ENDNOTES


1. For a comprehensive history of the evolution of the division design, see John B. Wilson, Divisions and Separate Brigades forthcoming from the Center of Military History. Hereafter cited as CMH), Washington, D.C. Back

2. The pre-World War I division design was organized around three infantry brigades, each with three infantry regiments. Back

3. Memorandum, War College Department for Chief of Staff, subject: Plan for a Possible Expeditionary Force to France, May 10, 1917. Copy at CMH. For a summary of the development of the division design and its organization see United States Army in the World War 1917-19, vol. I (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1988), pp. 91-124. Back

4. James G. Harbord, The American Army in France (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1936), pp. 1014. For tables of organization see United States Army in the World War 1917-19, vol. 1 pp. 341-81. Back

5. Members of the division leadership are described in George C. Marshall, Memoirs of My Service in the World War, 1917-18 (Boston: Houghton Miflin, 1976), pp. 54-5. Back

6. Memorandum 39, Headquarters First Division, November 24, 1917, World War Records First Division AEF, vol. XX (Washington, D.C.: 1928-30). Volume XX contains the division training records for 1917. For a brief summary of the division's training see History of the First Division During the World War 1917-19 (New York: John C. Winston Company: 1922), pp. 35-41. Back

7. John J. Pershing, Wrapper Indorsement to the Report of Superior Board on Organization and Tactics, General Headquarters, American Expeditionary Force, Washington, D.C., June 16, 1920, File 52-15, MHI. Back

8. John B. Wilson, "Mobility Versus Firepower: The Post World War I Infantry Division," Parameters XXI (September 1983): 47-52. Back

9. "General Craig Outlines National Defense Views," Army and Navy Journal 3 (November 16, 1935): 205. Back

10. Report of the Secretary of War to the President 1937 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1937), p. 34; Memorandum from the Chief of Staff, War Department, subject: Reorganization of the Division and Higher Units, November 5, 1935, File 53-72, MHI; Memorandum from the Chief of Staff, War Department, subject: Initial Report of the Organization Committee on the Modernization of the Organization of the Army with Special Reference to the Infantry Division, July 30, 1936, File 53-72, MHI; Memorandum from the Chief of Staff, War Department, subject: Test of Proposed Division, February 8, 1937, File 53-72, MHI. See also Chronology, Triangularization of the Infantry Division, File HRC 322, CMH. For a summary of European developments see Jonathan M. House, Toward Combined Arms Warfare: A Survey of 20th Century Tactics, Doctrine and Organization (Fort Leavenworth: United States Army Command and General Staff College, 1984). Back

11. For a discussion of the division design objectives and tactical principles, see Memorandum for the Assistant Commandant, The Army War College, subject: The Infantry Division Organization from the Viewpoint of Tactical Employment, April 29, 1933, File 397-13, MHI; Major General Fox Conner, lecture delivered at the Army War College, 18 September 1931, File 383-A-8, MHI; Ibid, 21 March 1933, File 393-A-15, MHI. Back

12. Robert R. Palmer, Reorganization of Ground Troops for Combat Study No. 8, (Historical Section-Army Ground Forces, 1946), p. 5. Back

13. For a cogent summary of strategic factors that affected mobilization see Charles E. Kirkpatrick, An Unknown Future and a Doubtful Present, Writing the Victory Plan of 1941 (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1990), pp. 103-14 and Maurice Matloff, "The 90-Division Gamble" in Command Decisions (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1987), pp. 383-400. Back

14. Palmer, Reorganization, p. 4. See also Special Report based on Field Service Test of the Provisional 2d Division conducted by the 2d Division, U.S. Army (1939) and Highlights of Report by Commanding General, 2d Division, of the Field Service Test of the Proposed Infantry Division. Copies at CMH. Back

15. Steve F. Dietrich, "In-Theater Armored Force Modernization," Military Review 73 (October 1993): 36-7. Back

16. Palmer, Reorganization, pp. 33-40; History of the Armored Force Command and Center Study No. 27 (Historical Section-Army Ground Forces, 1946), pp. 29-43. During the war the 2d and 3d Armored Divisions did not reorganize under the smaller armored division design. Back

