Index JOINT STRATEGIC CAPABILITIES PLAN
PRAIRIE WARRIOR 2000 - FOR INSTRUCTIONAL USE ONLY


SUPPLEMENTAL INSTRUCTION 3110.11

MOBILITY

SECTION I

1. Purpose. Provide mobility planning guidance to support regional planning tasks assigned in the JSCP.

2. Scope. Special Instruction 3110.11, in conjunction with the JOPES transportation reference files provides:

- deliberate planning guidance on the use of airlift, sealift, and air refueling assets that may be planned for use during OPLAN development in support of Instructional JSCP tasking.

- the characteristics and capabilities of individual types of strategic airlift, strategic sealift, and air refueling assets for deliberate planning.

3. Movement Planning Guidance. USTRANSCOM-controlled common user lift is the pool of strategic transportation assets, either government owned or chartered, that are under the operational control of AMC, MSC or MTMC for the purpose of providing, in peace and war, common-user transportation to the Department of Defense. These assets range from common-user organic and/or chartered commercial assets available day-to-day, to a larger pool of common-user assets phased in from other sources. Lift assets from organic and other sources are delineated in sections II and III of this instruction.

4. Apportionment and Allocation of Assets. Airlift, sealift, and air refueling assets are available for planning as specified in sections II, III, and IV of this instruction. CJCS approval of an OPLAN does not guarantee a specific allocation of airlift, sealift, or air refueling assets for execution. Apportioned levels of mobility assets are for the deliberate planning and movement support of a particular OPLAN and are based on the best projections available of expected future capabilities. Specific assets available for actual allocation during a crisis at some unknown time should be expected to differ somewhat.

5. Transportation Feasibility Criteria. The new JOPES standard model for gross transportation analysis, JFAST, should be used for the gross transportation evaluation of all OPLANs and Concept Summaries. Combatant commanders should determine the gross transportation feasibility of their plans. decisive force response before submitting it to USTRANSCOM for further TPFDD refinement.

6. Interface with JOPES. The mobility planning data presented in this document and the JOPES transportation reference files are primarily intended for use in conjunction with JFAST for the purpose of gross transportation feasibility evaluations. Table I lists the 2 digit codes for the applicable files with the MOBCODES file.

 

 

 

Table I

MOBILIZATION CODE REFERENCE TABLE

 

Airlift and Sealift OPLAN Segment Mob Component

Guide Fleets

1. USPACOM

MA FDO None AMC, MSC

MB Early Dep. PSRC AMC, CRAF I, MSC, RRF, SRP

MC Initial Res. PSRC AMC, CRAF I, MSC, RRF, SRP

MD Counterattack Partial AMC, CRAF I, II, and III, MSC, RRF, SRP

 

SECTION II

STRATEGIC AIRLIFT MOVEMENT

1. General. This section presents the airlift assets and capabilities available to support time-phased transportation requirements. The airlift planning factors found in this annex and the JOPES reference files, are provided to assist the planner in developing airlift capability estimates during deliberate planning. These estimates can be used in making a gross analysis of the airlift feasibility of an OPLAN. For execution planning, all deliberate planning guidelines and factors must be modified with the most current knowledge of mission requirements, current lift availability, and the environment in which the operation occurs or is expected to occur. The general categorization of aircraft as either organic or nonorganic is introduced to distinguish between assets the US government already owns and can control through internal measures, and those assets that require coordination outside government channels. (All assets require crews to operate them. All crews for organic assets are within the Active or Reserve military structure, whereas all crews for nonorganic assets are outside the Active and Reserve structure.)

2. Sources and Availability of Strategic Airlift Assets. USTRANSCOM-controlled common-user airlift assets from organic and other sources are described below:

a. USTRANSCOM-controlled common-user organic aircraft consists of 36 C-17, 64 C-5 and 241 C-141 active inventory aircraft. Half of the aircrews necessary to operate these aircraft are from the Reserve forces. An additional 40 C-5 and 28 C-141 aircraft are assigned to either the Air National Guard or the Air Force Reserve. The total organic USTRANSCOM controlled airlift fleet is 36 C-17, 104 C-5 and 269 C-141 aircraft. Because of maintenance and other high priority DOD support missions, not all organic aircraft should be planned to be available to a supported CINC. See Table II-1 for the number of organic military aircraft to be used for deliberate planning. An additional number of KC-10 aircraft may be planned to be available for cargo operations.

