SURFACE FORCE TRAINING MANUAL

SECTION 4

SHIPBOARD TRAINING TEAMS

Ref: (a) OPNAVINST 3500.39, Operational Risk Management

3401. General. This section provides guidance for the ship's training team organization, and establishes procedures that use the experience and knowledge of shipboard personnel to educate, train, and evaluate individual skills and team proficiencies required in combat systems, engineering, damage control, seamanship, navigation, aviation, and medical and all warfare areas. Procedures for conducting integrated training are also provided.

3402. Background. A key initiative of the Tactical Training Strategy is to develop a self-sustaining training capability in each ship through the use of onboard training teams. Fleet training resources are used to build this capability by "training the trainers" who in turn train the shipboard watchstanders.

a. Training teams exist for five general purposes:

(1) Training. This includes both individual and team training, and encompasses pre-briefing and debriefing actions as well as providing feedback during the actual training scenario.

(2) Exercise control (including initiation of the exercise and to provide responses to watchstander / team actions).

(3) Exercise role-play. For example, the role of higher authority in combat systems training is performed by the training teams.

(4) Exercise planning, recording, and assessment.

(5) Safety monitoring.

b. An effective training program is based on a logical continuum of training, starting with basic watchstander actions and progressing to more complex evolutions. A foundation which develops watchstander Level of Knowledge (LOK) based on evolution training, seminars, use of embedded training devices, etc., provides the synergy for watch teams to conduct efficient exercises and drills, including integrated training. The goal is for the shipís training teams to attain self-sufficiency and to be able to maintain proficiency by conducting challenging training using realistic, safe, and progressive scenarios designed to meet specific training objectives. To be effective, training must be scheduled and conducted beyond the basic training phase and continue throughout the entire operating cycle.

c. Effective integrated training is not the sole endpoint of this process. Integrated training scenarios exercise the ship as an integrated weapons system, an important aspect of shipboard training. Continuing training efforts are also required in subordinate functional areas; e.g., Combat Systems, Engineering, Damage Control, Seamanship, Navigation, Aviation and Medical, to maintain proficiency in each area. Also, as ship-wide integrated training efforts involve significant commitment of personnel and time, more frequent functional area training can be conducted independently by each training team as time and resources permit. In a well-developed program, independent functional area training by each team will not be conducted "in a vacuum." The plan should include exercising the interfaces with other watchstanders either through simulation or role playing. For example, during engineering casualty control exercises, the EOOW should be expected to make all required reports to the OOD, CSOOW, etc., and should be pressed for information if he or she fail to do so.

d. Exercises may be conducted in the training mode where watchstanders are relatively unfamiliar with the exercise, and training time outs may be necessary. Alternatively, exercises may be conducted in the evaluation / assessment mode where the only time outs should be for safety considerations.

3403. Description of Training Teams. Training teams should include a core group of the most knowledgeable and experienced personnel in the ship who bring enthusiasm to the training process. No particular team size is directed. The size of the team will be influenced by the size of the crew, number of qualified personnel, complexity of the exercise, and safety requirements. In addition, some training objectives for a particular event may not require the stationing of a full training team. Ships may find it desirable to have a 2 section training team program in which a training team will be formed from one watch section to train the other and vice versa. The following training teams will be established:

a. Integrated Training Team (ITT).

b. Combat Systems Training Team (CSTT)

c. Engineering Training Team (ETT)

d. Damage Control Training Team (DCTT)

e. Seamanship Training Team (STT)

f. Aviation Training Team (ATT). (LHA/LHD/LPH/MCS/LPD only)

g. Medical Training Team (MTT). (Ships with Medical Departments headed by Medical Officers only)

3404. Objectives. The training teams are responsible, under their team leaders, for the identification, formulation, integration and conduct of all phases of watchstander and watch team training. They have the following responsibilities:

a. Plan, brief, conduct and debrief training using applicable instructions and publications.

b. Raise watchstander Level of Knowledge (LOK) through a program which combines evolutions, seminars, and embedded training devices, in addition to drills and exercises.

c. Assess the readiness and effectiveness of watch teams in the performance of watch station specific tasks.

d. Analyze problem areas or training deficiencies and initiate corrective actions to eliminate the possibility of personnel injury and damage to equipment

Note: The Integrated Training Team (ITT) leader will coordinate with individual training team leaders to propose a quarterly schedule of training events within the Long Range Training Plan (LRTP) to maintain a high level of proficiency in all areas.

3505. Organization. Individual training team organizations are described in Subsections A through G. Training teams should be comprised of the following members: Team Leader, Team Coordinator, Drill Initiators, Watch station Evaluators/Trainers, and Safety Observers (may be collateral).

3406. Responsibilities.

a. The Commanding Officer shall ensure that each training team is designated in writing and the personnel assigned are qualified in accordance with this section.

b. The Executive officer, as Chairman of the Planning Board for Training and Team Leader of the ITT, will coordinate the planning and execution of the ship's training team effort.

c. The team leader is responsible for all management aspects of the training team. To this end, the team leader shall:

(1) Be a member of the Planning Board for Training (PB4T) and the Integrated Training Team (ITT).