17. See for example, Christopher R. Gabel, The US Army GHQ Maneuvers of 1941 (Washington, D.C.: 1991), pp. 176-80. For battlefield lessons learned see Reports of the Army Ground Forces Observer Boards. Back

18. Palmer, Reorganization, pp. 40-8. The 1st Cavalry Division was retained but was reorganized on the lines of an infantry division. Primary sources for the light division experiment in World War II are found in the records of the Chief of Staff, OPD, G-3 (all in Records Group 165); AGF (Records Group 337) and the records of the 71st and 89th Divisions at the National Archives and Records Administration (hereafter cited as NARA), Washington, D.C. See in particular the period of mid-1943. Back

19. The General Board, United States Forces, European Command. For an analysis of the organization, equipment, tactics and employment of the infantry, airborne and armored divisions see vols. 15, 16, and 48. Back

20. William W. Epley, `'America's First Cold War Army 1945-50," The Land Warfare Papers no. 15 (Arlington: The Institute of Land Warfare Papers, Association of the United States Army, 1993), pp. 19-23. Back

21. Foreign Relations of the United States 1950 vol. 1. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1976), p. 283. For an introduction into the issues surrounding NSC 68 see Emest R. May, ed., America's Cold War Strategy, Interpreting NSC 68 (Boston: Bedford Books, 1993). Back

22. William P. Mako, US Ground Forces and the Defense of Central Europe (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institute, 1983), p. 814; Robert P. Haffa, Jr., Rational Methods, Prudent Choices: Planning US Forces (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, 1988), p. 41. Back

23. Sherman Adams, Firsthand Report (New York: Harper Brothers, 1961), p. 399. See also John C. Glennon, ed., Foreign Relations of the United States 1955-1957 vol. XIX (Washington, D.C.: 1990), p. 40. Back

24. A. J. Bacevich, The Pentomic Era (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, 1986), p. 15-9. Back

25. Letter, ATDCH 320 (TS), Chief of Army Field Forces to Chief of Staff, subject: Organization of the Army During the Period FY 1960-1970, 9 June 1954, Record Group 319, NARA; Directive, Office, Chief of Staff (Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans and Research) to Chief of Army Field Forces, subject: Organization Studies to Improve the Army Combat Potential-to-Manpower Ratio, 19 April 1954, Record Group 337, NARA; Information Paper, G3 020 DA TS, subject: Organization of the Army During the Period FY 1960-1970, 21 Oct 1954, Record Group 319, NARA. Back

26. For ATFA-1 TOEs see Semiannual Report for CONARC, Document and Requirements Division, G3 Section, 1 January-30 June 1956, G-3 Section Tabs A-C, File 60-1 AA, CMH. Back

27. US Exercise Sagebrush Final Report (5 November 1955); Semiannual Report for CONARC Summary, Doctrine, Requirements Division, G3 Section, 1 July-31 December 1955, pp. 21-28, File 60-1 AA, CMH; Semiannual Report for CONARC Summary, Organization and Equipment Division, G3 Section, 1 January-30 June 1956, pp. 1322, File 61-AA, CMH. Back

28. Richard P. Weinert, History of Army Aviation 1955-62 (Fort Monroe: Historical Office, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, 1976), pp. 119-26. Back

29. Information paper, G3 020 DA TS, Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G3, subject: Organization of the Army During the Period 1960-1970, 21 October 1954; Letter, Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G3, Operations, Department of the Army, subject: Organization of the Army During the Period 1960-1970, 17 November 1954; Doctrinal and Organizational Concepts For An Atomic-Nonatomic Army During the Period 1960-1970(C). Short Title: PENTANA Army (U), Abridged Edition (Fort Monroe: United States Continental Army Command, 10 May 1957). Back

30. Letter, Chief of Staff to Commanding General, CONARC, 21 July 1955, General Maxwell D. Taylor Files, MHI. See also Maxwell D. Taylor, Swords and Plowshares (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1972), pp. 152-3. Back