b. CRAF is a program in which the Department of Defense and Transportation augment military airlift capability with civil aircraft owned by a US entity or citizen. When DOD airlift requirements, in response to a defense-oriented emergency, exceed USTRANSCOM-controlled organic military airlift capability, CRAF can be implemented in three incremental stages. Aircraft are allocated, in accordance with DOD requirements, to a route segment according to their capabilities. The 5 segments are Long-Range International (LRI) (for both cargo and passenger requirements), Short Range International (SRI) (for both cargo and passenger requirements), Aeromedical, Domestic, and Alaskan. The Aeromedical segment of CRAF (AECRAF) consists of B-767 aircraft, which are allocated only to Stages II and III of CRAF. The Domestic and Alaskan segments are not used for deliberate planning of OPLAN support.

(1) CRAF Stage I and Stage II aircraft are available for loading at the deployment airfield within 24 hours of notification of commercial carriers. Aircraft in the Aeromedical segment of Stage II require an additional 24 hours for proper configuration. As a guideline for deliberate planning, CRAF Stages I and II are generally first associated when the PSRC is authorized (usually at the Deploy Decisive Force response).

(2) CRAF Stage III aircraft are available for loading at the deployment airfield within 48 hours of notification of commercial carriers. As a guideline for deliberate planning, CRAF Stage III is generally associated only when Partial Mobilization is authorized. Although these guidelines are considered appropriate to the intent of adaptive planning response options, CINCs may plan for CRAF as necessary.

3. Application of Airlift Planning Factors. The airlift planning factors in this annex and the JOPES reference files are provided to assist the planner during deliberate planning to develop airlift capability estimates. If the supported CINC determines these guidelines are too restrictive, coordinate with the Joint Staff and USTRANSCOM. These estimates are not constrained by enroute and theater factors but can be used in making a gross analysis of the airlift feasibility of an OPLAN. Planners should be aware that these planning factors are based on average performance characteristics and are applicable only for broad planning purposes. For execution planning all deliberate planning assumptions and factors must be modified with the most current knowledge of mission requirements and the environment in which the operation occurs or is expected to occur. Therefore, it may be necessary to refer to appropriate aircraft loading manuals in determining detailed capabilities of individual aircraft types to move specific cargo loads, and ensure the related settings and default values are accurate in mobility models for airlift closure. AFP 76-2 "Airlift Planning Factors" contains planning factors and detailed explanations of the methodology used in computing airlift capabilities.

a. FDOs developed in response to MTWs and SSCs may include plans for the use of military aircraft to transport passengers with their accompanying baggage; cargo exclusively; or a mix of passengers/baggage and cargo. This policy applies to planning for missions departing both CONUS and non-CONUS locations. This policy also pertains to the movement of medical patients, medical equipment and supplies (Class VIIIA and VIIIB), and for the return of aeromedical crews and related equipment to the theaters of operation.

b. During the initial 96 hours, consideration will be given to the impact of AMC essential mission support movement requirements and the time required for fleet generation on airlift delivery capability to fill CINC requirements. AMC mission support, aeromedical evacuation system assets, and aerial port force positioning requirements must be incorporated within the TPFDD to facilitate development of flow plans and to maximize aircraft utilization.

c. The average cargo payload, for each type of aircraft, by type of cargo (bulk, oversize, outsize), that can be deliberately planned for movement over an indicated distance is listed in JOPES reference files. Variation in aircraft configurations require that cargo carrying capacities be categorized by aircraft loading characteristics. Categories are used for broad planning purposes only. Airlift of a specific item of equipment is governed by the dimensional and floor-loading restrictions of the particular aircraft available. (for further guidance see AFP 76-2.)