(2) Formulate a training package tailored to specific integrated or individual functional area team training objectives. Operational Sequencing Systems (OSS), FXP, battle orders, approved exercise scenarios, drill guides, or other applicable publications shall be used to provide realistic, challenging, and progressive training.

(3) Identify training constraints, disclosures and simulations and annotate the training package accordingly.

(4) Present the proposed training package to the Commanding Officer for approval.

(5) Conduct a pre-brief for each training event for all assigned team members

(6) Ensure a pre-exercise briefing on procedures and safety is conducted for all members being trained or assessed. Ensure a safety walk-through is conducted by the training team prior to each training event.

(7) Supervise the conduct of the training event, paying particular attention to inter-divisional and inter-departmental coordination for the smooth execution of the event, to ensure the watch team is afforded the opportunity to satisfy identified training objectives.

(8) Conduct the training event debrief.

(9) Establish a feedback mechanism to address deficiencies identified during exercises conducted.

(10) Identify training shortfalls within respective departments and provide guidance to facilitate selection of required reading and other additional or remedial training.

(11) Maintain close liaison with the Executive Officer to ensure the training teams provide the maximum possible realistic, challenging, progressive and effective training, both underway and inport.

(12) Maintain current training records which reflect the conduct of all training team supported events and the qualifications of team members.

(13) Maintain a current list of personnel available for assignment to the training team to ensure representation of all required specialties.

(14) Maintain grade sheets for all exercises to be conducted until the next time drill is conducted or all corrective actions are completed, whichever is longer. Where appropriate, standards in FXPs shall be adapted to individual ship classes.

d. The team coordinator is responsible to the team leader for:

(1) Organizing all team training periods, developing training event plans and making all preparations in support of event execution.

(2) Act as overall manager of the training team for training event briefs, performance and debriefs.

(3) Train team members in the proper conduct of their duties as drill initiators, exercise observers and safety observers, including the Operational Risk Management (ORM) process.

(4) Compile the results of the training event and submit the event evaluation sheets along with the critique sheets to the team leader for review.

(5) Retain file of completed training events, organized by event type, until the event is run again or all required corrective actions are complete, whichever is longer.

(6) Act as coordinator for all recommendations and feedback concerning the training team.

e. Initiator(s) shall be identified during the pre-exercise brief. Initiator(s) shall be knowledgeable in the specific event being conducted and may assume the role of evaluator once the exercise has begun. They shall:

(1) Review all steps listed on training event guide(s) before the exercise begins. Ensure strict adherence to the sequence of events documented in training event guide(s).

(2) Review the ORM assessment completed for the training event, conduct a safety walk-through prior to initiating the event and report any safety problems to the Team leader.

(3) Ensure timely initiation per the approved timeline.

(4) Provide appropriate post-event feedback and recommendations to the team leader/coordinator.

f. Trainers/Evaluators perform on-site observations and evaluations. These personnel will be qualified for the watch station(s) being observed or possess a higher level qualification. They should be positioned to observe the watchstander(s)/station(s) required to take an active part in the training event. Single assignment for multiple watchstanders may be appropriate. Trainers/Evaluators shall:

(1) Arrive on station in sufficient time to conduct appropriate safety and pre-event checks.

(2) Observe all factors specified for the event. Stop the event if unsafe conditions occur.

(3) During exercises conducted in the training mode, provide training/prompting as necessary to meet the training objective.

(4) During exercises conducted in the evaluation mode, normally provide prompting only as required to prevent disruption of the event timeline or for safety reasons.

(5) Debrief participants on issues related exclusively to that watch station. The importance of an on station debrief must be tempered by the realization that in complex exercises, watchstander actions may have caused unforeseen impacts elsewhere. These unforeseen impacts may not be evident until the training team performs the complete team debrief.

(6) Provide a post-exercise debrief on observations noted and recommendations for corrective actions.

3407. Qualifications.

a. Personnel assigned to the training teams shall be of high caliber, and experience, and shall possess the ability to interact effectively with people and professionally assess their abilities. Training team members shall be PQS qualified for the watch station(s) they are assigned to evaluate or possess a higher level qualification, as appropriate. For example, the Tactical Action Officer (TAO) may observe and evaluate the effectiveness of a subordinate watchstander without being specifically qualified for that watch station. The test for whether a training team member must be PQS qualified for the watch station observed is whether the training team member may have to effectively assume watchstander actions for the safety of personnel or equipment.

b. Team members may be assigned to observe more than one area of the evolution only if all personnel participating in the event can be supervised and observed without degrading safety.

