PERSONNEL SERVICE SUPPORT
Success in combat is directly affected by the CONUS and ASCC PSS mission areas' ability to synchronize their support with the logistics support system. Strategic and operational Army PSS organizations are tailored to support METT-T for the theater of operations (joint, combined, and interagency). This chapter outlines PSS organizations' responsibilities in providing support for EAC operations.
PSS functions are tightly interconnected, executed, managed, and analyzed to provide the combatant commander with critical combat-essential personnel information to use in his decision cycle. PSS is managing personnel-related functions that impact on the human dimension of war. PSS includes:
· Personnel services.
· Finance services.
· Resource management.
· Chaplain activities.
· Command information services.
· Legal service support.
4-3. PERSONNEL SUPPORT¾ THEATER PERSCOM
The theater PERSCOM commander is also dual-hatted as the theater adjutant general (AG) (see figure 4-1). Both positions encompass different responsibilities and have separate manpower requirements. The PERSCOM combines AG technical expertise with C2 and operational planning to synchronize personnel operations at EAC. In the command role, the PERSCOM operates on the same level as other theater major subordinate unit commanders. In the staff role, the theater AG functions as an ASCC staff member and directs the theater personnel management center (TPMC).
The theater PERSCOM's mission is to sustain personnel readiness and to exercise C2 over assigned theater-level personnel units. It manages critical military personnel systems and synchronizes personnel network operations throughout the theater. The theater PERSCOM is a flexible unit that can tailor its subordinate units (number and types) to support theater requirements. It commands an HQ, PERSCOM, and may command a theater-level personnel group. The theater PERSCOM may also command personnel services battalions, postal companies, a band, and DS replacement companies when there is no personnel group to service the unit.
The theater AG's mission is to direct the theater's military personnel system; to collect, summarize, and analyze personnel information; to assist the DCSPER in preparing the personnel estimate of
Figure 4-1. Theater PERSCOM organization.
the situation; to recommend replacement priorities to the DCSPER; to track the force, project replace-ment needs, and forecast the battle several days into the future; to manage services to the soldier and civilians to synchronize the theater's military personnel network; and to direct the TPMC.
a. TPMC. The TPMC supports the commander's decisionmaking process by providing him with unit readiness information, and it synchronizes support to subordinate commanders, units, civilians, and soldiers. The TPMC's mission is to sustain personnel readiness; direct theaterwide personnel systems; synchronize military personnel network operations, including unit regeneration and direct postal and replacement activities; and manage essential personnel services. It does not include the C2 elements.
The theater DCSPER gives general staff guidance to the TPMC. He establishes policies and procedures and oversees their implementation in other personnel units. He provides technical guidance to personnel units, while OPCON normally remains within command channels. The TPMC is the coordinating organization for the theater personnel systems. He communicates with USTA PERSCOM and personnel groups to synchronize information and system processes. There are four directorates in the TPMCC¾ replacement, personnel operations, personnel services, and postal.
(1) The replacement directorate manages the theater personnel readiness and replacement systems. The replacement function demands coordination among the TPMC, the DCSPER, the DCSOPS, and the DCSLOG.
(2) The personnel operations directorate maintains personnel staffing requirements for all ASCC units and allocates available replacements within the theater in coordination with the replacement directorate.
(3) The personnel services directorate manages essential personnel services, theater personnel information, personnel accounting and strength reporting, casualty operations management systems, and retention management.
(4) The postal directorate manages the theater postal system.
b. C2 relationships. Normal staff relationships exist between the theater PERSCOM and higher and lower HQ. Coordination is essential among the theater PERSCOM staff and other ASCC command staffs. Following are some of the more significant relationships:
(1) ASCC HQ. The ASCC commands and controls the theater PERSCOM and FINCOM. The theater AG advises the ASCC on personnel issues. The ASCC DCSPER exercises general staff supervision over the theater AG. These key staff members must maintain a close and continuous relationship.
(2) USTA PERSCOM. The TPMC communicates continuously with USTA PERSCOM on thea-ter personnel strength information, casualty operations, and replacement operations management.