d. For deliberate planning of Noncombatant Evacuation Operation (NEO) airlift, the standard passenger capability of available aircraft will be used. For KC-10 and CRAF cargo aircraft, pallet subflooring and sufficient cargo straps are required before moving NEO passengers. Three percent of the total estimated NEO requirements should be used for deliberate planning to estimate the aeromedical NEO movement requirements. The three percent rate includes 1.5 nonmedical attendants (average) per medical NEO patient requiring evacuation. The emergency NEO airlift capability by type of aircraft, for execution planning, is in table II-5. These loading figures are based on seating NEO passengers on the cargo compartment floor of cargo configured aircraft. Movements under these circumstances are expected to occur only under extreme emergencies.

e. Aeromedical evacuation (AIREVAC) planning factors for wartime strategic lift of patients can be found in Table II-6. Strategic air evaluation in deliberate planning will be accomplished using backhaul/retrograde missions on apportioned common user C-141s as much as possible. AECRAF augmentation requires CRAF Stages II or III activation. The numbers of specific types of aircraft and their characteristics, for deliberate planning, are listed in the JOPES reference files. In regional planning, AECRAF augmentation (requiring CRAF Stages II or III augmentation)for strategic AIREVAC is assumed only for the Deploy Decisive Force or Counterattack; all CRAF aeromedical augmentation aircraft are assumes available to the supported CINC. For deliberate planning, USMEDCOM will assume all B767s are extended range aircraft.

f. The basic JSCP tasks USCINCTRANS to develop strategic mobility FDOs for all geographic CINCs. As a minimum, for strategic airlift, the following FDOs should be developed:

(1) Assembling and staging USTRANSCOM controlled airlift assets.

(2) Assembling and staging of CRAF Stages I through III.

(3) Assembling and staging of appropriate allied air assets.

These FDOs will be coordinated and refined during the planning process.

4. Strategic Airlift Analysis Guidance. The JOPES transportation reference files provide the planner with a means of developing and testing the gross transportation feasibility of the air movement portion of an OPLAN. Gross transportation feasibility evaluations should be performed from the earliest stage of constructing a time-phased arrival sequence of JSCP apportioned forces. As more forces (combat/CS/CSS) and sustainment approximations become known, the gross transportation feasibility evaluations should become more detailed. At this stage the assistance of USTRANSCOM, with its in-house systems, may be requested. After all forces and sustainment requirements are calculated, a refined transportation analysis is performed by the TCCs. After TCC analysis, if CINCs must accept delayed closures that may negatively affect their concept of operations, they must provide an impact assessment of these movement shortfalls on their concept of operations IAW Joint CJCSM 3122.03, page II-22, paragraph 10.

Table II-1

ORGANIC USTRANSCOM-CONTROLLED AIRLIFT ASSETS

 

Total Other Avail for

PAA MAINT DOD Planning

W/O dec of Emergency

C-5 64 10 24 30

C-141 241 27 80 134

KC-10 57 5 42 10

C-17 36 3 0 33

PSRC

C-5 109 15 44 50

C-141 234 30 74 130

KC-10 57 5 32 20

Partial Mobilization

C-5 104 15 24 65

C-141 269 30 44 195

KC-10 57 5 32 20

Full Mobilization

C-5 104 15 14 75

C-141 269 30 24 115

KC-10 57 5 12 30

 

Table II-2

Organic USTRANSCOM-controlled airlift and capability for Smaller Scale Contingenciess

USPACOM Smaller Scale Contingency C000-C090

C-5 C-17 C-141 KC-10

FDO

Decisive Force 30 33 100 10

PRSC 50 33 130 20

Part Mob 70 33 160 20

Table II-3

Organic USTRANSCOM-Controlled Airlift Capability

for Smaller Scale Contingencies and NOPLAN Contingencies

C-17 C-5 C-141 KC-10

 

1,500 NM

FDO 33 30 100 10

Decisive Force

PSRC 33 50 130 20

Partial Mob. 33 70 160 20

2,500 NM

FDO 33 30 100 10

Decisive Force

PSRC 33 50 130 20

Partial Mob. 33 70 160 20

3,500 NM

FDO 33 30 100 10

Decisive Force

PSRC 33 50 130 20

Partial Mob. 33 70 160 20

4,500 NM

FDO 33 30 100 10

Decisive Force

PSRC 33 50 130 20

Partial Mob. 33 70 160 20

5,500 NM

FDO 33 30 100 10

Decisive Force

PSRC 33 50 130 20

Partial Mob. 33 70 160 20

 