31. Maxwell D. Taylor, Speech Before the Army School Commandants, Room 2E715A, Pentagon, Washington, D.C. 28 February 1957, Maxwell D. Taylor Files, MHI; Interview with General Melvin Zais, USA Retired, Colonel William L. Golden and Colonel Richard C. Rice, Senior Officer Oral History Program, Project 77-3, vol. II, 1977, MHI; John H. Cushman, "Pentomic Infantry Division in Combat," Military Review 37 (January 1958): 19-30. Back

32. Semiannual Report for CONARC, Doctrine and Requirements Division, Joint Doctrine Branch, G3 Section, 1 July-31 December 1956, pp. 1-2, File 60-1 AA, CMH. Back

33. Interview with General William E. DePuy, USA retired, by LTC Bill Mullen III and LTC Les Brownlee, Senior Officers Debriefing Program, 1979, p. 112, MHI. See also Interview with General Westmoreland, Senior Officers Debriefing Program, p. 32, MHI; Interview with General Zais, p.338, MHI; Interview with General Wllliam C. Westmoreland, USA retired, by LTC Martin L. Ganderson, Senior Officer Oral History Program, Project 1982-F, vol. I, 1982, p. 32, MHI. Back

34. Taylor, Swords, p. 171. Back

35. Semiannual Report of the Secretary of Defense January 1 to June 30, 1956 (Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1957), p. 85. Back

36. Bacevich, Pentomic, p. 100. Back

37. Letter, Chief of Staff to Commanding General, Continental Army Command, subject: Army Organization, 1 June 1956, General Maxwell D. Taylor Files, MHI. Back

38. Semiannual Report for CONARC Summary, Organization and Equipment Division, G3 Section, 1 July-31 December 1956. Enclosures include Pentomic TOEs for the airborne, infantry and armored divisions. Back

39. Seminnnual Report for CONARC, Document and Requirements Division, G3 section, 1 January-30 June 1957, Joint Doctrine Branch, pp. 1-2, File 60-1 AA, CMH; Semiannual Report for USCONARC Summary, Division and Requirements Division, G3 Section, 1 January-30 June 1956, pp. 16, 20. Back

40. Interview with General Hamilton Howze by LTC Robert Reed, Senior Officers Debriefing Program, MHI, 1972, pp.6-7; Interview with General DePuy, p.34; Interview with General Westmoreland, p.33; John C. Binkley, "A History of US Army Force Structuring," Military Review LVII (February 1977): 78. Back

41. Memorandum, 5 March 1957, Eisenhower Presidential Papers, White House Office: Defense Department Sub-Series, Box 1, Eisenhower Presidential Library, Abilene, KS. Back

42. Modern Mobile Army, 1965-70 (U) Short Title: MOMAR I(U)), (Fort Monroe: United States Continental Army Command, February 1960), pp.i-iii. Back

43. Robert Doughty, The Evolution of US Army Tactical Doctrine (Fort Leavenworth: US Army Command and General Staff College, 1979), p. 20. Back

44. Memorandum for General Starry, ATCG, Headquarters, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, subject: Historical Background on Three Versus Four Companies, 16 May 1979. Back

45. Department of Defense Annual Review for Fiscal Year 1962 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1962), pp.3-5. Back

46. Reorganization Objective Army Divisions 1961-65 (Short title, ROAD-65), Hq USCONARC, 1 March 1961. See also Summary of Major Events and Problems, Headquarters, US Continental Army Command, 1 July 1960 to 30 June 1961, chapter 8 and Doughty, Evolution, pp. 20-3. Back

47. Clyde D. Eddleman, ``Mobility and Future Land Warfare," Army Information Digest 17 (May 1962): 31; Ernest F. Fisher, Jr., Relationship of the Road Concept to Moral Considerations in Strategic Planning, File 2-3.7 AC.C CMH, pp. 1-4, 57. Back

48. "Army Censors General's ROAD Criticism," Army Navy and Air Force Journal and Register 101 (May 16, 1964):
1,7,10,38. Back

