Mobile Approach Control System (MACS)


 

 

 

DATE: 15 November 1998 Rev1

 

 

 

 

FINAL DRAFT

Operational Requirements Document I (ORD)

HQ USAF 001-96-I-A

for a

Mobile Approach Control System (MACS)

ACAT Level III

 

 

 

 

 

____________________

RICHARD P. PACKARD

Colonel, USAF

Commander

Air Force Flight Standards Agency

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OPR: HQ AFFSA/XRR

Phone: Comm: (240) 857-3572

DSN: 857-3572

 

 

Operational Requirements Document

For

Mobile Approach Control System (MACS)

1. General Description of Operational Capability.

1.1 Mission Area.

1.1.1 United States Defense Planning Guidance requires US military forces to be highly mobile and capable of "rapid response" on a global basis in response to the full spectrum of Smaller-Scale Contingencies (SSC) and Major Theater War (MTW) operations. As a key enabler, a mobile air traffic control system is essential to support this objective, the operational concepts established by Joint Vision 2010, and the supporting Air Force core competencies. Capabilities supporting aircraft operations and recoveries, such as a rapidly deployable air traffic control system, are driven by Mission Areas: 260, Mobility; 340, Theater and Tactical Programs; and 356, Mobility. A mobile radar approach control system (MACS) must provide air traffic control services, day and night, in all weather conditions, to military and civil aircraft. The system must be tailorable to meet the requirements of the theater commander and it must operate within Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) performance parameters. The MACS must comply with the Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DII COE) and make information available to the Global Grid.

1.1.2 In the United States, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed a new national airspace system architecture that will modernize its communications, navigation, and surveillance (CNS) and air traffic management (ATM) components to meet the demands of tremendous aviation growth. The Air Force, as a provider of air traffic control services within the national airspace system, must have its air traffic control facilities equipped to provide the same services as the FAA. The mobile air traffic control system must be interoperable with the civil system to conduct force training and in response to crises such as domestic disaster relief.

1.1.3 Like the FAA, ICAO plans to implement a new air traffic control architecture to take advantage of emerging technologies in CNS/ATM and establishes the system requirements in ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS), Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards (MASPS) and Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS). As a result, MACS must meet ICAO requirements in order to provide air traffic control services within many allied countries.

1.1.4 The current mobile air traffic control system needs to be thoroughly modernized to support military and civil aircraft operations at deployed locations and in the United States within this changing environment.

1.1.5 The Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Landing Systems (ATCALS) Mission Need Statement (MNS) was approved by AF/CV on 23 Jul 96. Supporting MNSs include: Air Mobility Command Austere Airfield Air Traffic Control System MNS dated 9 Mar 94, Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) Portable Precision Landing System (PPLS) MNS dated 28 Dec 92, Air Mobility Contingency Precision Approach Capability Combat Mission Need Statement (C-MNS) dated 11 Dec 96, Joint Precision Approach and Landing Capability (JPALS) MNS validated by the Joint Requirements Oversight Council on 29 Aug 95, and the DoD ATCALS Interoperability with the National Airspace System (DAINS) MNS validated by the Joint Requirements Oversight Council on 17 May 89.

1.2 Type System Required.

1.2.1 To perform effectively in the future ATC environment, the MACS will need to provide the following capabilities during wartime/contingency and emergency and interim mission support deployments.

1.2.1.1 Provide radar approach control service to include but not limited to sequencing and separation of aircraft, navigation assistance, and airspace control services to military, civil, and state-owned aircraft operating within the assigned terminal airspace area. It will also provide precision approach radar or equivalent capability.

1.2.1.2 MACS requires voice communication with aircraft and adjacent fixed and deployed facilities and between each MACS subsystem. It must process and have the capability to import and export data such as weather, arrival/departure, and hand-off information with National Airspace System (NAS) and host nation ATC facilities that have been formatted for its automation system. MACS must be capable of processing inputs from a minimum of three radars (any combination of long/short range radar) imported in digital format. The system must be interoperable with existing deployable ATC and tactical communications equipment such as Tri-Tac Interfaces and Integrated Communications Access Packages. The system must be capable of complete remote operation (radar data, communications, radar and communications control). It must be capable of providing processed data to a tower DBRITE and a remote PC display. It must be modular (consisting of separately deployable surveillance, precision, and operations subsystems) and mobile, to allow the systems to be tailored to meet the spectrum of low tempo (4 aircraft per hour minimum) through high tempo (60 aircraft per hour) operations. Ideally, it will provide the ability to grow from a minimum mission capability (deploying only a portion of the system) to full mission capability as mission needs and airlift availability dictate. The system shall be Y2K compliant.

1.2.1.3 JPALS should be considered in the MACS precision landing solution.

1.2.2 Subsystems description. Each of the three subsystems described in the following paragraphs must be housed in separate shelters for both operations and transport. Each shelter/subsystem must be equipped with its own environmental control unit and power distribution and be able to operate as a stand-alone subsystem or with other subsystems. Each shelter must be equipped with all the necessary interfaces to support operation and transport of the shelter/subsystem within the parameters and performance requirements set forth in this ORD.

1.2.2.1 Surveillance Subsystem. The surveillance subsystem will detect, process, and display cooperative and uncooperative aircraft within the coverage area as well as detecting and locating meteorological phenomena. Because it must operate in the NAS and other host countries, the system must consist of the surveillance radar and secondary surveillance radar (SSR), with antennae, radar electronics and digital signal processing equipment, performance testing and monitoring equipment, radar controls, remote performance monitors and controls, and calibration aids. It must have a minimum of two radar displays, radios and landlines sufficient to allow it to deploy without the other subsystems as a limited initial capability or as a limited backup for the operations subsystem. All equipment associated with the subsystem must be stored in its shelter(s) during transportation.

1.2.2.2 Operations Subsystem. The operations subsystem must display all processed data and mirror fixed base NAS systems to the maximum extent possible to the air traffic controllers. The controllers will use the data and associated automation equipment, radios, etc. to identify, separate, and sequence aircraft in order to expedite safe launches and recoveries, and to conduct other airspace control functions in virtually any weather condition. The system may consist of more than one shelter. If more than one shelter is used, the supervisor must have line of sight to all operating positions. All equipment associated with the subsystem must be stored in its shelter(s) during transportation.

1.2.2.3 Precision Subsystem. If the precision approach radar is the system chosen to satisfy precision approach landing requirements, then it must consist of a digital precision approach radar (PAR) and all associated controls, testing, monitoring, and calibration equipment. It must have a minimum of two radar displays, radios and landlines sufficient to allow it to deploy without the other subsystems when only a precision capability is required or to serve as a limited backup to the operations subsystem. The PAR must have reciprocal runway capability without relocation of the subsystem. The minimum number of runways to be supported is two (threshold), with four runways as an objective. All equipment associated with the subsystem must be stored in its shelter(s) during transportation.