(3) Personnel group. The TPMC provides technical guidance on personnel management to the personnel groups and their subordinate units and sections.
(4) TA TRANSCOM. The theater PERSCOM depends on external transportation support for transporting replacements and moving theater PERSCOM elements when they relocate. This requires close coordination between the theater PERSCOM and TRANSCOM.
(5) Other organizations. The theater PERSCOM coordinates with joint and combined commands and HN activities regularly.
c. Employment. When deployed, the theater PERSCOM elements may operate from as many as four command posts (CPs): PERSCOM main, PERSCOM alternate, TA main, and TA rear. Theater PERSCOM personnel distribution to the various CPs depends on the tactical situation and the commander's judgment. An example of personnel distribution is at figure 4-2.
(1) PERSCOM main and alternate CPs. The TPMC constitutes the PERSCOM main CP. The PERSCOM alternate CP may be the follow-on echelons of the theater PERSCOM as it deploys into the theater. It would be located in a more secure location in the COMMZ or in CONUS. The alternate CP prepares to augment the main CP in split operations or to assume the main CP mission, if necessary, or during redeployment. The alternate CP must maintain continuous communication with the main CP and duplicate its communications requirements as much as possible.
(2) TA main and rear CPs. Theater PERSCOM elements at the TA main and rear CPs maintain continuous communications with the theater PERSCOM main and alternate CPs to provide direct interface with the TA HQ. Thus, they are able to respond quickly to TA command and staff require-ments. They can also pass current battle information to the main and alternate CPs.
Figure 4-2. Theater PERSCOM battlefield locations.
4-4. ASCC DCSPER
The ASCC DCSPER is responsible for coordinating and integrating all PSS activities within the theater; establishing general theater-unique personnel policies; assisting the Army component commander in evaluating and influencing the theater command climate; directing the morale, welfare, and recreation, alcohol and drug abuse prevention and control, equal opportunity, and safety programs; preparing PSS plans and orders; preparing the personnel estimate of the situation; and recommending replacement priorities to the DCSOPS.
4-5. FINANCE COMMAND
The FINCOM provides finance support to all Army, joint, and combined commands and policy and technical guidance to all finance units in the theater. The FINCOM commander, in his capacity as the theater staff finance officer, establishes finance policy for the theater. The FINCOM will provide central funding support to all US and allied organizations and operations in the theater when DOD directs. It commands and controls finance battalions (FBs) not assigned to a finance group (FG).
The FINCOM commander recommends when and which finance functions will be performed, retrograded, or transferred to a designated finance support activity (DFSA). Based on his recommen-dation and in coordination with the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller) and Defense Finance and Accounting Service, the ASCC commander will approve transferring functions to a DFSA. He is also responsible for specified theater-level operational missions.
The FINCOM is an ASCC TOE unit. The FINCOM commander normally reports directly to the CINC or the ASCC. He does not command and control FGs. Corps and TAACOM commanders command and control FGs. The FINCOM commands and controls FBs not otherwise assigned to an FG. These FBs provide finance support to EAC units not otherwise supported by an FG.
The FINCOM is composed of the command section, internal control division, company HQ, S1/S4, S2/S3, finance and accounting policy division, and centralized operations division. The finance and accounting policy division provides theaterwide finance and accounting policy and technical guidance. The centralized operations division includes central currency funding, disbursing, commercial accounting, travel pay, foreign national and civilian pay, and accounting (appropriated and non-appropriated funds). The FINCOM organizational structure is shown in figure 4-3.
Figure 4-3. FINCOM.
4-6. RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SUPPORT
The Deputy Chief of Staff for Resource Management (DCSRM) is the ASCC’s principal adviser on resource matters. The DCSRM’s mission is to analyze the command's specified and implied missions
and priorities, identify financial resource requirements, acquire the resources, allocate or distribute the resources, control and account for the resources, and evaluate and report on resource execution or use. Additionally, the DCSRM directs or coordinates analyses of future program requirements (i.e., post operations, etc.). He ensures the effective and efficient use of scarce funding to conduct or support command operations in peace, war, and other operations. A typical DCSRM organization is provided at figure 4-4.