3408. Safety and Risk Management.

a. General. The Team Leader has overall responsibility for the planning and execution of the teamís training events in a safe manner. The responsibilities of team members on station are greater than those of the assigned trainees. Safety is the primary concern during all training events. The training of the participant, although an important objective, must be secondary to safety. Training team members are ultimately responsible for unsafe actions of any participant under their charge. They may allow the trainee to take actions, even in the event of actual casualties, provided personnel or equipment are not placed in a hazardous situation. It is frequently valuable for trainees to be allowed to make mistakes. Team members must walk the line between allowing those mistakes to be made and preventing unsafe conditions. Whenever there is doubt, the training event must be interrupted immediately and a safe condition established.

b. Risk Management. Reference (a) requires use of Operational Risk Management (ORM) in all aspects of operations, training and planning. While the scope of risk management efforts will vary with the type, complexity and uncertainty of planned events, the key elements are applicable to all planning. In conducting familiar, repetitive training events, often with specific known safety issues and requirements, the risk management effort may be simple and straightforward, but still necessary, because these may be the very operations where an unanticipated event or unusual condition will involve risk of injury or damage. The risk management process involves thinking through the planned process in advance to determine possible hazards, assessing those hazards with some degree of severity and probability of occurrence, and implementing controls to minimize the risk. For most training situations, these controls will be administrative in nature: i.e., providing warnings, placards, etc.; establishing written policies, SOPs, etc.; training personnel to recognize hazards; limiting exposure to hazards; or providing personnel protective equipment, etc. Use of the ORM process will help to determine the scope of the required pre-event briefing with respect to risk management. While this has often been done informally or intuitively, ORM provides a structured framework to conduct this process. The training team leaders are responsible for ensuring that ORM procedures are used in planning training events. The process is summarized in the following table:

Operational Risk Management Summary

FIVE POINT SHIELD

RISK MANAGEMENT

1. Identify Hazards

Integrate in Planning

2. Assess Risks

Eliminate Unnecessary Risks

3. Make Risk Decisions

Make Risk Decisions at the Proper Level

4. Implement Controls

Accept Risk if Benefits Outweigh Costs (CO Decision)

5. Supervise

 

Table 3-4-1

 

c. Safety Inspections. Pre-event safety inspections are the responsibility of all training team members. Safety inspections of all training event areas/equipment may be conducted prior to or after the event brief. However, the walk-through must allow for sufficient time for correction of any unsatisfactory conditions found before the start of the event. Safety inspections should not be done in a way that pre-discloses the event location. All significant safety discrepancies should be reported to the training team leader who shall be responsible for ensuring that they are corrected prior to commencing the training event. The following observations/actions may be appropriate during this inspection:

(1) Check space installed firefighting/safety equipment such as Halon, CO2, AFFF and PKP.

(2) Ensure repair lockers are properly stowed and ready for use.

(3) Test training event communication circuits.

(4) Ensure escape trunks, doors, and hatches are unobstructed.

(5) Review tagout log index page to ensure equipments which may impact event are not degraded or under repair/PMS.

(6) Observe space temperature(s) for temperatures in excess of 100 degrees.

(7) Check for missile hazards.

(8) Check deckplates/tiles to ensure they are securely fastened.

(9) Ensure that ladders are properly hinged or attached.

(10) Ensure personal protective equipment such as SEEDs and EEBDs are properly installed/worn.

(11) Ensure equipment configuration is as briefed.

(12) MLOC contains useful safety information which can be used as a guide in engineering spaces.

(13) Ensure deck gear is available and ready to use.

(14) Ensure all weapons are downloaded and/or in a safe to train configuration.

(15) Review local regulations on restrictions concerning communications and radar transmissions for inport training periods.

(16) Ensure HERO is considered when conducting weapons handling training evolutions.

d. Safety observer(s) is (are) assigned to ensure all events are conducted in a safe and professional manner. Initiators/evaluators may also function as safety observers. For particularly complex or dangerous events, a separate safety observer may be assigned. A safety observer shall be an experienced officer or petty officer qualified in the event to be observed. The attention of the safety observer will be directed exclusively toward the prevention of accidents and immediate identification of unsafe practices that might hazard personnel or equipment.

(1) The number of safety observers for a given training event shall be consistent with the capability to observe all areas of possible safety hazards. If separate safety observers are assigned, they shall not be distracted from their function by concerning themselves with scoring of, or participation in, a training event.

(2) Safety observers for all training events shall be assigned from ship's company personnel.

(3) Safety observers have the authority to suspend the progress of a training event when conditions warrant (safety time out). Before beginning an event, a signaling method shall be arranged and understood, whereby the observer may halt the event. The use of a whistle or the word "silence" is appropriate.

(4) Training events suspended by a safety observer may be resumed only upon the direction of the Commanding Officer or an authorized representative.