Table II-4

CRAF Assets and Capabilities

 

CARGO AIRCRAFT MTM/D

STAGE I 30 4.28 MTM/D

STAGE II 75 9.99 MTM/D

STAGE III 148 17.52 MTM/D

PAX AIRCRAFT MPM/D

STAGE I 30 19.36 MPM/D

STAGE II 75 50.23 MPM/D

STAGE III 262 139.53 MPM/D

 

 

Table II-5

Emergency NEO Capability

Aircraft Type Emergency Capability

C-17 102

C-5 600

C-141B 288

C-130 100

KC-10 427

KC-135 250

B-747-100/200C/200F 600

DC-10-30CF 500

DC-89-61/63CF 360

 

 

 

Table II-6

Aeromedical Evacuation--General Planning Data

Pat. Plan Load Time Config Time Crew Composition

A/C Type Factor (min) (min) Nurse Tech.

C-141B 70 60 90 3 4

C-130 50 30 30 2 3

C-9 40 35 40 2 3

B-767 100 300 0 4 6

C-17 70 60 90 3 4

SECTION III

STRATEGIC SEALIFT

1. General. This section presents information on the sealift assets available to support time-phased common-user transportation requirements. General information on non-common-user sealift assets is presented to help delineate their differences. Detailed common-user sealift planning data are located in JOPES reference files (see Section I, paragraph 6). The estimates on ship types, numbers, capabilities, sources, and apportionments are judged to be reasonable planning estimates for sealift capabilities for the JSCP planning period. The information on sealift assets and associated deliberate planning guidance is provided for estimating gross transportation feasibility only. The general categorization of ships as either organic or nonorganic is introduced to distinguish between assets the US government already owns and can control through internal measures, and those assets that require coordination outside US government channels. (NOTE: As a caution, a too restrictive interpretation of the above general categorizations of organic and nonorganic should not be made since both categories of assets require civilian crews, and all civilians are outside of the Active and Reserve military structure and must be gained through implementation of labor contracts.)

2. Sources and Availability of Strategic Sealift Assets

a. The availability of ships for the sealift of cargoes is centered around two principles of who or what owns the ship and in what nation is the ship registered (its flag). These two precepts, as well as the actions required to gain control of the ship (by implementing a program, requisitioning, etc.), underlie how and why the categorization of source is formed and used in planning.

(1) The availability of ships already controlled by the US Government (organic) is more easily predicted than for ships that the government must temporarily charter from the private sector (and/or coordinate with foreign governments for "free" charters (nonorganic)). For deliberate planning, ships of US Government ownership are further categorized between those already in active service or in reduced operating status (Source: MSC) and those that first require activation and crewing before they can be used (Sources: RRF and NDRF).

(2) Privately owned US registered ships, which first must be chartered to gain their use, remain subject to US law. Foreign flag ships are not subject to US law unless inside US territorial waters. Control of a portion of the privately owned US flag ships can be gained by implementing certain contractual programs (Source:SRP), or, if necessary, control of any US flag ship (including those possible through SRP implementation) can be gained by means of requisitioning (Source:USNC). For planning, privately owned and foreign registered ships are further categorized into three sources. The first category consists of ships that NATO nations (except the United States) have earmarked for only the rapid reinforcement of Europe (Source:NATO). The second category is a small group of ROK ships restricted for contingencies involving the Chosun Peninsula (Source:KFS). The third category is foreign flag ships that are both majority owned by US citizens or corporations and, although not registered in one of specific foreign nations for which there is reasonable assurance these foreign nations will not hinder attempts to enforce US requisitioning law (Source:EUSC). NATO and KFS ships are expected to be provided to the United States when their particular situation warrants, while the third category, EUSC, is composed of foreign flagged (and crewed) ships that are assumed to be subject to requisitioning under US law.

b. Sealift assets used for the deliberate planning of the carriage of common-user requirements in regional plans tasked by the JSCP are controlled by USTRANSCOM. Sealift assets used in deliberate planning for other than common user requirements, such as the afloat pre-positioning of specific cargoes (MPS and PREPO), specialized aviation activities (T-AVB), or acute medical care (T-AH), are not controlled through USTRANSCOM channels and are apportioned as forces in Enclosure E of the JSCP. Ships of the APF are intended to individually chop to USCINCTRANS after discharge of their pre-loaded cargoes and release by the supported commander, and are then to participate in the movement of common-user requirements. Ships of the RRF that have been specifically modified to augment the Navy's Combat Logistic Force (CLF) (nine console-capable dry cargo ships, seven modular-delivery capable dry cargo ships, and two modular delivery capable PAL tanker) have been excluded form the common-user apportionment of organic ships for the Counterattack option. These specifically modified RRF ships are included in common-user apportionments for FDO and Decisive Force options only.

