26 June 1998
SUBJECT: Force XXI Corps O&O Concept ( Revised Draft)
1. Purpose. To provide the operations and organizational concept for the Force XXI Corps.
a. This paper addresses the mission and capabilities of the Force XXI corps. It is a flexible force tailored by its higher headquarters to conduct operations in a mid-intensity environment based on mission, enemy, terrain, troops, time, and civilian (METT-TC) requirements. A mid-intensity environment is one in which the enemy has substantial conventional capabilities, to include chemical and biological weapons, that may be applied asymmetrically against the corps. The only unit organic to the Force XXI Corps is its headquarters company. The full capabilities listed, unless stated otherwise, are for an end state Force XXI Corps employing subordinate units (See Annex A). Some Force XXI Corps capabilities will be available prior to achieving the end state.
b. The Force XXI Corps is a capability based force that provides Joint or Unified Commanders with a force optimized for sustained land combat. Its tailorable organization makes it suitable to conduct distributed operations in all environments, across the full range of military actions. By its flexible design, the Force XXI Corps’ capabilities reside within its subordinate units. This provides the corps with a high level of lethality, survivability, and maneuverability against all enemy forces, including asymmetrical threats. The Corps Commander is an operational and/or tactical maneuver commander.
c. All Force XXI Corps operations are joint and may be interagency or multinational. Its tailorable structure is an essential component in force projection operations, especially when split base operations are necessary. Improved connectivity to joint and potentially multinational forces enable the Force XXI Corps to bring the full weight of the joint or multinational team to bear at the appropriate time throughout the depth, width, and height of its area of operations (AO).
d. The Force XXI corps conducts information operations to gain superior situational understanding and windows of information superiority, and to improve the synergy of joint and multinational operations in both digital and analog environments. This results in superior situational understanding, available through digitized and analog systems, that facilitates the execution of decisive operations across all dimensions of the corps AO.
e. The Force XXI Corps executes force projection operations to secure joint force commander’s (JFC) theater strategic objectives in both mature and underdeveloped theaters.
f. The Force XXI Corps design incorporates the battlefield distribution management (BD) concept. BD is based upon unity of command, increased velocity, situational understanding, and an agile CSS structure. Centralized BD at each echelon will optimize the distribution infrastructure and leverage real-time information. The principles of maximum throughput with follow-on sustainment bypasses intermediate support nodes and minimizes handling with increased distribution velocity. BD anticipates the CSS requirements in an effort to get the optimum sustainment possible in the distribution system, in support of maneuver forces (See Annex B).
g. The Force XXI Corps flexible design speeds the process of force tailoring and packaging, while its combat service support (CSS) capabilities allow it to conduct, or support, reception, staging, onward movement, and integration (RSOI) operations at the lodgment base or in an intermediate staging base (ISB) within a joint operations area (JOA).
h. The Force XXI Corps provides dedicated support to subordinate units that passed back functions during their redesign. This has created greater reliance in the use of reserve component (RC) units, contractors, and foreign nation support (FNS) whenever possible or required.
a. The Force XXI Corps is designed to fight as part of a numbered army or as a subordinate to a joint task force (JTF), joint force land component command (JFLCC), an army force (ARFOR), or an army service component command (ASCC), in any environment, across the full range of military operations.
b. The Force XXI corps has the capability to function as an ARFOR, a JTF or JFLCC, or as a designated subordinate ASCC, if properly augmented with additional assets for command and control (C2), CSS, air defense (AD), fires, psychological operations (PSYOP), civil military operations (CMO), public affairs (PA) and intelligence.
c. The Force XXI Corps will be tailored for all missions. Its C2, combat support, and CSS structure can be tailored in a variety of packages to support specific missions in any environment, especially in split base operations. This structure provides interoperability with all subordinate units.
d. All current joint and multinational support agreements remain in effect.
4. Mission. The Force XXI Corps conducts joint, interagency, or multinational distributed operations facilitated by information superiority across the full range of military operations, in a mid-intensity environment or small scale contingencies, against any threat, throughout the depth, width, and height of its AO. Any specific corps mission may include a mixture of all or some offense, defense, stability and support actions sequentially or simultaneously.