The finance and accounting function is integral to a successful resource management operation. The DCSRM is a customer of various finance and accounting support options:
· A modified TOE (MTOE) finance unit performs in-theater accounting.
· A defense accounting office performs in-theater accounting.
· A DFSA performs out-of-theater accounting. If the support is in-theater, the finance and account-ing support function locates close to the DCSRM organization.
The DCSRM follows several tenets in an operational theater. These tenets are based on observations of what has worked effectively during actual operations, but they should not be construed as strict rules.
· Centralize funds control at the highest practical level of command.
· Decentralize execution down to the deployed division or task force.
· Track execution at all levels of command.
· Report execution through command structure.
ASCCs are constrained by the peacetime laws and regulations governing obligations, expenditures, and limitations on using public funds until officially notified of relaxed constraints. The ASCC, with the DCSRM's assistance, will use all available funds and, upon depletion of those available funds, will incur obligations on a deficiency basis (Feed and Forage Act). Financial records will be maintained. Repro-gramming needs will be communicated to HQDA for appropriate action at the department level. The DCSRM should use the following guidelines in assisting the ASCC:
a. Resource management is performed early and in detail. The initial assumption in providing resource management support for an emergency operation or conflict is that maximum financial controls, accounting, and reporting will be required. The DCSRM deploys a cell early into the theater to support operations immediately.
b. Because Army operations vary greatly in size, intensity, and duration, resource managers must be flexible in responding to support requirements. This includes the DCSRM's organization in a theater of operations. It should be tailored to meet rapidly changing requirements.
c. Resource management functions are performed in all operational theaters. The intensity of an operation or conflict may dictate that some resource management functions such as manpower and internal review may not be performed in-theater, but financial support of operations is always required.
d. Resource management is closely linked to logistic and contracting operations in the theater. The cost of centralized supply and logistic operations should be captured outside the theater, primarily by automated means, but the resource manager should capture the costs of intratheater logistic and construction operations and locally procured supplies and services. The DCSRM provides contracting officers and field ordering officers with limited funding authority to perform their functions to support Army operations and requires them to report how they execute those funds periodically.
4-7. RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS
The senior chaplain in each EAC element serves as a special staff officer for the command. The chaplain supervises his own staff section and provides technical control and coordination of all unit ministry teams (UMTs) in subordinate units. The UMT's mission is consistent at all echelons¾ to provide comprehensive religious support to all soldiers, their family members, and authorized DA civilians. Additionally, the chaplain advises the commander and staff on matters of religion, morals, ethics, and morale. The religious support missions unique to the joint, combined, and/or unified command staff UMT include¾
· Advising the commander of indigenous religious conditions and limitations in the AO.
· Representing the commander regarding religious matters to the civilian religious community.
· Providing guidance and assistance to allied chaplain leaders in the command.
4-8. PUBLIC AFFAIRS
The senior Army commander implements public affairs (PA) guidance and plans consistent with the Assistant Secretary of Defense for PA and unified commanders, and provides technical assistance to subordinate units through PA assets organic to his command. The ASCC public affairs officer (PAO) is the sole media POC within a command and acts as the commander's spokesperson.
The PAO directs command information and media relations functions for all units assigned, attached, or OPCON to the Army commander. The senior Army PAO commands and controls TOE PA units augmenting the command or not assigned to subordinate commands.
a. Press camp HQ. The press camp HQ operates news media centers at corps and EAC. Its primary mission is to accredit, brief, and escort news media representatives and to coordinate support services for news media representatives.
b. Mobile PA detachment. The mobile PA detachment is the workhorse of the PA TOE units. Its capabilities include producing and distributing command information products (newspapers, fact sheets, audiovisual programs, etc.), providing media escorts, and providing command and public information releases to news media.
4-9. LEGAL SUPPORT
Legal support to the command, the soldiers, and the military community is accomplished through five functional areas: administrative and contract law, criminal law, claims, legal assistance, and international or operational law. The staff judge advocate (SJA) is a member of the commander's personal and special staff. As the commander's personal legal adviser, the SJA implements the commander's policies under the preventive law program and establishes the climate for handling legal matters.