1.2.3 Mission Scenarios. Typical mission scenarios are described below.

1.2.3.1 War/Contingency. When required, a MACS will deploy from an active duty or Air National Guard unit to a designated location. Typically, inter-theater airlift will transport the system to the theater of operations. The system will provide approach control services at locations where no ATC facilities exist and/or to replace inoperative radar approach controls/ground controlled approach units. Activities anticipated during these deployments are as follows:

1.2.3.1.1 The system will support the launch and recovery of all aircraft operating from a deployment field along with any transient aircraft. It will be used to expedite the flow of strategic and intra-theater airlift, expedite the flow of aircraft to and from the battle area, increase flight safety, and speed the recovery of aircraft at night and during periods of low ceilings and poor visibility.

1.2.3.1.2 The MACS will be capable of providing limited surveillance assistance in support of the air defense mission. When providing this service, ATC or air defense personnel will use the surveillance presentation to detect and, if possible, identify unknown targets. Target information will then be relayed to air defense command centers.

1.2.3.2 Emergency and Interim Mission Support. The system may be used to support worldwide emergency and disaster relief situations requiring ATC services during peacetime and to serve as an interim replacement for fixed-base ATC assets during equipment upgrades or phaseover programs. Depending on the nature of the outage, such missions may require the deployment of only a portion of the MACS (i.e. deploy only the surveillance subsystem to temporarily replace a fixed base radar). This makes the ability to interoperate with other air traffic facilities essential.

1.2.4 Logistics. The system must have an inherently high reliability and maintainability to minimize airlift and logistics support requirements. The system should support the two-level maintenance concept (organizational and depot). Exterior components must be weather resistant so as to sustain normal operations in extreme environmental conditions and configured to allow the system to be towed over improved roads at highway speeds and unimproved roads and cross-country terrain at reduced speeds. It must be transportable on any inter-and intra-theater airlift (e.g. C-130, C-141, C-5, C-17, etc.).

1.3 See Attachment, Requirements Correlation Matrix, for an executive summary of the requirements and justifying rationale.

2. Threat. MACS will be required to operate under a wide range of threat environments that include proximity to a large number of emitters (both friendly and unfriendly), electronic collection assets that operate across the electromagnetic spectrum, and enemy hostile action. While not a threat driven program, due to its mission and signal transmission, the system may be a primary target for damage caused by surface-to-surface and air-to-surface munitions. Threats can impact approach system operations in several ways: 1) by direct damage to the equipment, 2) disruption of guidance signals, imagery, or radios used by pilot or controller, and 3) modification of the tactics employed by the aircraft using the system.

3. Shortcomings of Existing Systems.

3.1 The Air Force has two mobile radar systems: the AN/MPN-14K (IOC/FOC -1950s, size reduction modification 1993) and AN/TPN-19 (IOC-1979; FOC-1985). Both are beyond or are reaching the end of their life expectancy and are becoming technologically and economically unsustainable. Both are airlift intensive and are restricted as to the types of aircraft capable of transporting them.

3.2 The Federal Aviation Act of 1958 mandates a civil/military ATC system and places the responsibility on the FAA for oversight and control of the common system. In addition, the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the DoD and FAA on the Future of Radar Approach Controls in the NAS, 14 Dec 88, states the FAA "determines the standard for NAS equipment and ATC facilities" and "DoD will equip facilities providing services to civil users so that the ATC service is transparent to the user." Changes in national standards are occurring as the result of increased user demand on the NAS. Of the following capabilities the FAA will put into effect during the 1998-2010 time frame, the AN/MPN-14K (used by the ANG on a daily basis to support military and civilian flying) and the AN/TPN-19 only provide Low Altitude Alerting System (LAAS) capability:

3.2.1 Ground based "MODE S" ATC radar beacon systems.

3.2.2 NAS data-link capabilities (air/ground/air).

3.2.3 Radar target conflict alerting function.

3.2.4 Target conflict resolution function.

3.2.5 Automated target hand-off capabilities.

3.2.6 Minimum safe altitude warning (MSAW) systems.

3.2.7 Weather display systems.

3.2.8 Aircraft flight plan processing.

3.2.9 Ability to transmit/receive traffic flow management system data and general ATC messages.

4. Capabilities Required.

4.1 System Performance. The following assumptions are used as the basis for system performance requirements:

4.1.1 Surveillance Subsystem. The following are surveillance radar thresholds: (Note: Specifications outlined in this section are required to interface with DoD, FAA, and ICAO standard ATC equipment.)

4.1.1.1 Output Signal (Key Performance Parameter). The surveillance radar is required to have an output signal able to support digital systems in a format compatible with the FAA's radar network and DoD advanced automation system (DAAS).

4.1.1.2 Weather Processing. The system must provide calibrated weather processing and reporting of intensity in accordance with the National Weather Service (NWS) 6 calibrated levels of intensity. The system must be capable of reporting and displaying two weather levels, threshold and six levels as an objective, simultaneously with aircraft target processing and reporting. Weather updates must be provided at least every 60 seconds.

4.1.1.3 Coverage (elevation, azimuth, and range) (Key Performance Parameter). With a beam elevation coverage of zero degrees to 30 degrees, the surveillance short range radar must be capable of providing surveillance coverage from surface to 20,000 feet, 360 degree azimuth, and to a range of 0.5 to 60 nautical miles from the radar site. The long range radar must adhere to the same specifications as the short range radar but provide surveillance coverage 0.5 to 200 nautical miles from the radar site. The system must have the capability to display radar/beacon surveillance data in mosaic mode (multiple sensor input) site.in an area of coverage 150 X 200 nautical miles.

4.1.1.4 Acquisition and Tracking (Key Performance Parameter). At least 95% (threshold and 98% objective) of targets within the search coverage must be acquired and 99% of those must be tracked (threshold and 100% objective).

4.1.1.5 Tracking Capability Over Clutter. The ASR shall have a Sub Clutter Visibility (SCV) of 50 dB or greater.

4.1.1.6 Target Capacity. System must have the capacity to acquire and track a total of 400 aircraft targets and 300 non-aircraft targets per scan.

4.1.1.7 False Targets. The radar must average 1 or less false target report per scan while meeting acquisition and tracking thresholds.

4.1.1.8 Response and Update Time. The radar response time must be adequate to conduct ASR approaches, radar vectoring, safety alert, collision avoidance, adherence to separation standards, and air traffic advisory operation. Response time must not exceed 0.8 seconds (threshold). Radar update rate must be 4.8 seconds (nominal).

4.1.1.9 Accuracy. The primary radar must provide sufficient range and azimuth accuracy to support terminal ATC separation standards. Current state-of-the-art radars provide a range accuracy of 275 ft. and azimuth accuracy of 0.16 degrees (as measured at the display), which is adequate to support terminal area ATC separation requirements.

4.1.1.10 Resolution: The surveillance radar must have the ability to distinguish two targets separated in range by 760 feet or greater. The azimuth resolution must be such that two targets can be distinguished when separated by 3 degrees (threshold and 2.5 degrees as an objective) at any range (as measured at the display).

4.1.1.11 Wind Load. The antenna, in combination with ice loading, must withstand a 65 knots wind loading (threshold, 85 knots objective) while operating.