5. Distributed Operations. The Force XXI Corps distributed operations consist of the functions and activities executed simultaneously or sequentially throughout the depth, width, and height of the AO. The Force XXI Corps seeks to conduct multiple simultaneous operations through its area of operations that combine the effects of its subordinate units to overwhelm any adversary, preventing him from responding effectively. Force XXI Corps distributed operations use the framework of "decisive," "shaping," and "sustainment" operations to organize the battlefield. The Force XXI Corps operations within this framework include:
a. Decisive Operations. Those actions that apply simultaneous, overwhelming military capabilities to strike directly at decisive points. They require the precise integration and application of combat power and combat multipliers throughout the AO. Decisive points can be geographical or force oriented in nature. The Force XXI Corps decisive operations include:
(1) Conducting offensive and defensive distributed operations throughout the depth, width, and height of the AO, in cooperation with other services, agencies, or multinational forces, to strike the enemy simultaneously and asymmetrically at multiple decisive points to gain operational results significant to the JFC’s campaign objectives.
(2) Conducting decisive maneuver and fires, including close combat or other, to destroy or neutralize enemy centers of gravity, or to control land areas, including local populations and resources.
(3) Conducting information operations to achieve superior situational understanding and windows of information superiority. This enables, the Force XXI Corps to concentrate the effects of its subordinate units simultaneously or sequentially, against multiple or single, decisive points; and to shift them accordingly to attack again in rapid succession.
b. Shaping Operations. Those actions taken using the full range of military power and information superiority to set the conditions for decisive operations. Their goal is to reduce or eliminate the enemy’s ability to resist in a coherent manner before he can commit his forces to decisive operations. Force XXI Corps shaping operations include:
(1) Command and Control the execution of joint and combined arms operations that orchestrate the effects of its subordinate units to accomplish operational objectives.
(2) Supporting the operations of subordinate units with reconnaissance and security forces, C2, intelligence, fires, information operations, aviation, air defense, chemical, military police, combat engineers, and reserves.
(3) Conducting shaping operations, facilitated by situational understanding, to set the conditions for decisive operations using maneuver forces, information operations, fires, attack aviation, intelligence, and other assets.
(4) Conducting operational level shaping operations to employ the full range of military power as, or subordinate to, an ARFOR, JTF, or JFLCC.
(5) Conducting stability or support actions with all or part of its subordinate units, simultaneously or separately with offensive and defensive actions, in a joint, interagency, and multinational C2 structure, to establish the conditions for the successful execution of diplomatic and economic initiatives, agreements or treaties, as directed by the JFC.
(6) Conduct information operations to degrade the enemy’s command and control, communication, computers, and intelligence (C4I) system, protect friendly C4I, and affect the perceptions of other target audiences.
(7) Allocating resources (from US forces, contractors, FNS, multinational) to subordinate units to provide capabilities not resident within those forces, to reinforce capabilities already on hand, or to provide functions that were passed back during redesign.
c. Sustainment Operations. Those actions taken to protect and ensure the functioning of the corps and its subordinate units, to ensure freedom of action. Force XXI Corps actions in sustainment operations include:
(1) Logistic support.
(2) Conducting terrain management.
(3) Exercising movement and traffic control.
(4) Conducting sustainment area and LOC security operations, including C2 of the corps Tactical Combat Force.
(5) Supporting the transition from one category of action to another, to operate in various environments (urban, mountainous, jungle, and desert), and to operate effectively in joint, interagency, and multinational environments.
6. Specific Capabilities. This paragraph contains the specific capabilities of the Force XXI corps, under the Army’s Universal Task List.
a. Conduct Movement and Maneuver.
(1) Conduct decisive battles and engagements, including both close combat and other, to seize or retain terrain, and or defeat or destroy enemy forces, in support of JFC’s operational objectives using joint and combined arms operations facilitated by situational understanding.
