalry squadron and the MLRS unit located in the division rear.
e. Missile maintenance company. The MSB missile maintenance company provides DSM and missile class IX supply for division missile weapon systems, to include the short-range air defense (SHORAD) system. This includes supporting radars, land combat missile systems, and MLRS. The support includes receiving,
storing, and issuing class IX supplies for land combat, SHORAD, and MLRS systems; tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided (TOW)/Dragon class IX and RX supply support; and onsite repair for all missile systems not organic to brigades.
Figure 7-3. Brigade support area.
f. AVIM company. The AVIM company is assigned to the division ASB in a heavy division. The ASB is organic to the DISCOM. The company is structured to support the aircraft assigned to the division, specifically, observation, utility, and attack helicopters. It provides the aviation brigade with AVIM and backup AVUM support at its base location in the division rear. The AVIM company's main body, generally located with the aviation brigade, performs extensive on-aircraft systems maintenance, including structural and airframe repairs, repairing components, and performing scheduled AVIM-level inspections. The ground maintenance company in the division ASB maintains the division class IX (air) ASL. This is to replenish supported unit PLL stocks and support AVIM operations. The aircraft maintenance company also employs mobile, weapon system-oriented forward repair/recovery teams to perform authorized intermediate maintenance and BDAR in forward areas. The AVIM company provides limited collection, classification, and recovery of serviceable and unserviceable equipment.
g. FSB maintenance company. The FSB maintenance company is a critical component in "fixing the force." It provides DSM and common repair parts service in each brigade area which now includes the aviation brigade. The company includes a variable number of SSTs that provide tailored support to aviation, tank, or mechanized infantry battalions. The company provides one team for each maneuver battalion assigned to the brigade. The company can provide limited recovery assistance to supported units when required and technically supervises PLL supply for its supported units. It physically maintains a portion of the division ASL to support the items stocked in supported units' combat PLLs.
h. Recovery operations. Recovery operations in armor and mechanized infantry battalions are centrally managed at battalion level, usually by the BMO. The battalion maintenance platoon has recovery vehicles to provide recovery support. The platoon has company maintenance teams, each of which has an organic recovery capability. The recovery mission is assigned to a recovery team that accomplishes the recovery according to unit SOP. Equipment is recovered either to the battalion UMCP or to a designated MCP.
i. Evacuation. Evacuation is from the maneuver battalion UMCP to the FSB's maintenance company MCP in the BSA with its own recovery assets. Evacuation may be by transportation units to the division MCP in the DSA or to a corps MCP. Severely damaged equipment may be evacuated directly from the UMCP to any higher level of maintenance. The G4 sets the overall division evacuation policy in coordination with the DISCOM commander. The DISCOM commander has overall evacuation control, exercised through the DMMC. A DISCOM or COSCOM transportation unit physically evacuates the equipment. This movement is done according to set procedures or in response to disposition instructions from the DMMC.
The DMMC manages the evacuation effort. It acts as the interface between the FSBs' maintenance companies and other CSS elements to the rear of the brigade boundary. Evacuation policies and procedures are set as a matter of SOP. Automatic disposition instructions for certain items prevent undue delay in moving equipment from the brigade to the DSA. Maintenance units request disposition instructions from the DMMC through the support battalion support operations section for items not covered by automatic disposition lists.
Different sources provide the transportation to evacuate equipment. Maintenance unit assets and resupply vehicles returning to the rear may be used in the evacuation process. Those vehicles provided in response to unit transportation support requests are also used. For heavy equipment transportation, the maintenance units depend on the TMT company HETs.
Evacuation vehicles transport unserviceable assemblies and major end items according to disposition instructions from the DMMC. They also may backhaul serviceable assemblies and end items from rear repair activities to the forward maintenance or supply elements. HETs and other cargo vehicles bring major replacement end items forward.
j. Division class IX repair parts.
(1) Ground. The DSUs and the DMMC share class IX supply in the division. The DSUs receive, store, issue, and turn in parts. Supply personnel in the DMMC materiel section manage and account for the class IX inventory. They use demand history and command-directed actions to help them. Customers in the DSA submit their requests directly to their supporting DSM unit. The FSB maintenance company will usually pass requests they can't fill directly to the DMMC. The MSB light maintenance company receives class IX items arriving in the division. This company reports receipt of the items to the DMMC. Items are forwarded to the FSB maintenance company for issue to the user located in the brigade area. All issues are reported to the DMMC to update its records. Turn-ins are handled in the same manner as receipts and reported to the DMMC. Missile class IX items are managed through the MSB missile support company in the same manner.
(2) Air. The ground maintenance company in the division ASB provides repair parts supply for all heavy division aircraft, avionics equipment, and aircraft armament systems. It also maintains the division ASL for class IXA. Normally the division class IXA ASL will contain at least one item for each PLL LIN item in the division. During combat operations, the AVUM platoon leader selects PLL/BDAR items to be available forward at either the combat trains or forward area rearm/refuel point (FARP) for quick repairs.