49. Memorandum from the Secretary of Defense for the Secretary of the Army, subject: Army-Aviation(U), April 19, 1962 and Memorandum for Mr. Stahr, April 19, 1962. Copies of these memorandums are reproduced in Alain C. Enthoven and K. Wayne Smith, How Much is Enough? (New York: Harper and Row, 1971), pp. 101-4. Back

50. US Army Tactical Mobility Requirements Board, Final Report (U), 20 August 1962, pp. 3-6, 57. See also Hamilton H. Howze, 'The Howze Board," 3 parts Army 24 (February 1974): 814; 24 (March 1974): 18-24; 24 (April 74): 18-24. Back

51. Weinert, History, p. 122. The Army-Air Force debate continued until 1975. See Frederic A. Bergerson, The Army Gets an Air Force (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1978); William W. Epley, Roles and Missions of the United States Army (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1993). Back

52. United States Department of the Air Force, Tactical Air Support Requirements Board, Comments on Report of the Army. The board chaired by Lieutenant General Gabriel Disoway was commonly known as the Disoway Board; John J. Tolson, Airmobility (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1973), pp. 57-8. Back

53. Department of the Army Historical Summary, Fiscal Year 1973 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1977), p. 49; John L. Norton, 'TRICAP," Army 21 (June 1971): 14-15. Back

54. Reconfiguration of the TRICAP Division (U), Executive Summary, United States Army Combat Development Command, Combat System Group, 15 December 1972, p. 5. Back

55. Richard M. Swain, compiled Selected Papers of General William E. DePuy (Fort Leavenworth: Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1994), pp. 75-112. Back

56. John L. Romjue, A History of Army 86 vol.1 Division 86: The Development of the Heavy Division (Fort Monroe: United States Training and Doctrine Command, June 1982), pp. 2-4, 6-7. This history provides a comprehensive overview of the DRS study. See also Restructuring Study, Phase I Report, vol. 1, Executive Summary, pp. V. Back

57. John W. Foss, Donald S. Phil and Thomas E. Fitzgerald, "The Division Restructuring Study: The Heavy Division," Military Review LVII (March 1977): 11-21. Back

58. Address by General Bernard W. Rogers, Chief of Staff, United States Army, at the Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, 21 April 1978, File HRC 350.001, CMH, pp. 5-7. Back

59. John L. Romjue, From Active Defense to AirLand Battle: The Development of Army Doctrine 1973-1982 (Fort Monroe: Historical Office, United States Training and Doctrine Command, June 1984), pp. 40-2. Back

60. For discussion on the corps see John L. Romjue, A History of Army 86 vol. II The Development of the Light Division, The Corps and Echelons Above Corps (Fort Monroe: United States Training and Doctrine Command, June 1982), pp. 58-88. Back

61. For a discussion on the light division see ibid, pp. 25-55; US Combined Arms Combat Development Activity, Infantry Division 86 Feeder Report, ACN 52955, (Fort Leavenworth: USCACDA, April 1982), pp. 1-1/4/5. Back

62. Joseph Huddleston, The High Technology Test Bed and the High Technology Light Division. Inception Through 30 September 1983, vol. I (Fort Lewis: 1984). This manuscript provides a detailed summary of the origins of the HTTB. Copy at CMH. Back

63. Motorized Experience of the 9th Infantry Division, 1980-1989, Headquarters, 9th Infantry Division (Motorized), Fort Lewis, Washington, 9 June 1989, p. 15. Part one of this document includes the division's assessment of the formation and evaluation of the High Technology Division, see pages 1-45. Back

64. FM 101-10-1/1. Staff Officers' Field Manual. Organizational, Technical, and Logistical Data. vol. 1. (Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 7 October 1987), Chapter 6. Back

65. Stephen L. Bowman, "The 'Old Reliables' One of a Kind," Army 38 (February 1988): 28. Back

66. MG Wilson A. Shoffner, ADCSOPS (Force Development), statement before the Subcommittee on Defense of the Senate Appropriations Committee, Second Session, 100 Congress, 29 March 1988, p. 26. Back