(2) Conduct continuous reconnaissance with air and ground assets throughout the area of interest, providing the commander with the capability to confirm information obtained from other sources.
(3) Conduct covering force, screen and guard missions and economy of force operations.
(4) Conduct integrated aviation and ground maneuver operations throughout its AO. (5) Conduct air attack, reconnaissance, security, command and control, and GS aviation missions.
(6) Tailor armor, mechanized or light infantry combined arms forces employing combinations of artillery, attack aviation, and cavalry, supported by intelligence, air defense, engineers, chemical, military police, and CSS to conduct shaping, sustainment, and decisive operations throughout the battle space.
(7) Plan and provide mobility, countermobility, and general engineering support to the corps subordinate units.
(8) Augment subordinate unit’s engineer capability to conduct mobility, and countermobility operations.
(9) Establish lines of operations and lines of communications.
(10) Plan for and control population centers, prisoners of war, and stragglers.
b. Provide Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance.
(1) Provide C2 of all attached and augmenting intelligence units supporting the corps.
(2) Plan the employment of all intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) assets in support of corps operations.
(3) Access joint force, multinational, and national intelligence systems which provide situational understanding throughout the corps area of interest and area of operations.
(4) Simultaneously provide all subordinate units with continuous real-time intelligence concerning the corps’ AO, or area of interest, via "broadcast systems."
(5) Provide fused intelligence to the production of relevant information.
(6) Augment the human intelligence and counterintelligence capabilities of subordinate units.
(7) Control non-lethal offensive IO.
(8) Conduct police intelligence functions in support of distributed operations.
c. Employ Firepower.
(1) Provide operational and tactical decisive and shaping fires in support of distributed operations based on METT-TC factors.
(2) Provide the corps commander a means to weight the decisive efforts.
(3) Provide control of fires effects from space, artillery, close air support, army aviation, naval fires, and offensive IO systems.
(4) Conduct substantial counterfire and suppression of enemy air defense operations.
(5) Provide a link to land, air, sea, and space fires assets to support the corps.
(6) Provide planning and coordination assistance to subordinate units and augment their fire support C2 structure.
(7) Operate an effects control cell (ECC) that provides C2 and planning focus for corps and subordinate unit shaping or decisive operations.
d. Provide Support.
(1) Command and control all sustainment units subordinate to the corps.
(2) Provide CSS to both digital and analog corps units.
(3) Conduct centralized CSS operations using the centralized distribution management system.
(4) Provide CSS support for the logistics functions that were passed back during the subordinate unit redesign.
(5) Employ flexible modular units to mass CSS support to the force.
(6) Capitalize on enabling technologies to increase the velocity in the distribution system.
(7) Maintain total asset visibility of CSS assets before, during and after all operations.
(8) Provide general engineering and topographical support to the corps.
(9) Maintain open and secure lines of communication for the operations of the distribution management system.
(10) Plan and provide general military police (MP) support to include MP functions that were passed back during the division redesign.
(11) Control battlefield circulation.
(12) Anticipate the maneuver commander’s CSS needs and redirect, mass, and shift CSS assets to the locations on the battlefield where they are most needed.
(13) Provide personnel support.
(14) Perform reconstitution.
(15) Provide combat health support.
e. Exercise Command and Control.
(1) Integrate all functional elements of the corps to plan, prepare, execute, and assess the full range of operations in all environments.
(2) Plan for and command and control up to seven major subordinate maneuver units, including joint and multinational forces (light and heavy; digitized and analog), in addition to other corps subordinate units.
(3) Integrate joint service capabilities within the corps AO, with proper augmentation especially when acting as a JTF, JFLCC, ARFOR, or when designated to perform the functions of an ASCC.
(4) Plan, prepare, execute, and assess theater operational or tactical campaigns including fires, CSS, and joint, multinational and interagency efforts in a stability or support operations environment.
(5) Provide communications for corps subordinate units command posts throughout its AO.
(6) Manage the collaborative corps database, and provide the common operational picture to all subordinate units in the corps C2 structure.