3. Sources of Common-User Organic Strategic Sealift Assets.

a. MSC Controlled Fleet. US Government owned or American merchant ships under charter to the US Government (i.e. MSC). MSC ships fall into one of three subcategories based on their mission--the Strategic Sealift Force (SSE) (common-user shipping), Naval Fleet Auxiliary Force (NFAF), and Special Mission ships. While MSC retains OPCON of all ships, only SSE ships support common-user requirements under the auspices of USTRANSCOM. The FSS are one type of ship in the SSE category and are kept in 96-hour reduced operating status (ROS-4). The FSS are lay-berthed on the East and Gulf coasts.

b. Ready Reserve Fleet (RRF). A special source and category of ships within the NDRF that provide readily available dry cargo ships (i.e., RO/RO, breakbulk, LASH, SEABEE), tankers, and passenger ships to augment the movement of strategic common-user requirements. This program also includes other non-common-user ship categories, such as auxiliary crane ships (T-ACS), tankers configured with an offshore petroleum discharge system (OPDS), and ships for naval CLF augmentation. All RRF ships are maintained by MARAD with various availability dates (5 to 20 days). Selected RRF ships are lay-berthed near or in expected ports of embarkation or activation facilities.

c. National Defense Reserve Fleet (NDRF) (minus the RRF). US Government owned ships that serve as the US strategic reserve capability. The NDRF's militarily useful assets include World War II Victory-class breakbulk ships, other dry cargo ships, troopships, and tankers. These ships are located at three fleet sites--The James River, Virginia; Beaumont Texas; and Suisun Bay, California. These ships require major industrial shipyard repairs and, therefore, will not be considered for activation until shipyard industrial capability has met naval and RRF requirements. They should not be considered for deliberate planning.

4. Sources of Common-user Nonorganic Strategic Sealift Assets

a. NATO. Ships committed by individual NATO countries (other than the United States) to augment US common-user sealift for the rapid reinforcement of Europe by US forces. NATO member nations have made commitments to provide 400 dry cargo ships for this purpose. To provide a high level of confidence in the availability of at least 400 dry cargo ships, more ships are nominated than the commitment requires. Only 400 ships are available for deliberate planning. Tankers capable of carrying clean products are also nominated toward meeting NATO PAL requirements, and passenger ships are nominated toward meeting troop requirements (including AFOE) for NATO. These assets form the NATO Sealift Ships List, which is updated semiannually by PBOS. These assets would become available only after a North Atlantic Council decision to reinforce NATO.

b. U.S. Flag. All ships owned by US citizens and registered in the United States. This category is inclusive of ships enrolled in the SRP.

(1) Sea Readiness Program (SRP). Militarily useful active US flag merchant ships that can be brought under charter to the US Government to augment the USTRANSCOM controlled fleet by invoking the emergency charter clauses of the SRP agreement. SRP enrollment is based on the past and present financial obligations of shipping companies (and obligates these companies to commit a specified capability, not specific ships). SRP call-up would occur only after the following successive actions have been completed:

(a) First, USTRANSCOM determines that SSE capability is insufficient to meet escalating requirements, even when augmented by voluntary charters from the open charter market (US and foreign flag) and also when further augmented by activation of the RRF.

(b) Second, the Secretary of Defense determines that the non-RRF portion of the NDRF cannot be made available in sufficient time or numbers to meet stated requirements.

(c) Finally, the Secretary of Transportation confirms both that sufficient numbers of ships are available from the SSE, the commercial charter market, and the RRF, based on DOD provided requirements, and, that the adverse economic impact of SRP implementation will not be great enough to justify requisitioning instead.