67. John L. Romjue, The Army of Excellence The Development of the 1980s Army (Fort Monroe: Office of the Command Historian, United States Army Training and Doctrine Comrnand, 1993), pp. 20-1. Back

68. Memorandum from Secretary of the Army John O. Marsh, Jr. to Army Chief of Staff General John A Wickham, Jr., 8 September 1983. See also Message LTG Vuono to General Richardson, 141600Z Sep 83, subject: CSA Visit to CAC; Sam Damon and Ben Krisler, "'Army of Excellence. A Time to Take Stock," Armed Forces Journal International 22 (May 1985): 86-94. Back

69. General Wickham gave indications as early as June of his new initiative. See message, MG Morelli DSDOC, HQ TRADOC to LTG Vuono, Cdr. USACAC, 151540Z Jul 83, subject: New Light Infantry Division. Back

70. FC 100-1, The Army of Excellence (Fort Leavenworth: USACACDA, 1 September 1984), pp. 1-4; Message Gen Richardson, Cdr. TRADOC to LTG Vuono, Cdr. USACAC, 181135Z Aug 83, subject: Light Infantry Division. Back

71. The Army of Excellence Final Report, vol. II, The Light Infantry Division (Fort Leavenworth: USACACDA, 1 October 1984). Back

72. Interview with General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, USA retired, by Dr. Mark Sherry, January 13, 1994, CMH, pp. 18-9, 51. See also Sam Damon and Ben Krisler, "Army of Excellence. A Time to Take Stock," Armed Forces Journal International 22 (May 1985): 86-94. Back

73. The Army of Excellence Final Report vol. III, The Heavy Division (Fort Leavenworth: USCACDA 1 October 1984). Back

74. Interview with General Carl E. Vuono by Dr. James Yarrison, March 24, 1993, CMH, p. 42; Interview of General John W. Foss by Dr. Mark Sherry, March 1, 1994, CMH, pp. 24-6; John L. Romjue, et. al., US Army Training and Doctrine Command Annual Command History 1 January to 31 December 1993 (Fort Monroe: Office of the Command Historian, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, July 1994), pp. 81-2. Back

75. The National Military Strategy of the United States (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, January 1992), pp. 6-7,10. Back

76. Lorna S. Jaffee, The Development of the Base Force, 1989-1992 (Washington, D.C.: The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1993), pp. 11-5; Les Aspin, Report of the Bottom-Up Review (October 1993), p. iii. For a comprehensive analysis of how the Army responded to this challenge see Mark Sherry, " The Army CP, 1987-1993, Headquarters, Department of the Army Responds to An Era of Change," (Forthcoming from CMH). Back

77. Memorandum for Vice Chief of Staff from Major General Jay M. Garner, subject: Digitization Special Task Force (STF)--ACTION MEMORANDUM, 28 January 1994. Copy at CMH. Back

78. Army Science Board, 1994 Summer Study, Final Report, "Technical Architecture for Command, Control and Intelligence" (April 1995); Joe W. Rigby, "Digitizing Force XXI," Army 55 (May 1995): 3844; Interview with Major General Joe W. Rigby, USA retired, by LTC James Jay Carafano, September 17,1996, CMH; Interview with Brigadier General Joseph E. Oder, by LTC James Jay Carafano, September 23, 1996, CMH. Back

79. Message from Headquarters Department of the Army, subject: Building the Force For the 21st Century--Force XXI, 08145Z Mar 94. Copy at CMH. Back

80. TRADOC Pamphlet 525-5, Force XXI Operations, 1 August 1994. Back

81. TRADOC Annual Command History, 1 January to 31 December 1993, pp.82-83. Back

82. Romjue, A History of Division 86, vol.l, pp.65-9, 90-3 and 128. Back

83. "Experimental Division Increases Combat Punch," Army 46 (September 1996): 65-66. Back

84. Memorandum from Chief of Staff, General Gordon R. Sullivan, subject: Force XXI Experimental Force Prime Directive, 14 February 1995. Copy at CMH. Back


Table of Contents
Prelude to Army XXI, Part 3
Appendix A: U.S. Army Force Structure 1939-1995