4.1.2 Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR). Used to provide identity and altitude data for controllers. The SSR gives the controller a rapid and accurate means of correlating radar targets displayed on the screen with the flight plan data. Further, the beacon system provides rapid identification of aircraft in distress. It must be capable of permitting such things as the transfer of flight data, ATC clearances, and weather information between pilots and controllers via a data link. It must provide aircraft surveillance information to the systemís automation program for the purpose of target correlation, tracking and display. . It must have the capability to upgrade to Mode S and interface with aircraft equipped with all Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS) transponders and be capable of interrogating Modes 2, 3/A, C, (threshold and Modes 2,3/A, C and 4 as an objective), Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) and ADS-Broadcast (ADS-B). The following are secondary radar thresholds.

4.1.2.1 Output Signal (Key Performance Parameter). The secondary radar system is required to be compatible with DoD and FAA digital systems.

4.1.2.2 Coverage (elevation, azimuth, and range) (Key Performance Parameter). With an elevation angle of zero degrees to 30 degrees the secondary radar system must be capable of providing coverage from the surface to 40,000 feet, 360 degree azimuth, and a range of 120 nautical miles (threshold and 200 nm as an objective) from the radar antenna.

4.1.2.3 Update Time. Radar update rate must be every 4.8 seconds (nominal).

4.1.2.4 Target Processing Capacity. System must have the capacity to process a total of 400 aircraft targets and 300 non-aircraft targets per scan.

4.1.2.5 False Target. The secondary radar system must average no more than one false target per radar scan.

4.1.2.6 Accuracy. Target position accuracy must support all air traffic control separation standards. To meet the minimum separation standards, azimuth accuracy must be +/- 0.26 degrees and range accuracy must be +/- 190 feet (as measured at the display).

4.1.2.7 Range and Azimuth Resolution. The SSR must be able to distinguish two targets separated in range by 304 feet or greater. The SSR must distinguish two detected, identical targets (two targets with the same transponder code) with an azimuth accuracy of 2.1 degrees and distinguish two targets with at least one differing characteristic (different transponder code) with an accuracy of 1.5 degrees (as measured at the display).

4.1.2.8 Detection and Validation (Key Performance Parameter). The system probability of detection within the required coverage area must be 99.0% or better.

4.1.2.9 Wind Load. The secondary antenna, in combination with ice loading, must withstand a 65 knots (threshold, 85 kt objective) wind loading while operating.

4.1.2.10 Mode S. Must be upgradeable to at least level two (threshold) in order to be compliant with European standards. Level four is the objective.

4.1.3 Operations Subsystem. The operations subsystem must have all the equipment necessary for controllers to provide for the safe, orderly, expeditious launch and recovery of aircraft. The equipment will include the following as a minimum.

4.1.3.1 Positions. (Note: Functionally, each operating position should mirror fixed base NAS facilities to the maximum extent possible in order to reduce training, logistics, and maintenance requirements.) All positions must have the capability of selectively monitoring all other positions and must possess trainee/trainer communications override capability. All positions must have intercom connectivity with all other positions. All positions must be capable of holding standard FAA flight progress strips. All positions must electronically display weather information, flight plan data, NOTAMs, and other routine information required for air traffic control (i.e. airfield information, approach plates, etc.).

4.1.3.1.1 Primary Controller. The five primary controller consoles will include a multifunction display configurable for surveillance or precision operations; each will have an accurate digital time display slaved off of a central clock within the subsystem; and meteorological and information readouts. Further, each console will include a horizontal writing shelf and an overhead storage area. Each will be capable of using the systemís GTAground-to-air (GTA) radios, landlines, and intra-system communications. Anti-jam radio communications capabilities will be required for all positions. Illumination for the console area will be provided and will be easily adjustable to light controller-selected workspace and will have adjustable intensity. Each primary control position must be equipped with a Radar and Tower Coordination System, as required in AFI 13-203, Air Traffic Control.

4.1.3.1.2 Assistant Controller. The two assistant controller positions will include a backlit keyboard with adjustable intensities. It will allow the assistant to make changes on the display of the control position assisted. The positions will also require radio, landline, and intra-system receive/transmit capabilities equivalent to those in the primary controller consoles.

4.1.3.1.3 Supervisor/Overhead Coordinator. This position will be placed in a central location overhead of the primary and assistant controller positions. It will require the same features and capabilities as the primary controller positions. In addition, it will include system monitors and controls for operations (including automation) and maintenance functions (i.e. allocate/assign frequencies, assign/change communication line shutdown, pickup, etc.). This position must be capable of overriding all communications functions within the facility.

4.1.3.2 Multifunction Displays. Multifunction displays are required at all primary controller positions, including the supervisor/overhead position (to be used for maintenance also). The surveillance mode shall include an all-digital display presentation and interactive controls and devices required to perform approach control functions. Each multifunction display requires a single, high resolution, color, flat panel and should be viewable without parallax from an adjacent controller's position. The displays must be free of flicker and easily viewed in normal ambient room lighting in order to enhance efficient ATC operations, training, maintenance, and to preclude darkened room safety hazards. Each display should allow controllers to quickly configure it to operate in the five separate modes as described below.

4.1.3.2.1 Surveillance Mode. The display presentation shall include radar and track information, minimum safe altitude warning (MSAW), collision avoidance (CA), weather information, flight data, geographic and range references, free text information, preview and computer response information, time and data filter information, and status information. The flight data, weather, and free text information shall be capable of being presented at any location on the display as selected by the controller. A track ball device will be used to indicate where on the display these items of data will be presented.

4.1.3.2.2 Precision Mode. The precision mode shall include a display presentation and interactive controls and devices required to perform PAR functions. An objective is for the system to provide the correlation of tracked targets from surveillance to PAR mode. Target acquisition will be accomplished through the use of the track ball or the keyboard. Other information displayed in this mode includes weather, range marks, free text information, preview and computer response information, as well as time, data filter, and radar performance/status information.

4.1.3.2.3 Training Mode. The training mode will provide full dynamic imbedded simulation capable of generating multiple scenarios. It shall be interoperable with the DoD Advanced Automation System (DAAS) software. It shall have independent voice recognition capability (objective).

4.1.3.2.4 Maintenance Mode. The maintenance mode will provide features to allow system initialization, on-line and off-line individual position and system diagnosis, checks, and restoral. It will verify position console calibration, function, and mode of operation. Further, it shall use the results of systems checks and tests to provide, on the display, textual and graphic information concerning the operations subsystem status.

4.1.3.2.5 Programming Mode. The programming mode will allow controllers to create and modify video maps generated through the systemís automation program as well as modify site specific information.

4.1.3.3 Communications (Key Performance Parameter). The MACS will contain radio, landline, and intercom equipment necessary for ground-to-air (GTA) and inter/intrafacilityGTA and inter/intra facility communications. Communications thresholds follow.

4.1.3.3.1 GTA Radios. For operation under normal conditions, the system requires 18 multi-channel, multi-function (VHF/UHF) radios--included in the 18 are six radios in the surveillance subsystem and four in the precision subsystem. Whether in the operations, surveillance, or precision subsystem, all MACS radios must be accessible from the operations subsystem. To provide future growth capability for 8.33kHz frequency spacing and data-link, the radios must be time-division multiple access (TDMA) capable. For ECM threat conditions, the UHF radios should be HAVE QUICK I & II capable. The radios and antennae should provide for GTA communications with aircraft at a range of at least 60 nautical miles (NM), 360 degree azimuth, and to a minimum altitude of 3,000 feet above ground level at 60 nautical miles. (Note: MACS must be capable of interfacing with a fixed base GTA site.)