(2) USNC. Militarily useful US flag merchant ships that are not enrolled in the SRP, but which can be requisitioned into government service (primarily for common-user movements) under jurisdiction of Section 902 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1936. This Act provides that "whenever the President shall proclaim that the security of the national defense makes it advisable or during any national emergency by proclamation of the President, it shall be lawful for the Secretary of Transportation to requisition ships or purchase any vessel or other watercraft owned by citizens of the United States." Under this authority, requisitioning of US flagged ships based on known or anticipated requirements could be implemented.

(3) Effective U.S. Control (EUSC). Ships that are majority owned by US citizens or parent US companies located or incorporated in the United States, but registered/flagged in certain specific foreign countries for which there are bilateral understandings, are manned with foreign crews and are militarily useful or can be used to support the civil economy. Only militarily useful EUSC ships are listed here. For planning purposes, there is reasonable assurance that these ships can be requisitioned by the United States (primarily for common-user movements) under the requisitioning authority of Section 902 of the Merchant Marine Act of 1936 cited above.

(4) Foreign Flag. An unknown number of foreign flag ships that may be available at the time of execution from the open charter market or from "at the moment" foreign nation offerings. Because of the more significant uncertainty involved than for those categories above, such ships are not planned to be available for deliberate planning. Ships available from this source would greatly influence decisions about SRP call-up and other actions at execution.

5. Programs of Non-common-user Strategic Sealift.

a. Afloat Preposition Forces (APF). A force consisting of two major components: the Maritime Pre-positioning Force (MPF) and the Afloat Pre-positioning Ships (APS). Although there are similarities, each serve different Services' requirements and should not be thought of as a single entity. In both cases, the Services are responsible for the maintenance of all pre-positioning cargoes, and any conflicts concerning apportionment of these ships after USCINCTRANS assumes control will be resolved by the JCS Joint Transportation Board.

b. Aviation Logistics Support Ships (T-AVB). Two T-AVBs provide dedicated sealift for movement of a USMC aviation intermediate activity (organic to deploying units) to support the rapid deployment of a MAGTF aviation combat element. T-AVBs are designed to provide Intermediate Maintenance Activity support at the destination. Complete offload and release to USTRANSCOM for common-user movements is not envisioned.

c. Hospital Ships (T-AH). Two T-AHs (1,000-bed afloat hospitals each) provide afloat health care facilities in support of amphibious task forces, Marine Corps, Army, and Air Force elements, and forward deployed Navy elements of the fleet and fleet activities. T-AH operations are critical during combat when hospital facilities have not been established ashore.

6. Special Strategic Sealift Features

a. All refined POL products (e.g., military specification fuels), especially aviation grade fuels, must be carefully transported to prevent contamination. Tankers may have coated or uncoated tanks. All tankers capable of carrying a range of clean POL products are considered militarily useful. Before the movement of any aviation grade fuel, a tanker must meet much more stringent standards. The availability of tankers listed in the JOPES ASSETS file accounts for probable cleaning delays. Changing patterns in the U.S.-tanker fleet inventory indicate a continuing decline in the number of handy-size, small, shallow draft tankers (see tanker categories below). This development requires specific plans to employ the remaining larger tankers. Such planning should consider the standard commercial practice of using light-loaded, medium-to-large tankers, and lighterage, to carry POL transferred from larger tankers through shallow-draft ports. Militarily useful tankers are divided into five categories:

 

Tanker Type Barrel Capacity

Shallow-draft 50,000 or less

Small 50,001 - 180,000

Handy-size 180,001 - 235,000

Medium 235,001 - 320,000

Large 320,001 - or greater

b. At the supported CINC's discretion, selected USTRANSCOM controlled tankers made available for point-to-point movement of common-user requirements may be planned for underway replenishment (CONSOL) of fleet oilers (i.e., temporary CLF augmentation). The supported commander's TPFDD will specify CONSOL requirements by fuel type, quantity, EAD, LAD, and ocean area (GEOLOC) in nonunit POL records.

c. The total inventory of passenger ships available for planning is 26. This number comprises 3 NDRF, 2 RRF, 2 US-flag, 7 EUCS, and 12 NATO assets. The AFOE can be supported by assets drawn from all sources apportioned common-user assets.

d. The basic JSCP tasks USTRANSCOM to develop strategic mobility FDOs for all geographic CINCs. As a minimum, for strategic sealift, the following FDOs should be developed:

(1) Assembling and staging terminal transportation units.