3409. Documentation. Although the exact format is not prescribed, the following documents are essential for the planning, monitoring, and evaluating of drills/evolutions:

a. Drill Guides. Drill/evolution descriptions and procedures shall be listed on cards for each event. It is not necessary to repeat information which is already described in existing documentation (i.e. EOSS, CSOSS, etc). In addition to title, appropriate references, objectives and safety precautions, the guide should include what symptoms should alert the watchstander to the casualty, cause factors (based upon CSOSS and EOCC lists of probable causes and/or trouble-shooting tables and technical manual information), requirements for repair (if applicable), method(s) of imposition, expected actions, possible effects, menu of authorized simulations and recovery procedures. A master set of approved drill guides shall be maintained. Figure 3-4-1 is a sample of a generic drill guide.

(1) Drill Guide Content. The drill guide should define the casualty and the procedures for insertion and response to that casualty in a specific equipment, subsystem, or system.

(2) Drill Guide Validation. In the absence of direction from higher authority, drill guides for locally developed procedures must be validated as follows:

(a) Part One. "COLD CHECK" - a process of verifying locations, numbers, materials, insertion procedures, symptoms, restoration, reconfiguration procedures and casualty initiation procedures. The drill card is reviewed for technical accuracy, procedurally checked by NEC related technicians, and verified not to pose a hazard to personnel or equipment. ORM procedures will be incorporated in the "Cold Check" process.

(b) Part Two. "HOT CHECK" - a process in which a cold checked exercise is conducted on operational equipment for validation. All equipment and watchstation personnel manning must be in accordance with specified drill guide condition of readiness / crew watch condition. HOT CHECKS MUST BE AUTHORIZED BY THE COMMANDING OFFICER.

(c) Once validated, the team leader will route the drill guide to the commanding officer for approval. Retain the exercise for future use. All exercises must be verified current prior to conducting exercise/drill pre-briefs.

b. Drill Plan. The ship's equipment shall not be placed in any non-standard configuration without the express approval of the Commanding Officer. Any imposition of casualties or operational procedures must be detailed in a drill plan that fulfills the requirements below. If conducted as an ITT exercise, the drill plan will contain an ITT timeline listing all events and each training teamís list of events. A copy of a drill plan should be included among other departmental training records. Figure 3-4-2 is a sample drill plan for individual training teams. Figure 3-4-3 is a sample integrated training team drill plan.

(1) The drill plan should accurately describe the time periods and watch sections being observed. The drill plan should state whether the drill is for training or evaluation.

(2) Each individual drill or routine should be listed with the location and participants on which it is to be imposed.

(3) The drill plan must include the assignment and special requirements of the team members.

(4) Employing ORM principles, the plan should account for all contingencies and establish clear cut actions when a drill may result in several different outcomes. The drill plan should contain the direction for each eventuality.

(5) The development of the drill plan must take into consideration the condition of the equipment, safety and monitoring devices out of commission, the length of the drill period, state of training of the participants, cautions or restrictions internal to the ship such as requirements not to interrupt communications, electrical power,

 



Drill Guide Title Drill ID


(Common noun name of casualty) (EOCC/CSOSS ID

name/number)

References: (List applicable EOP/EOCC/CSOSS procedures used to control casualty and restore system/equipment. List technical manuals, if applicable.


Objectives: (List training/evaluation objectives to be met during drill.)


Safety Precautions: (List general and drill specific safety precautions to be followed during the drill.)

1. Forces Afloat comply with Navy Safety Precautions, Forces Afloat, OPNAVINST 5100.19 (series).


Symptoms, Causes and ETR:

1. Symptoms: (List equipment/system alarms, parameters and indications expected to be observed by the watchstander/technician.)

 

2. Cause(s): (List cause(s) of casualty to match previously given symptoms.)

 

3. ETR: (list ETR for applicable cause of casualty.)


Description of Procedure:

Method of Casualty Insertion: (List here the specific procedures required to impose the

simulated casualty. Training team membersí actions are also described.)

 

Watchstander/Technician Expected Actions: (List watchstander/technician expected actions in order to assist training team personnel.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


CODE: DATE: CHG: PAGE 1 OF 2


Figure 3-4-1 SAMPLE DRILL GUIDE


Expected Possible Effects: (List equipment affected and possible plant/system configurations after watchstander/technician actions are completed.)

 

 

 

 

 

Authorized Simulations: (List command approved simulations applicable to this drill.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Drill/Equipment Recovery Procedures: (List procedures expected for equipment/system restoration and limitations on operations if recovery will be limited.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________ ____________________________ _______________________

Sign/Date Sign/Date Sign/Date

(COLD CHECKED) (HOT CHECKED) (CO APPROVAL)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


CODE: DATE: CHG: PAGE 2 OF 2


Figure 3-4-1 (Cont.) SAMPLE DRILL GUIDE

 


Date:________________

1. Watch Section ___________________

2. _________________Training Area Assignments:

Name: Position:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. The drill coordinator will muster the team at ____________. the team will be briefed on standard safety precautions and the following drills will be conducted between ______ and _______.