4.1.3.3.2 Landlines. The MACS must be capable of supporting both DSN and commercial telephone communications. A digital voice switch capable of providing 30 lines including those in the surveillance subsystem will provide adequate capability and assure compatibility with current (TRI-TAC) and future theater deployable communications (TDC) systems. All landlines should be configurable as any of the following: dial, voice page, or ring lines.

4.1.3.3.3 Voice Recorder and Playback. A 48-channel (minimum) digital voice recorder is required. A separate playback capability is required for replay in an area that will not hamper control activities.

4.1.3.3.4 Radar and Tower Coordination System. Required by and described in AFI 13-203. Additionally, the system must include a remote tower module for installation in a mobile control tower. (USAF mobile control towers do not have radar and tower coordination systems.)

4.1.3.5 Automation. To facilitate commonality between fixed and mobile systems, the systemís automation software must be interoperable with DAAS/STARS, the automation system procured under the DAINS MNS.

4.1.4 Precision Subsystem. This subsystem is generally described in paragraph 1.2.2.3. The PAR must meet the specifications contained in ICAO Annex 10 for PAR (Part 1, section 3.2). The following are precision approach radar thresholds.

4.1.4.1 Output Signal (Key Performance Parameter). The precision radar is required to have an output signal able to support digital systems.

4.1.4.2 Coverage (elevation, azimuth, and range) (Key Performance Parameter). Elevation: a minimum of eight degrees, minus one to plus six degrees (threshold and 16 degrees, minus one to plus 14 degrees as an objective). Azimuth: a minimum of 21 degrees, minus 10 to plus 10 degrees (threshold and 31 degrees, minus 15 to plus 15 degrees as an objective). Range: a minimum of 15 nautical miles from the radar site (threshold and 20 nautical miles as an objective).

4.1.4.3 Acquisition and Tracking (Key Performance Parameter). At least 95% threshold (98% objective) of targets within the search coverage must be acquired and 99% of those must be tracked (threshold) (100% objective).

4.1.4.4 Tracking Capability Over Clutter. The PAR must have a SCV of 30 dB or greater.

4.1.4.5 Target Capacity. System must have the capacity to acquire and track a total of 6 aircraft targets per scan.

4.1.4.6 False Targets. The radar must average no more than one false target report per scan while meeting acquisition and tracking thresholds.

4.1.4.7 Response and Update Time. The radar response time must be adequate to conduct PAR approaches, radar vectoring, safety alert, collision avoidance, adherence to separation standards, and air traffic advisory operation. (Response time must not exceed 0.5 seconds threshold and 0.1 seconds as an objective). Radar update rate must be one second (threshold and one half second as an objective).

4.1.4.8 Accuracy. Must be adequate to conduct PAR operations using appropriate separation standards. Touchdown error at display must be less than the following: Elevation: 10 feet (threshold and five feet as an objective); Azimuth: 15 feet (threshold and 10 feet as an objective); Range: 100 feet (threshold and 25 feet as an objective). Accuracy within the scan volume must be less than the following: Elevation: 20 feet (threshold and 15 feet as an objective), Azimuth: 30 feet (threshold and 20 feet as an objective), Range: 100 feet (threshold and 80 feet as an objective).

4.1.4.9 Resolution. The precision radar must have a minimum elevation resolution of 0.6 degrees (threshold and 0.3 degrees as an objective), an azimuth resolution of 1.2 degrees (threshold and 0.6 degrees as an objective), and range resolution of 400 feet (threshold and 100 feet as an objective) separation.

4.1.4.10 Wind Load. The antenna, in combination with ice loading, must withstand a 65 knots (threshold, 85 kts objective) wind loading while operating.

4.1.5 System Capabilities.

4.1.5.1 Data Transfer. The system will provide at least two means of transferring data from the surveillance and precision subsystems to the operations subsystem. Because the subsystems may not be collocated, the data transfer equipment must provide transfer of data at distances up to 15,000 feet. Further, one of the systems must be wireless.

4.1.5.2 Evacuation Alarm. Since the system may be located within 750 feet of any runway, evacuation alarms, audible within and outside the shelters, are required in each subsystem.

4.1.5.3 Weather Equipment. The MACS will contain its own meteorological sensors and readouts providing wind direction and speed from the ends of multiple runways (threshold: two; objective: four) for a minimum transmission distance (threshold: 7,000 feet; objective: 14,000 feet), barometric pressure, and temperature and have the capability to receive data from both fixed and deployable weather systems. The information will be displayed on the controllerís multi-function display.

4.1.5.4 Setup/Teardown time (hours). Setup time is the total time required from when the system is positioned in its setup location to when it is available for flight check. The threshold is three hours and the objective is two hours. Setup time does not include the time required to survey the location or flight inspection. Teardown is the time required to take the system from operation to being packaged for redeployment. The threshold is six hours and the objective is four hours. Only those personnel routinely assigned to the system Unit Type Code (UTC) will accomplish set up and tear down of the system without outside assistance (Note: no special height, weight, sex, etc. requirements will be required). Personnel must be capable of setting up and tearing down the system in arctic or chemical/biological protective gear within established time frames.

4.1.5.5 Power. The system should be able to operate with power supplied from either a generator or worldwide commercial power (threshold). Depending on the quality and availability of commercial power, the generators will be the primary or back-up source of power. (Note: Generators will deploy as part of the system.) The system shall comply with all Environmental Protection Agency regulations regarding hazardous material or waste. Provisions must be incorporated in the system design to account for power surges and other anomalies associated with generator and commercial power sources. Each subsystem must prevent loss of critical data through use of uninterruptable power supply (ies) (UPS) with filtered power protection. The UPS shall sustain full operations on all subsystems and prevent loss of radar data and communications for 20 minutes.

4.1.5.6 Mobility. (Key Performance Parameter) The system is packaged in shelters and modules to allow for rapid deployment and ease of handling. The MACS may be transported by air or road. All associated equipment must be stored in the shelters during transportation.

4.1.5.6.1 Air Transportability. The MACS will be air transportable by inter-and intra-theater airlift (e.g. C-130, C-141, C-5, C-17 aircraft, etc.). The threshold is for two C-130 aircraft sorties to be able to transport the MACS including system equipment, personnel with personal gear, placement and setup equipment, cables and interconnects, calibration and performance monitoring aids, spare parts and test equipment required for 30 days of operations. The objective is for one C-130 to be required to transport the system. System equipment includes power generation and environmental control units but excludes consumables such as fuel normally found at an operational location. Placement and setup includes equipment mobilizers (if required), stabilizers, tie-downs, and all equipment and tools necessary to prepare the MACS for service. The MACS must meet all safety of flight requirements for military or commercial aircraft, including crash safety, tie down and restraints, and rapid decompression.