(2) Assembling and staging USTRANSCOM- controlled sealift assets, including readying and staging the FSS.

These FDOs will be coordinated and refined during the planning process.

8. Strategic Sealift Support to an AFOE. An ATF is a task organized force, which includes Navy forces and a Marine Landing Force (LF). A Marine LF is composed of two integral echelons: the AE and the AFOE. Each echelon is planned to be carried by separate group of ships. The first echelon, the AE, is composed of assault troops, vehicles, aircraft, equipment, and supplies required to initiate the assault. Except under extraordinary conditions, this echelon is exclusively carried and supported by Navy amphibious assault ships. The Navy possesses sufficient amphibious assault ships to transport only the AE of two MEB sized elements while maintaining the forward presence of one deployed MEU and ARG Bravo. The second echelon, the AFOE, also composed of assault troops, vehicles, aircraft, equipment, and supplies, is required to support and sustain an already initiated assault in the AOA and, in order to accomplish its purpose, is normally required with 5 days after the initiation of the assault landing. Some AFOE forces and materials may, however, be required to arrive simultaneously with the AE and offload sooner than D+4. Planned merchant ship support for an AFOE will be based on the number and capability of USTRANSCOM-controlled, common-user ships, capable of offloading in the stream, which have been coordinated between the supported CINC and USTRANSCOM, for dedication to this mission. The supported CINC will list in Annex D of the OPLAN the number, type, capability, SPOE, and required availability relative to C-day, of formerly common-user ships coordinated with USTRANSCOM for planned support. The ships required to transport an AFOE will be deleted from the common-user sealift file used for evaluating the supported CINC's common-user sealift requirements.

9. Application of Strategic Sealift Planning Factors.

a. The notional sealift planning factors, except ship draft and ship length, located in the JOPES ASSETS and CHSTR reference files, are simple arithmetic averages based on the aggregated individual characteristics of actual ships in a specific ship category (e.g., fast breakbulk), given a specific type of contingency (e.g., contingencies with partial mobilization). The ship draft and length planning factors represent the maximum draft and length existing within a ship category, given a specific contingency type. The speed planning factor is the average speed acquired at design full-load draft, using 80 percent of maximum commercial horsepower on trial with a clean bottom, a smooth sea, and no wind. The average load and unload rates are only for planning purposes and could differ in actual operations.

b. Strategic common-user sealift capability data for deliberate planning is listed in the ASSETS file based on an assigned mobilization code for each adaptive planning element for tasked OPLANs. Sealift capability is expressed as the number of ships of a specific type, from one specific source, at the earliest date (relative to C-day) that are expected to be able to be on-berth and ready to load cargo for their initial voyage against the matrix of worldwide ports listed below:

(1) East Coast--Norfolk, Virginia

(2) Gulf Coast--New Orleans, Louisiana.

(3) West Coast--Oakland, California.

(4) Hawaii--Honolulu, Hawaii.

(5) Diego Garcia--Diego Garcia.

(6) Greece--Piraeus, Greece.

(7) United Kingdom--Liverpool, United Kingdom.

These data represent only the general patterns and rates of strategic shipping. These patterns and rates are based on positional "snapshots" taken from naval intelligence data, but do not represent fixed or actual schedules. The projected availability is only for the purpose of determining a gross movement capability and should not be applied to specific supplements of the transportation problem, such as the requirement for berthing space.

c. Several withhold estimates are made during ASSETS file construction to reflect other expected simultaneous sealift requirements. Withhold estimate categories vary dependent on scenario and source of ship. Withhold considerations are made for:

(1) Maintenance. A certain percentage of ships are undergoing overhaul or repair at all times. These ships would not be available for execution and so are not available for planning. A 4-percent maintenance withhold reflects this expectation.