Drill Scheduled: Space: Watch Qual Level

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. The following unusual circumstances exist:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

____________________ ____________________________

Team Leader Commanding Officer


Figure 3-4-2 SAMPLE TRAINING TEAM DRILL PLAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3-4-3 SAMPLE INTEGRATED TRAINING TEAM DRILL PLAN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3-4-3 (Cont.) SAMPLE INTEGRATED TRAINING TEAM DRILL PLAN

and type of flight operations, etc., if applicable. The drill plan must consider overall objectives of the training period - is it to exercise the whole ship as an integrated weapon system or to concentrate on a functional area? Is it for training or evaluation of watchstanders?

3410. Pre-Briefings. As in any major shipboard evolution where accomplishing actions in remote spaces by many participants must be coordinated, an advanced briefing for the training team members is mandatory. Additionally, the watch team must be informed that a training period is planned, including any relevant information concerning the conduct of drills, safety concerns, degraded equipment, etc. Minimally, each briefing shall contain the following elements:

a. Equipment condition at the start of the training and at the beginning of each drill.

b. Drill sequencing and uniform time line if more than one training team is involved.

c. Drill coordination details, such as primary or alternate team coordination circuits.

d. Procedures for reporting or handling actual casualties and safety issues.

e. Degree of team involvement (e.g., walk-through training evolutions or evaluation type drills).

f. For each individual drill, the following items shall be discussed:

(1) Training/evaluation mode

(a) Training mode: Watchstanders may be relatively unfamiliar with the watch team/station requirements. Prompting and instruction may be necessary.

(b) Evaluation mode: Training has progressed to the point that the watch team/station is proficient. Therefore, prompting and instruction should not be required. The entire evolution is, by definition, an evaluation.

(2) Brief description of the drill.

(3) Identification of initiator and method(s) of implementation.

(4) Identification of evaluators and responsibilities.

(5) Cautions to be observed.

(6) Simulations to be imposed.

(7) Identification of training objectives.

(8) Roles for safety observers and special safety considerations particular to the drill identified using the Operational Risk Management (ORM) process.

(9) Safety/Training Time Outs. Procedures providing a means for freezing the drill:

a. Training time-out: An interruption for watch team/station instruction. This may impact the overall scenario timeline. Training time-out should not be called when prompting can accomplish the desired affect.

b. Safety time-out: An interruption to avoid injury to personnel or damage to equipment.

g. Flight plan to include number of aircraft involved (if applicable). When a drill involves actual flight operations the team leader or team coordinator will pre-brief the drill to the aircrew prior to drill initiation. When supporting aircraft; e.g., P-3 MPA, are incorporated in the exercise, the team leader will ensure that the required pre-exercise message is sent and aircraft check-in is accomplished.

h. This briefing is an interactive procedure where problems, procedural differences, and misconceptions must be resolved. No member should leave the brief with the slightest doubt concerning any procedure that might occur.

i. Figure 3-4-4 contains a sample list of prebriefing considerations for a variety of possible training events. Team leaders should select those elements that apply to the planned training period and structure the pre-briefing accordingly.

j. Pre-briefing for the ITT will generally be more of an executive overview rather than the detailed briefs for functional area training teams.

3411. Debriefing and Critique. The training effect is improved by positive and accurate feedback to the trainees. Immediate and direct feedback to a watchstander by the appropriate training team member is a valuable tool. A more comprehensive critique will emerge after the entire training team has debriefed the event. Some interactions will only be apparent to the members of the training team when this debrief has occurred. Each training team member should record a chronology of observations, e.g. accomplishment of objectives and watch team/station strengths and weaknesses. The sample check list in Figure 3-4-5 may help structure the training period critique. A standard format is not provided due to the variety of training events, but the checklist should be useful in organizing the observations. During the teamís debrief, individual observations are discussed and a composite evaluation of the training event is formed and recorded in the critique which is forwarded up the chain of command. After review, these are to be kept on file until the training event is accomplished again or all recommended corrective actions are taken, whichever occurs last. Debriefs for the ITT will generally be more of an executive overview than the detailed debriefs conducted by the functional area training teams.

3412. Simulations. Many operational and casualty procedures require the use of simulations. To the extent that any simulation differs from reality, however, the benefit of the training is comparably reduced. Many training actions become or should become second nature through repetition. It is extremely important that a simulation not become second nature to the trainee because of repetition. The Commanding Officer is the ultimate authority for which actions may or may not be allowed in response to casualties during training. Within those restrictions the following actions on simulations should be taken:

a. Simulations should be kept to a minimum consistent with safety of personnel and equipment/machinery.

b. Simulated disclosures, when required, should be conducted with as much realism as can be imposed in a training environment. Examples are artificially created sound, vibration, smell, or sight signals.

c. During casualty training, the trainee should be trained to take all actions required in the ship's standard procedures. The training team shall control all simulations and the resultant action of participants. This places the full and complete responsibility for control of the drill upon the training team. For example, actual firefighting agents shall not be discharged unless directed by the training team.