4.1.5.6.2 Ground Transportability. The MACS will be ground transported by semi-trailer flatbed trucks or towed, using standard military mobilizers that support the MACS weight and cubic feet (if needed). Upon reaching the destination, personnel will most likely use a truck to tow the system to its emplacement site. The system should be capable of enduring a 200-mile towbeing towed at highway speeds on improved roads and reduced speeds on unimproved roads and various terrains prior to setup.

4.1.5.7 Environmental Conditions.

4.1.5.7.1 While in the non-operational state, the MACS must be capable of withstanding worldwide storage and transport environments. During storage and transport, the MACS must remain ready for immediate setup and operations. The MACS must be capable of being stored separately or while mounted on its mobilizers (if used). All rechargeable batteries, if used, may be stored and maintained at a separate storage location while the MACS is non-operational. Batteries that are removed during storage must be easy to remove without the use of special tools.

4.1.5.7.2 The MACS must be capable of operations in worldwide austere locations in a variety of terrain environments and adverse weather conditions (i.e. rain, snow, humidity, freezing rain, wind, fog, temperature extremes, blowing sand, dust, etc.).

4.1.5.7.3 Each subsystem requires an environmental control unit (ECU). The environmental control system must be filtered to prevent penetration by blowing sand and dust. However, frequent maintenance is permissible under severe sand and dust conditions.

4.2. Logistics and Readiness. The system must be designed for ease of maintenance and rapid and positive isolation and restoral of any malfunction. The system maintenance concept will be based on "remove and replace at site" maintenance practices.

4.2.1 Availability. (Key Performance Parameter) Operational availability must be 99%, or better per month (threshold).

4.2.2. Reliability. Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) must not be less than1500 hours (threshold). The derived Mean Time Between Critical Failures (MTBCF) shall be calculated assuming 95% probability of success (no critical failures) within 30 days.

      1. Maintainability. Mean Repair Time (MRT) must not exceed 30 minutes (threshold). The Mean Time to Restore System (MTTRS) must not exceed 2 hours for downing events (threshold). The Maximum Repair Time (MaxRT) must not exceed 1.5 hours to the 95th percentile.
      2. Scheduled Maintenance. Total preventive maintenance (PM) time for the system (excluding generators) will not be greater than 1 hour per month (30 days). No more than one PM period is permitted during the month for the surveillance radar, SSR, and operations subsystem. The maximum PM downtime shall be 30 minutes for any single maintenance event.
      3. Fault Isolation. Built in Test/Fault Isolation (BIT/FI) detection rates must be 90% down to an ambiguity group of three LRUs or less using automatic mode and 95% down to one LRU using automatic and manual mode. On-site troubleshooting using all available means must achieve 100% fault isolation capability for all failures not detected and fault isolated to an LRU using BIT/FI. Due to the varied locations in which the system might be employed, the fault isolation system should include a remote monitoring capability.

4.3 Other System Characteristics.

4.3.1 Security. Program protection must be applied throughout the systemís lifecycle to maintain technical superiority, system integrity and availability. System security measures must be applied to integrate facilities, procedures and equipment. Embedded C4I systems must be designed to counter the threat vulnerabilities identified in the 15 Jun 94 Threat Environment Description on C4I (Secret).

4.3.1.1 Physical Security. When deployed, the MACS will be capable of operating 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The system should have cipher door locks installed (threshold). Also, something as simple as a wide-angle viewer may be installed in the doors for positive personnel identification prior to entry. While in a non-operational state, physical security requirements will be comparable to those of other non-priority warfighting assets and will be met in the same fashion.

4.3.1.2 Operations Security (OPSEC). All aspects of this program that may be detrimental to national security will be appropriately classified and controlled throughout all phases of the program. Storage and protection of cryptographic keying devices may be necessary in the MACS, necessitating a requirement for a safe.

4.3.1.3 Counter Measures. Electronic counter-countermeasures requirements are not unique. These requirements are the same as for fixed ATC assets and will be based upon data from Air Force Intelligence Agency along with command and standard emissions control procedures.

4.3.2 The system must operate in the intended operational electromagnetic environment without causing or suffering any unacceptable performance degradation due to electromagnetic interference to or from other equipment in the same environment. The system must also be designed to prevent exposure of personnel or ordinance to hazardous electromagnetic radiation.

4.3.3 The MACS radars and GTA equipment must be submitted for frequency allocation/assignment IAW AFI 33-118, Radio Frequency Spectrum Management. To facilitate frequency changes required to support various deployments, the radar and radios system must be tunable over the appropriate frequency bands.

5. Program Support. The Joint Potential Designator is joint interest program.

5.1 Maintenance Planning. The implementing agency will conduct Repair Level Analysis trade studies to identify/optimize maintenance level and repair locations for each equipment item, down to the lowest replacement unit. Maintenance will be performed in accordance with (IAW)IAW the policy and guidance specified by the appropriate Maintenance Concept and Maintenance Plan. The Maintenance Concept, which is developed by the operating command in coordination with the supporting command, will provide those planned methods to be employed in order to keep the MACS at a level of readiness adequate to support operational requirements. The Maintenance Concept will guide the formulation of maintenance design characteristics needed to achieve the optimum balance between operational effectiveness and logistic support costs. The concept will employ two categories of maintenance (on-equipment and off-equipment) and two levels of maintenance repair (organizational and depot). These activities are defined as follows.

5.1.1 On-Equipment Maintenance. Those maintenance tasks personnel can effectively perform on or at the system or end item of equipment.

5.1.2 Off-Equipment Maintenance. Those maintenance tasks personnel cannot effectively accomplish on the installed equipment and therefore require removal to a shop or facility.

5.1.3 Organizational. Organizational maintenance tasks are normally performed using resources of an operating command at the organizationís operating location. Downtime shall be minimized by initiating remove/replace/repair actions as applicable. Maintenance will be conducted IAW established USAF equipment maintenance and support policies, instructions, and technical orders. On-site technicians perform both on-equipment and limited off-equipment maintenance. On-site on-equipment maintenance will typically consist of:

5.1.3.1 Servicing, alignment, lubrication and other preventive maintenance.

5.1.3.2 BIT/BITE fault analysis/diagnosis.

5.1.3.3 Troubleshooting using common test equipment.

5.1.3.4 Removal and replacement of Line Replaceable Units (LRUs).

5.1.3.5 Corrosion prevention and control.

5.1.3.6 Time compliance technical order (TCTO) changes.

5.1.3.7 Performance Testing.

5.1.3.8 Any other scheduled and unscheduled maintenance.

5.1.4 Depot. Those on/off equipment tasks performed using highly specialized skills, sophisticated shop equipment, or special facilities of a supporting command, commercial activity, or interservice agency. Maintenance performed at a depot may also include organizational as negotiated between operating and supporting commands. Depot level maintenance will be responsible for repair of all recoverable assemblies, subassemblies and components (LRUs) that exceed on-site maintenance capability. These tasks typically consist of:

5.1.4.1 Bench check and repair of unserviceable parts, LRUs, assemblies, subassemblies, and components.

5.1.4.2 Engineering of modifications.

5.1.4.3 Repair and calibration of specialized test mock-up equipment.

5.1.4.4 Modifications and installations of modifications requiring additional man-hours and/or facilities, equipment, or test equipment not available at the organizational level.