(2) Economic Support. Support for the civil economy acknowledges that the flow of certain raw materials to support the industrial base as well as other commodities must continue to flow during wartime. Raw materials are moved principally by large dry or liquid bulk carriers, which, because of the time and expense required to convert them into militarily useful assets, are not used in deliberate planning. Containerized subsistence and industrial base support for Hawaii, Alaska, and Puerto Rico are drawn down from militarily useful container ships. This application assumes a certain drawdown of stocks and assumes the imposition of rationing of defense-related commodities.

(3) DOD Support. Support for worldwide DOD activities other than the primary supported unified command.

9. Strategic Sealift Analysis Guidance. The methods and sealift planning factors in Annex J and the JOPES transportation reference files provide the planner with a means for developing and testing the sea movement portion of an OPLAN. The JFAST model should be used where available. If JFAST is not yet available at a given site, and if the plan is in TPFDD format, the TFE model is recommended. If, applying all factors, the plan cannot be supported using apportioned sealift assets and it is not feasible to adjust the plan's concept of operations to stay within specified limitations, possible actions the planner may consider include:

a. Adjusting delivery dates.

b. Switching a portion of the sealift requirement to airlift if residual airlift capability exists.

c. Matching cargo configuration to ship availability. For example, expanded use of containerization, where possible, may improve closure times if container vessels are available and other vessel types are not.

d. Combing the above actions.

Table III-1

Organic USTRANSCOM-Controlled Sealift Assets

Total Maintenance Avail. for

Ships Withholds Planning

No Mobilization

Dry Cargo 13 1 12

Tanker 2 1 1

PSRC

Dry Cargo 42 2 40

Tanker 4 1 3

Partial Mobilization

Dry Cargo 49 2 47

Tanker 10 1 9

Full Mobilization

Dry Cargo 356 5 351

Tanker 84 2 82

 

 

Table III-2

USTRANSCOM-Controlled Sealift Capability

USPACOM Region (SSC)

Organic Dry Tanker Capacity (000)

Sq Ft / BBLs

FDO

No Mobilization 12 1 1,139/3,083

Decisive Force

PSRC 39 2 5,773/6,360

Partial Mobilization 65 6 7,332/13,000

Nonorganic Dry Tanker Capacity (000)

Sq Ft / BBLs

FDO

No Mobilization 0 0 0/0

Decisive Force

PSRC 13 2 1,640/2,100

Partial Mobilization 22 6 2,775/7,500

SECTION IV

THEATER AIRLIFT MOVEMENT

1. This section presents information on C-130 theater airlift assets for support of theater airlift planning. CINCs may incorporate additional aviation assets in theater airlift planning only if so apportioned by Service documents. Detailed C-130 aircraft characteristics are located in the JOPES CHSTR reference file. Availability of C-130 aircraft assets is based on the apportionment of theater airlift forces by contingency type. Theater airlift requirements will be documented in supported CINC's OPLANs and Concept Summaries.

2. Sources of Theater Airlift Assets. The majority of theater airlift assets consist of military C-130 aircraft. Although these airlift assets do have limited strategic capability, this capability will NOT be deliberately planned to be used for OPLANs or CONPLANs, concept summary developments, or TPFDD refinements (except from CONUS to the Caribbean and Central America). Only during execution planning may this limited strategic capability be incorporated, at the supported CINC's discretion, into planning.

3. Application of Theater Airlift Planning Factors. Theater airlift planning factors, JOPES CHSTR reference file, and data presented in AFP 76-2 are provided to assist the CINC planner in developing theater airlift capability estimates. Estimates produced from these sources are to be used to make a general analysis of the theater air-movement feasibility of a contingency response and in determining the general level of airlift mobilization necessary to support greater levels of required airlift support. Planning for specific operations must be modified with the best available knowledge of mission requirements and the environment in which the operation occurs or is expected to occur. Therefore, it will be necessary to refer to appropriate aircraft and loading characteristics manuals to determine the capabilities of individual types of aircraft to move specific cargo loads. For theater level planning, the relationship between runway length, range, average payload, etc., as detailed in AFP 76-2, should be used when estimating theater airlift capability.

4. Theater Airlift Analysis Guidance. The theater airlift planning factors must be complemented by those outlined in AFP 76-2. In an operational environment, aircraft capabilities are significantly constrained by mission profiles, aircraft characteristics, and the exigencies of the tactical situation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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