3413. Shipboard Training Team Course of Instruction.

a. Afloat Training Group LANT/PAC provide a Shipboard Training Team (SBTT) course of instruction which provides the shipís training teams hands on training in objective based scenario generation techniques, briefing/execution/debriefing, and data collection/feedback processes. The application of emerging training methodologies such as team dynamics, team dimensional training, and team centered training techniques are also


PRE-BRIEF ELEMENTS - SCENARIO/DRILL CHECKLIST

1. Training event ID and duration:

2. ITT/Training Team Objective(s)

a. Plan, build, brief, execute, assess, and debrief

b. Training Teams in evaluation or training mode

c. Training Team Member assignments

d. Stand-alone, parallel, or integrated scenario

(1) Complexity and training team integration

(2) Watchstanders

(3) Watch teams

e. Warfare/Mission areas

f. Specific training objectives

3. Scenario framework (as applicable):

a. Geopolitical environment

b. Physical environment

(1) Operating area (geography)

(2) DLRP

(3) Chart requirements

(4) Environmental information

(5) Day/night

c. Ship's PIM


d.. Ship's mission

(1) Task Organization

(2) Ships in company

 

 


Figure 3-4-4 Sample Pre-brief Elements


(3) Assigned aircraft status

(4) Specific equipment requirements, for example:

(a) Small boats

(b) Anchor

e. Condition of readiness

(1) Threat Warning and Weapons Control status

(2) Weapons Posture

(3) ROE

(4) EMCON

(5) Flight deck readiness status

f. Communications Plan

(1) Internal

(2) External

(3) Problem control

g. OOB

(1) Friendly

(2) Hostile

(3) CCOI/COIs

(4) Neutral forces, merchant shipping

h. OPTASK SUPPS

i. Operational Risk Management (ORM):

(1) Underway/inport/at anchor

(2) Casualty Control Drills

(a) EOP/EOCC specific considerations

(b) CSOSS specific considerations

(c) Risk Assessment Codes (RAC)


Figure 3-4-4 (Cont.) Sample Pre-brief Elements

 


j. Plant and equipment status:

(1) Special operating orders in effect.

(2) Equipment OOC list

(3) Minimum equipment requirements

(4) Specific equipment/system material status

(5) Required plant conditions

(6) Final plant conditions

k. Safety considerations:

(1) Space walk-through and discrepancies noted during pre-drill inspection (Note: Pre-drill/exercise/ evolution discrepancies must be corrected prior to commencing the drill)

(2) Heat stress/stay time

(3) Hot/cold checks

4. Timeline information:

a. Extent of freeplay

(1) Who controls the timeline and what circumstances will be permitted to modify the timeline.

b. Disclosure methods

c. Casualty insertion procedures

(1) Symptoms, indications

d. Embedded training devices to be used.

e. Authorized deviations (alteration from an approved, cold/hot checked drill).

f. Simulations approved for this drill.

g. Spaces and equipment to be affected by casualty control drills:

(1) Engineering

(2) Combat Systems


Figure 3-4-4 (Cont.) Sample Pre-brief Elements

 


(3) Damage Control

(4) Deck

h. Miscellaneous:

(1) Potential risk areas

(a) Possible effects on the plant

(b) Electrical plant control

(c) Possible effects on combat systems

(d) Possible effects on deck gear

(2) Expected immediate and controlling actions

(a) Battle Order requirements

(3) What to do for actual casualties

(4) Underway maneuvering requirements

5. Lessons learned and review of last time this scenario/drill was used.

a. Previous drill weaknesses.

b. Areas of concern

 

Note: When conducting a single training team evolution for a drill that is not complex, some of the

prebrief items listed above may not be required. The ITT or senior training team member should

specify those that may be omitted.


Figure 3-4-4 (Cont.) Sample Pre-brief Elements


TRAINING TEAM DEBRIEF/CRITIQUE CHECKLIST

1. Date/time

2. Drill/Evolution/Exercise

3. Watchstander/Section/Special Detail

4 Drill/Exercise/Evolution Evaluation:

a. Ability/Level of Knowledge of Watchstander/Watch Team/Special Detail/ UNREP/ Anchor/ Navigation/ Helo Crash Team, etc.) to accomplish drill/exercise/evolution.

b. Actions:

(1) Immediate:

(2) Controlling:

c. Communications:

d. ORM Considerations:

e. Deficiencies:

(1) Material:

(2) Documentation:

(3) Procedures :

(a) Contrary to EOP/EOCC/CSOSS:

(b) Contrary to other documents:

f. Training Team Evaluation:

g. Objectives not demonstrated:

h. Recommendations:

5. Overall Evaluation:

a. Evaluator

6. Review: TT Leader/Division Officer./Department Head /ITT Leader/XO/CO

Note: Multiple exercises/evolutions accomplished by one watch team or watch section may be

summarized on one critique form.