5.1.4.5 Bench check alignments.

5.1.4.6 Troubleshooting using general support equipment (SE), system specific SE, and automatic test equipment (ATE).

5.1.4.7 Corrosion prevention beyond on-site capabilities.

5.1.4.8 Maintenance and modification of software.

5.2 Support Equipment. Minimal reliance on external support equipment will be a goal for maintaining the MACS. If needed, common support equipment will be used to the maximum extent possible.

5.2.1 Built in Test/Fault Isolation (BIT/FI) detection rates must be 95% down to an ambiguity group of three LRUs or less using automatic mode and 99% down to one LRU using automatic and manual mode. On-site troubleshooting using all available means must achieve 100% fault isolation capability for all failures not detected and fault isolated to an LRU using BIT/FI. All performance routines and routines to check equipment certification parameters should be performed automatically. Extender cards should not be necessary for routine maintenance.

5.2.2 Test points must be adequate, accessible, and well labeled. Indicators and controls must be easy to read and interpret under operational and emergency lighting conditions. LRUs must be easy to remove and replace. No removable parts should be so located as to require removal of other components, except for access panels, to obtain access to the failed or removable part.

5.2.3 Any special tools or equipment to set up or tear down the system should be kept to a minimum and provided and stored with the system. This should include mobilizers (if required), jacks, levels, calibration tools and aids. This does not include common hand tools such as wrenches or screwdrivers, which will be deployed with the technicians, unless they are peculiar to the system. External test equipment should be kept to a minimum.

5.3 Human Systems Integration (HSI).

5.3.1 Manpower and Military Specialties. Manpower for operating the MACS will not be increased when compared to the AN/TPN-19 UTC. As a minimum, maintenance manpower will be reduced to the same number as the AN/MPN-14K UTC. One air traffic controller within the MACS deployment UTC must provide ATC automation support. This will not increase required MACS manpower.

5.3.2 Human Systems Integration. No special operating considerations other than specified by sound ergonomic design principles, including physical dimensions, placement of displays/controls, viewing areas, workspace layouts, environmental control, noise levels, and lighting, are necessary for human performance. The system will include environmental control units (ECUs) for equipment operation and human physiological needs. To ensure all requirements are considered, human systems integration analysis and documentation should be conducted IAW DoDI 5000.2-R.

5.3.3 Cognitive, physical, and sensory items. The multi-function displays must be free of flicker and easily viewed in normal ambient room lighting in order to enhance efficient ATC operations, for training, maintenance, and to preclude darkened room safety hazards. For system operation in a hostile environment, personnel must wear Chemical Biological Radiation protection clothing and equipment. Equipment design must be such that no maintenance or operations activities are hampered or unduly restricted when personnel are wearing chemical/biological or extreme cold weather protective clothing. With normal allowance for restrictions protective clothing cause, personnel wearing protective clothing should be able to attain reasonably extended setup and teardown time criteria.

      1. Training Concept. Prior to operational test and evaluation (OT&E), a training team composed of Contractor, Air, Education, and Training Command (AETC), Air Force Engineering and Technical Services (AFETS) and using command personnel shall develop and have available training, training support, and training support materials. The team will use the material to provide Type I training to an USAF designated cadre of experienced controllers and maintenance technicians prior to OT&E. The training team will provide Maintenance Qualification Training Packages for the training. The team should also provide initial training on the MACS operation and interfaces to 50 percent of the assigned gaining units controller and maintenance personnel prior to Full Operational Capability (FOC). As a minimum, this should include training on setup, teardown, and use of the equipment and site-level software adaptation procedures. Thereafter, all additional controllers and maintenance personnel will be trained by the initial cadre and AFETS personnel
      2. Safety or Health Considerations. System design should provide all major componentís signal and power lines with circuits and devices to protect the equipment from damage due to lightning-induced transients. Also, the capability to ground the MACS to provide lightning protection should be built into the system. The design and development of systems and support equipment shall include the latest safety, fire, and health technology to comply with AFOSH standards to the maximum extent possible within the scope of mission requirements. Interior safety lighting shall be provided in order to reduce safety hazards during power outages.

5.4 Computer Resources. Any new software developed for the system must be compatible with DAAS/STARS software and mirror DAAS/STARS functionality. The software support agency must be functional by system IOC, and must provide for update, configuration control, and management of all computer programs and data. All software must be patch free with no unresolved critical problems prior to operational use. To allow for future software changes, each computer system procured under this program should have 100% computer reserve capacity and growth capabilities, which is consistent with FAA reserve capacity requirements. Quality and non-non-proprietary software documentation and source code that facilitate software maintenance will be developed and delivered as part of each system. System acquisition must include all software support tools necessary to maintain and upgrade the software after the system is deployed. All software should support user-friendly operations and maintenance environment. Criteria must be established for the timing of software upgrade cycles, if needed, prior to system acceptance.

5.5 Other Logistics Considerations.

5.5.1 Spares. A thirty-day spares supply to restore critical failures will be maintained with the system. An analysis will be required to determine the types, numbers, and timing of spares purchases as well as the method of depot support (Contract Logistics Support or DoD depot). Prior to Initial Operational Capability (IOC) of the MACS, the using MAJCOM will be notified of any special test equipment that must be added to the allowance source and ensure such equipment is on hand. Expendable bench stock items should be identified and their availability assured prior to IOC of the system. Replenishment and distribution of inventory spares and repair parts will be through normal supply channels.

5.5.2 Technical Data. Organizational and depot technical data will be required in digital format (preferably on CD ROM) unless existing commercial manuals are available. If available and recommended for use, COTS manuals/operating instructions will be evaluated for adequacy. Any commercial manual adopted for use as a technical order must meet AF requirements. The objective is to provide the technical base for system operation including setup and teardown instructions, configuration, identification (including parts), maintenance, testing, and training. The AF will verify all data during OT&E. A separate guide with an easy to use outline of setup/teardown/repack instructions, interconnecting cable hook-ups, and system initialization/verification procedures will be provided. Any procedures required to be completed prior to actual operational use of the system should be included.

5.6 Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I).

5.6.1 During peacetime operations, the MACS communications equipment must be interoperable with the host wing command and control (C2) structure for fixed base operations. During wartime/contingency operations, communications equipment must be interoperable with current (TRI-TAC) and future(TDC) tactical communicationsTDC systems. Interoperability with these systems should be maintained through application of appropriate electronic systems standards. ATC systems operating in the electromagnetic spectrum should meet the electromagnetic compatibility requirements in accordance with appropriate DoD regulations.

5.6.2 Since the MACS will likely operate in foreign countries, interface and interoperability considerations with existing and potential allied ATC and C2 systems are necessary.

5.7 Transportation and Basing. Any solution must minimize transportation, handling, and setup requirements. A key measure of system effectiveness is airlift and other transportation requirements at the deployment site. More complete transportation information is contained in paragraph 4.1.5.6. The present locations of MPN-14Ks and TPN-19s should be able to satisfy MACS garrison requirements. However, the basing concept may change due to mission requirements.