(7) Provide secure, robust, and survivable communications networks for voice, data, and video. This includes providing for restoration of information systems by incorporating protection, detection, and reaction capabilities.
(8) Plan and integrate space operations into all corps operations.
f. Provide Protection.
(1) Plan and coordinate the defensive force protection measures throughout all phases of mobilization and deployment.
(2) Provide C2 of augmenting AD units and area protection (DS or GS based on METT-TC) to the corps and subordinate units, and to high value assets as designated by the commander. (3) Provide early warning throughout the corps AO.
(4) Conduct operations in coordination with the area air defense coordinator (AADCOORD). This provides for the integration of corps AD assets in joint counterair operations, which include JFACC assets.
(5) Provide defense against weapons of mass destruction (WMD) for assets in the corps' AO; this requires augmentation to provide effective Theater Missile Defense (TMD) of the operational logistics support area.
(6) Plan survivability and general engineering support to the corps subordinate units.
(7) Conduct NBC warning and reporting, reconnaissance and biological detection, smoke operations, and thorough decontamination in support of subordinate units.
(8) Conduct rear area security against all threats, and provide security for designated high value assets, command posts, convoys (class III and V), and personal security.
(9) Conduct law and order operations and provide assistance to joint, multinational, and FNS law enforcement elements within the corps AO.
(10) Provide tailorable EOD support throughout the corps AO.
(11) Provide defense against hostile actions directed at the corps information systems structure.
(12) Conduct defensive information operations.
Annex A: Typical Force XXI Corps Structure.
Annex B: Force XXI Corps CSS Concept (Draft)
1. Purpose. To provide the Combat Service Support (CSS) operations and organizational concept of support for the Force XXI Corps.
a. Future battlefield success of the Force XXI Corps will rely upon a revolution in military logistics. This requires an immediate and dramatic change in the three functional domains: technology application/acquisition agility, force projection, and force sustainment. These changes impart a Corps that can project lethal combat power rapidly into any part of the world, with a correlating sustainment system that achieves its objectives in time, speed, survivability, supply availability, and anticipatory support. The ability to integrate emerging technologies and enabling systems is essential to the process of obtaining efficiency and effectiveness in operations. The overarching result is the right CSS, at the right place, at the right time, in the right quantity.
b. The CSS community's recent development of the Theater Battlefield Distribution (BD) Concept is based upon unity of command, increased velocity, situational understanding, and an agile CSS structure. Centralized BD management at each echelon will optimize the distribution infrastructure and leverage real-time information. The principles of maximum throughput with follow-on sustainment bypasses intermediate support nodes and minimizes handling with increased distribution velocity. Battlefield Distribution anticipates the CSS requirements in an effort to get the optimum sustainment possible in the distribution pipeline, in support of maneuver forces.
c. The central organization for the execution of the BD concept is the Distribution Management Center (DMC). The DMC is established at all levels in the theater of operations. The DMC monitors the BD pipeline using emerging technologies and enabling systems which provide total asset visibility (TAV) including the important in transit visibility (ITV) systems. These systems allow precise execution of the corps commander’s established priorities of support. Therefore, the strategy for implementing BD revolves around achieving maximum throughput with anticipatory and predictive logistics while continuing to minimize the CSS footprint. This Force XXI strategy serves as the foundation for future doctrine, training, leader development, organizations, materiel, and soldier support (DTLOMS).
d. The BD concept is predicated on the availability of assured communications. This gives the logistician a common operational picture of the intelligence situation and ensures that the emerging technologies are available to maintain asset visibility and conduct both terrain and traffic management. Additionally, the size of the corps area may have doubled requiring the corps to look closely at rear area protection operations. The integration of CSS units, Military Police, Engineers and Air Defense Artillery into a Corps rear area protection plan is a must in the Corps extended battlespace.