Figure 3-4-5, Training Team Debrief/Critique Checklist

covered. The course is normally conducted off-ship over a four-day period. All training team members (ITT Leader, Team Leaders, and all Team Members) should be present throughout the duration of the course.

b. The SBTT COI is optimally conducted 6-12 weeks prior to CART II and is available to all Navy personnel who request the course via naval message to the servicing ATG.

3414. Training Team Self-Assessment. Training team self-assessment is also an invaluable tool for improving future drill scenarios, training and evaluations. Training Team Self Evaluation (Figure 3-4-6) and Integrated Training Team Evaluation (Figure 3-4-7) are not required for every drill/exercise/scenario conducted. They should be used periodically as directed by the ITT Leader; e.g., once per quarter and prior to CART II.

3415. Reports and Records. Accomplishment of evolutions and drills for training is only one part of the overall departmental training plan. Records of the training accomplished are essential in order to document training effectiveness and improve crew performance. The following categories of documentation are necessary:

a. Record of drills and supervised evolutions. Records must be kept on the date and nature of operational training afforded each watch team.

b. Approved drill plans. Drill plans, approved by the Commanding Officer, should be annotated to the degree the training was accomplished and kept on file.

c. Reports. Critiques of training events will be forwarded via the chain of command to the Commanding Officer. If the training event is a TRMS reportable exercise, submit input to the shipís TRNGREP (Chapter 6, Section 2) in accordance with internal procedures.

d. Detailed training event records should be maintained until they have been repeated or until all deficiencies have been corrected, whichever is later.

3416. Additional Training. During the course of a drill conducted in the training mode, there may be periods of relative inactivity at various stations. The team member should use these opportunities to question participants about different aspects of the event that may not have been specifically covered by the scenario used. Causes of the casualty, actions to be taken by individual stations, use of space fire fighting equipment, rules of engagement and Commanding Officerís Battle Orders are a few examples of subjects that can be discussed. Additionally, evolution training consisting of starting, stopping and reconfiguring equipment in a non-casualty environment is available to the training teams to increase watchstander proficiency. Use of OSS, MRC or a written ship's procedure is required during all evolutions. When conducting evolution training, PQS qualified evaluators will:

a. Evaluate the watchstander's knowledge of equipment operating parameters and configurations.

b. Determine whether the watchstander makes appropriate reports if a problem arises while conducting an evolution.

c. Ensure OSS, MRC or a written procedure is used to start, stop or reconfigure equipment.

d. Evaluate combat systems watchstander and watch team level of knowledge of :

(1) Commanding Officerís Battle Orders

(2) Ship class Combat Systems Techniques and Procedures

(3) Navy-wide OPTASKS and battle group OPTASKS (if applicable).

(4) Required operational reports.

e. Similarly in other functional areas, evaluate watchstander and watchteam level of knowledge of shipboard doctrine; e.g., COís Standing orders, Engineer Officerís Standing Orders, Repair Party manual, etc., OSS, and general technical knowledge; e.g., NSTM series, appropriate to the functional area.

 


Training Team Self Evaluation

Team Name:_________________________

Yes/No/NA

Exercise Planning, Preparation and Readiness:

1. Was exercise package tailored to specific tactical training objectives or casualty control

goals? __________

2. Did drill guides make use of embedded training systems and OBTs to provide maximum

realism? __________

3. Were casualty control drill guides "cold checked" and verified to be current? __________

4. Were applicable embedded training systems and OBTs used? __________

5. Were training team members PQS/JQR qualified to observe the watch stations being

evaluated? __________

6. Was the exercise plan approved by the Commanding Officer? __________

Exercise Prebriefings:

1. Was an exercise brief for assigned training team members conducted? __________

2. Did it include:

a. Safety considerations/ORM/RAC? __________

b. Use of embedded trainers/OBTs? __________

c. Simulations and deviations? __________

d. Feedback from previous exercise? __________

e. Review of team assignments and responsibilities? __________

f. Review of evaluation sheets?

g. Discussion of required resources/services (equipment, power, chilled water, gyro,

etc.) scheduled/ available? __________

h. Discussion of communications requirements? __________

 

Figure 3-4-6 Training Team Self Evaluation

i. Identification of training team communications requirements? __________

j. Discussion of exercise disclosure and timing?

k. Discussion of casualty insertion and timing? __________

l. Include exercise timeline or schedule of events? __________

3. Was an exercise brief conducted for all watch team members being trained? __________ _________

4. Did it include:

a. Safety considerations/ORM/RAC? __________

b. Coordination requirements? __________

c. Exercise simulations? __________

Exercise Conduct and Evaluation:

1. Did the team leader manage and control the exercise? __________

2. Were training time-outs called, if required and appropriate?

3. Were safety procedures observed and enforced? __________

4. Did training team members recognize and correct any unsafe conditions before personnel

injury or equipment casualties occurred? __________

5. Were coordination and internal communications sufficient to support exercise objectives? __________ __________

6. Did evaluators:

a. Arrive on station before exercise COMEX and conduct required exercise checks

and a safety walk-through? __________

b. Observe and evaluate all factors in drill guides and on evaluation sheets? __________ __________

c. Provide only minimum prompting to prevent disruption of the exercise? __________

d. Verbally question watchstanders if appropriate to the mode in which the exercise

was conducted? __________

e. Take time lines / record all significant events and not just deficiencies? __________

7. Did training team safely rig simulations or alter equipment/system configurations to

achieve objectives? __________

8. Were safety observers stationed, if required? __________

9. Were exercise objectives achieved? __________

 

Figure 3-4-6 (Cont.) Training Team Self Evaluation

 

Exercise Debrief: __________

1. Was a post-exercise debrief conducted with the use of primary references? __________ __________

2. Was a watch station debrief conducted? __________

3. Was the watch section debriefed? __________

4. Were safety violations and deviations from doctrine addressed? __________

5. Did evaluators assist in the post exercise debrief? __________

6. Were completed evaluation sheets and exercise comments forwarded to the

Commanding Officer? __________

7. Were exercise results posted in such a manner; e.g., night order book, LAN, etc.,

such that all the watch sections might benefit? __________

Watch Team Self Evaluation:

1. Did the watch team internally update and pass key information? __________

2. Did the watch team self-correct mistakes? __________

3. Were the watch team's communications clear, concise and in the correct phraseology? __________

4. Was watch team leadership effective? __________

Training Team Self Evaluation:

1. Was the training team supervision and control of the exercise effective? __________

2. Were recommendations generated in the exercise critique implemented? __________

 

 

Comments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3-4-6 (Cont.) Training Team Self Evaluation

 

Integrated Training Team Evaluation

Yes/No/NA

Exercise Planning Preparation and Readiness:

1. Was the exercise package tailored to the specific integrated tactical training objectives and/or

integrated casualty control goal(s)? __________

2. Were drill guides provided to stimulate the systems and watch teams and provide maximum

realism? __________

3. Were casualty control drill guides cold checked and verified to be current? __________

4. Were applicable embedded training systems and OBTs used? __________

5. Were the responsibilities and location of ITT members for the specific exercise defined? __________

6. Was the exercise package approved by the Commanding Officer? __________

7. Did the ITT identify the tactical impact of the exercise?

8. Did the ITT identify coordination required between departments to achieve integrated

training and casualty control objectives? __________

9. Were major events discussed, particularly for at-sea exercises? __________

Exercise Prebriefings:

1. Was an exercise prebrief for assigned ITT members conducted? __________

2. Did it include:

a. Safety considerations? __________

b. Use of embedded trainers/OBTs? __________

c. Simulations and deviations

d. Feedback from previous exercise? __________

e. Briefings/assignments of initiators and safety observers. __________

f. Review of evaluation sheets? __________

g. Arrangements for all required services (equipment, power, chilled water,

gyro, etc.)? __________

h. Communications requirements? __________

i. Disclosures and timing? __________

Figure 3-4-7 Integrated Training Team Evaluation

j. Timeline or schedule of events? __________

3. Was an exercise brief conducted for all watch team personnel being trained, including

safety considerations, simulations and deviations? __________

Exercise Conduct and evaluation:

1. Did the ITT manage and control the exercise? __________

2. Were training time-outs called when required? __________

3. Were safety procedures observed and enforced? __________

4. Did ITT recognize and correct unsafe conditions? __________

5. Were coordination and internal communications sufficient to support exercise objectives? __________

6. Did evaluators:

a. Arrive on station before exercise COMEX to conduct required exercise checks

and a safety walk-through? __________

b. Observe all factors in drill guides and on critique form? __________

c. Provide only minimum prompting to prevent disruption of the exercise? __________

7. Did ITT rig simulations and alter equipment and systems configurations to achieve

exercise objectives? __________

8. Were safety observers on station? __________

9. Were exercise objectives achieved? __________

Exercise Debrief:

1. Was a post-exercise debrief conducted? __________

2. Was a watch station debrief conducted? __________

3. Did the training team provide immediate feedback to the watch team? __________

4. Were safety violations and deviations in doctrine addressed? __________

5. Did evaluators assist in the post-exercise debrief? __________

6. Were completed evaluation sheets and exercise comments forwarded to the

Commanding Officer? __________

 

 

Figure 3-4-7 (Cont.) Integrated Training Team Evaluation

 

Integrated Training Team Self Evaluation:

1. Was ITT supervision and control of the exercise effective? __________

 

Comments (on reverse):

 

 


 

 

 

Subsection A: Integrated Training Team (ITT)

Subsection B: Combat Systems Training Team (CSTT)

Subsection C: Engineering Training Team (ETT)

Subsection D: Damage Control Training Team (DCTT)

Subsection E: Seamanship Training Team (STT)

Subsection F: Aviation Training Team (ATT)

Subsection G: Medical Training Team