5.8 Standardization, Interoperability, and Commonality.

5.8.1 The system will provide transparent coexistence with the domestic and international ATC/airspace systems. In order to achieve interoperability with fielded and proposed system(s), the requirements for this capability will conform to applicable information technology standards found in the Joint Technical Architecture. MACS must be able to import and export data with DoD and FAA systems.

5.8.2 The MACS operates autonomously except for links to the aircraft (radio, datalink, and transponder) and landline connections to adjacent ATC and other facilities, command post, base operations, control tower, base weather, fire crash, etc., when available. The MACS uses standard ATC UHF/VHF radio frequencies and the internationally accepted secondary radar beacon system standards. Internal interchange of modules between subsystem elements should be designed into equipment to the maximum extent possible.

    1. Geospatial Information and Services (GI&S) Support. The system must be capable of accepting National Imagery and Mapping Agency standard products. This will particularly apply to GPS and augmentations to the basic system. The standard datum is WGS-84 or NAD 83 but inputs/displays must be able to accommodate other datum and either display, or convert to different datums. The paper products should match the electronic version.

5.10 Environmental Support. The MACS will contain its own meteorological sensors and readouts providing wind direction and speed, barometric pressure, and temperature. No unique weather support information is essential for operations.

6. Force Structure. At least 18 MACS systems are required based on guidance received from HQ USAF/XO and SC via their 1996 Organization of Air Force Deployable Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (C4) and Deployable ATC and Landing Systems (DATCALS) Force Structure Program Guidance Letter (PGL). Current PGL distribution would be as follows: eight systems to active duty and 10 systems to ANG.

7. Schedule Considerations.

7.1 Initial Operational Capability. The USAF will declare IOC when the following actions occur.

7.1.1 The USAF must accept delivery of the first production system.

7.1.2 Operator personnel and maintenance personnel at the initial gaining unit must receive MACS orientation/training.

7.1.3 Category I deficiencies found during Initial Operational Testing & Evaluation must be corrected.

7.1.4 Depot support capabilities must be available, including sparing under the provision item order concept and familiarization training, if required, for depot maintenance personnel.

7.1.5 The software support agency must be functional and must provide for update, configuration control, and management of all computer programs and data.

7.2 Full Operational Capability. The USAF will declare FOC when the following requirements are met.

7.2.1 All systems must be delivered and accepted by gaining units.

7.2.2 Operator personnel and maintenance personnel at all gaining units must complete MACS orientation/training.

7.2.3 All system specific and common support equipment and finalized technical manuals must be available.

Attachment:

Requirements Correlation Matrix

Requirements Correlation Matrix Part I

As of: 15 Nov 98

Surveillance Subsystem

ORD I

ORD II

ORD III

System Capabilities and Characteristics

Threshold

Objective

Threshold

Objective

Threshold

Objective

1. Output Signal 4.1.1.1*

FAA Format

DoD Format (DAAS/STARS)

Digital

Yes

Yes

         

1. Output Signal 4.1.1.1*

FAA Format

DoD Format (DAAS)

Digital

Yes

Yes

         

2. Weather Processing 4.1.1.2

a. Calibrated Levels

b. Levels Reported/Displayed

c. Update (sec)

6

2

60

 

6

       

3. Coverage 4.1.1.3*

a. Elevation (degs)

(ft)

b. Azimuth (deg)

c. Range (nm)

0-30

0-20,000

360

0.5-60

         

3. Coverage 4.1.1.3*

a. Short range radar

1. Elevation (degs)

(ft)

2. Azimuth (deg)

  1. Range (nm)
  1. Long range radar
  1. Elevation (degs)
  2. (ft)

  3. Azimuth (deg)
  4. Range (nm)
  1. Mosaic mode

1. area of coverage

 

0-30

0-20,000

360

0.5-60

0-30

0-20,000

360

0.5-200

Yes

150x200 nm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

150x200 nm

       

4. Acquisition and Tracking 4.1.1.4*

a. Acquisition

b. Tracking

95%

99% acquired targets

98%

100%

       

5. Tracking Capability Over Clutter 4.1.1.5

SCV of 50% or greater

         

6. Target Capacity 4.1.1.6

400 a/c targets

300 non-a/c targets

         

7. False Targets (avg/scan) 4.1.1.7

1

         

8. Response time and Update Rate 4.1.1.8

a. Response Time (sec)

b. Update Rate (sec)

0.8 Maximum

Every 4.8 seconds

 

       

9. Accuracy 4.1.1.9

a. Range (ft)

b. Azimuth (deg)

275

0.16

         

10. Resolution 4.1.1.10

a. Range

b. Azimuth

 

760 ft

3 Degrees

(All Ranges)

 

2.5 Degrees

       

11. Wind Load 4.1.1.11

65 kt while operating

85 kt while operating

       

 

Requirements Correlation Matrix Part I

As of: 15 Nov 98

 

SSR Subsystem

ORD I

ORD II

ORD III

System Capabilities and Characteristics

Threshold

Objective

Threshold

Objective

Threshold

Objective

1. Output Signal 4.1.2.1*

a. Compatible w/DoD

b. Compatible w/FAA

Digital

Yes

Yes

         

2. Coverage 4.1.2.2*

a. Elevation (deg)

(ft)

b. Azimuth (deg)

c. Range (nm)

0-30

Sfc-40,000

360

120

 

 

 

200

       

3. Update Rate (sec) 4.1.2.3

Every 4.8 seconds

         

4. Target Processing Capacity (per scan) 4.1.2.4

400 a/c targets

300 non-a/c targets

         

5. False Targets (Avg/Scan) 4.1.2.5

1

         

6. Accuracy 4.1.2.6

a. Range (ft)

b. Azimuth (deg)

+/- 190

+/- 0.26

         

7. Resolution 4.1.2.7

a. Range Separation (ft)

b. Azimuth (deg)

Identical Targets

Different Targets

304

2.1

1.5

         

8. Detection and Validation 4.1.2.8*

99.0%

         

9. Wind Load 4.1.2.9

65 kt while operating

85 kt while operating

       

10. Upgrade to Mode S 4.1.2.10

Yes, to level 2

Yes, to level 4

       

 

 

Requirements Correlation Matrix Part I

As of: 15 Nov 98

 

Operations Subsystem

ORD I

ORD II

ORD III

System Wide Capabilities and Characteristics

Threshold

Objective

Threshold

Objective

Threshold

Objective

1. Controller Positions 4.1.3.1.1

a. Primary Controller

b. Assistant Controller

c. Supervisor/Coordinator

5

2

1 overhead

         

2. Multifunction Display 4.1.3.2

a. Display Type

b. Display Modes

Color flat panel

5

         

3. Communications *

a. GTA radios 4.1.3.3.1*

 

 

 

(1) Range

(2) Azimuth

(3) Elevation

b. Landlines 4.1.3.3.2*

(1) Number of lines

(2) Type of lines

(3) Configuration

(4) Interface

  1. Voice Recorder/Playback 4.1.3.3.3*

 

d. Radar and Tower Coordination System

4.1.3.3.4*

 