a. The Corps CSS units conduct sustainment operations across the breadth and depth of the battlefield utilizing BD and situational understanding to provide responsive combat service support to all units. The Corps Support Command (COSCOM) must be capable of sustaining and communicating with both analog and digital forces, utilizing a distribution based logistics system, on an asymmetrical battlefield, while providing daily resupply, over extended areas of operation. The Force XXI Corps CSS units must be modular, flexible, provide seamless rapid support, and have centralized distribution management. Combat Service Support (CSS) managers must have immediate access to timely and accurate CSS situational awareness to ensure the optimal utilization of available transportation assets. Additionally, corps CSS units will provide support for those logistics functions that were "passed back" from the Force XXI (Heavy) Division.
b. The Force XXI COSCOM must plan and execute support to Early Entry and Reception, Staging, Onward Movement and Integration (RSO&I) Operations. The development of the COSCOM force structure will be guided by key drivers: time/distance factors, mode availability, node capacity, supply availability, and information/anticipatory logistics capacity. The EAD design will incorporate centralized BD and hub and spoke concepts.
c. The COSCOM will provide sustainment through a number of functional and tailorable support groups comprised mostly of functional units. These groups provide support both on an area and dedicated basis. To accomplish the Corps CSS sustainment mission, units must have recommended enabler systems that allow increased situational understanding, provide TAV, and maximize throughput, which will reduce the overall CSS footprint.
d. The Corps will continue to rely heavily on reserve components units. The increase in digital technologies will create a greater reliance on contractor maintenance in the corps’ area of operation. Additionally, the Army will exercise its wartime executive agent requirements (WEAR) in support of joint operations and plan for multinational operations as required. Foreign nation support (FNS) assets will be used to the maximum extent possible.
4. EAD Force XXI CSS Support by Function.
a. ARM. The Force XXI Corps will maximize the use of strategic configured loads (SCL) prepared in CONUS based on the combatant commanders’ requirements. The SCL will move to the consumer with minimal handling. The SCL can be converted to Mission Configured Loads (MCL) in theater based on METT-TC.
b. FIX. The Force XXI Corps maintenance concept is replace forward, fix rear. Modular maintenance units will provide area support to non-divisional units and back-up and reinforcing support to divisional units using the technology of precision maintenance. The integration of techniques and technology such as on-system sensors, and enhanced Test Measurement & Diagnostics Equipment (TMDE), to predict and diagnose equipment and system failures is focused on increasing readiness and reducing class IX stocks. The multi-capable mechanic enhances repair of equipment and speeds weapons systems return to the war fight.
c. FUEL. Responsive supply of bulk class III is critical to the success of the Force XXI Corps on the battlefield. Petroleum units will establish a support base for receiving, temporarily storing, and distributing petroleum to petroleum supply units. The integration of digitization and automation will enhance the logisticians TAV of fuel assets.
d. MOVE. Force XXI operations with improved situational awareness allow maneuver forces to move with greater speed and precision. Force XXI operations synchronize movements to maximize combat commanders’ ability to achieve positional advantage through situational understanding and exploit the tactical situation. Operations executed over extended distances and a responsive theater distribution system require centralized control of transportation platforms and synchronized movement management allowing commanders to shift limited transportation resources to influence the tactical situation.
e. SUSTAIN. Sustainment materiel for the Force XXI Corps will flow from the strategic sustaining base through a seamless distribution system, bypassing routine warehouse/storage facilities. The seamless distribution system will reduce multiple handling, processing, and storage functions through near real-time access to information.
f. MAN THE FORCE. Force XXI manning requires planning and execution of critical tasks to predict, resource, monitor, assess, and adjust the personnel strength of the force. Force XXI manning will focus on unit instead of replacement point distribution. During operations, this core activity gets the right soldier to the right place and time with the right capabilities. It combines anticipation, movement, and skillful positioning of personnel assets.
g. MEDICAL. Force XXI combat health support (CHS) is responsive, rapidly deployable, operationally agile, and tailored for force protection, and integrated into combat operations. Emerging technologies and enablers allow CHS units to push treatment teams farther forward on the battlefield and contribute to the attainment of victory by keeping soldiers alive and returning them to the fight.