18 UHF/VHF multi-channel, multi-band, TDMA capable, HAVE-QUICK I & II

>60 nm

360 deg

Minimum 3,000í at 60 nm

 

30

DSN/Commercial

Dial, voice page, or ring

TRI-TAC and TDC equip

48 Channel Digital w/ separate playback

As required by AFI 13-203, Air Traffic Control

         

4. Automation 4.1.3.5

DAAS/STARS compatible

Dynamic simulation

         

4. Automation 4.1.3.5

DAAS compatible

Dynamic simulation

         

 

 

Requirements Correlation Matrix Part I

As of: 15 Nov 98

Precision Subsystem

ORD I

ORD II

ORD III

System Capabilities and Characteristics

Threshold

Objective

Threshold

Objective

Threshold

Objective

1. Runways Supported 1.2.2.3

2

4

       

2. Output Signal 4.1.4.1*

Digital

         

3. Coverage 4.1.4.2*

a. Elevation (degs)

b. Azimuth (deg)

c. Range (nm)

8 deg (-1 to +6)

21 deg (-10 to +10)

15

16 deg (-1 to +14)

31 deg (-15 to +15)

20

       

4. Acquisition and Tracking 4.1.4.3*

a. Acquisition

b. Tracking

95%

99% of acquired targets

98%

100%

       

5. Tracking Capability Over Clutter 4.1.4.4

SCV of 30 dB or greater

         

6. Target Capacity 4.1.4.5

6

         

7. False Targets (avg/scan) 4.1.4.6

1

         

8. Response time and Update Rate 4.1.4.7

a. Response Time (sec)

b. Update Rate (sec)

0.5

Every 1 second

0.1

Every Ĺ second

       

9. Accuracy 4.1.4.8

a. Elevation

b. Azimuth

c. Range

(Error at display)

Touchdown error < 10 ft

Touchdown error < 15 ft

Touchdown error < 100 ft

< 5 ft

< 10 ft

< 25 ft

       
  1. Scan Volume 4.1.4.8
  1. Elevation
  2. Azimuth
  3. Range

W/I scan volume < 20 ft

W/I scan volume < 30 ft

W/I scan volume < 100 ft

< 15 ft

< 20 ft

< 80 ft

       

10. Resolution 4.1.4.9

a. Elevation

b. Azimuth

c. Range

0.6 deg separation

1.2 deg separation

400 ft separation

0.3 deg

0.6 deg

100 ft

       

11. Wind Load 4.1.4.10

65 kts operating

85 kts while operating

       

 

Requirements Correlation Matrix Part I

As of: 15 Nov 98

MAC System

ORD I

ORD II

ORD III

System Wide Capabilities and Characteristics

Threshold

Objective

Threshold

Objective

Threshold

Objective

1. Data Transfer 4.1.5.1

Minimum of 2 methods (15,000 ft)

1 Wireless

         

2. Evacuation Alarm 4.1.5.2

All shelters

         

3. Weather Equipment 4.1.5.3

Wind direction and speed sensors for 2 runways (7000 ft transmission distance), barometric pressure, and temperature

Wind direction and speed sensors for 4 runways (14,000 ft transmission distance)

       

4. Setup Time 4.1.5.4

Teardown Time

3 hrs

6 hrs

2 hrs

4 hrs

       

5. Power Source 4.1.5.5

a. Primary

Backup

 

b. Uninterruptable Power Source

 

 

c. Prevent Data Loss

Commercial

Generator

 

All equipment for 20 minutes

 

Yes

 

 

 

 

       

6. Mobility

a. Air Transport 4.1.5.6.1

 

 

b. Road Transport 4.1.5.6.2

Fit on C-5, 17, 130, and 141. Maximum of 2 C-130 sorties

200 miles/highway speed/improved road & reduced speeds on unimproved roads/ cross-country

Maximum of 1

C-130 sortie

       

6. Mobility *

a. Air Transport 4.1.5.6.1

 

 

b. Road Transport 4.1.5.6.2

Fit on C-5, 17, 130, and 141. Maximum of 2 C-130 sorties

highway speed/improved road & reduced speeds on unimproved roads/ cross-country

Maximum of 1

C-130 sortie

       

Requirements Correlation Matrix Part I

As of: 15 Nov 98

 

MAC System

ORD I

ORD II

ORD III

System Capabilities and Characteristics

Threshold

Objective

Threshold

Objective

Threshold

Objective

7. Logistics and Readiness

  1. Operational Availability* 4.2.1
  2. Mean Time Between Failures 4.2.2
  3. Mean Time Between Critical Failures 4.2.2
  4.  

  5. Mean Repair Time 4.2.3
  6. Mean Time To Restore System

 

f. Maximum Repair Time

99.0% per month

Not less than 1500 hours

95% probability of success (no critical failures) within 30 days

Not exceed 30 min

Not exceed 2 hours for downing events

Not exceed 1.5 hours to 95th percentile

8. Physical Security 4.3.1.1

Cipher lock on external doors

REQUIREMENTS CORRELATION MATRIX

PART II

( Supporting Rationale for System Characteristics & Capabilities )

 

 

AS OF DATE: 15 Nov 98

DIGITAL AIRPORT SURVEILLANCE RADAR

Parameter 1: Output Signal. To provide the ability to perform interim mission support by deploying only the radar, the primary radar output format must be compatible with DoD/FAA digital radar automation systems.

Parameter 2: Weather Processing.. The FAA standard for radar weather service is full 6-level weather detection and reporting, calibrated according to National Weather Service defined levels. At a minimum, 2 levels must be reported and displayed simultaneously. Weather updates must occur at least every 60 seconds.

Parameter 3: Coverage. To support terminal area and special use airspace ATC operations, short range radar must provide azimuth coverage of 360 degrees, up to 20,000 feet minimum, and range coverage from 0.5 to 60 nm (for a beam elevation coverage zero to 30 degrees) is required.

degrees). Long range radar must meet the same specifications as the short range radar but must provide surveillance coverage 0..5 to 200 nautical miles. The system must also have the capability to display radar/beacon surveillance data in mosaic mode (multiple sensor input) in an area of coverage 150 X 200 nautical miles.

Parameter 4: Acquisition and Tracking. To receive basic ATC services, aircraft entering the controller's area of responsibility must be reliably acquired and tracked. Primary radars which acquire a one square meter Swerling one type target at 60nm with 95% probability in the clear provides an acceptable level of service. Tracking levels below 99% of acquired targets degrade the ATC systemís ability to control air traffic effectively within assigned airspace.

Parameter 5: Tracking Capability Over Clutter. The primary radar must be able to track moving targets imbedded in clutter. SCV levels below 50dB greatly diminish the primary radar system's ability to detect aircraft in clutter within the coverage volume and are unacceptable.

Parameter 6: Target Capacity. Based on current and projected traffic densities at DoD ATC facilities, the primary radar system must process minimum of 400 aircraft targets and 300 non-aircraft targets.

Parameter 7: False Targets. More than 1 report per scan will decrease the system's ability to properly track aircraft targets. The number of false targets must average no more than 1 per radar scan during normal conditions and no more than 10 during excessive clutter conditions.

Parameter 8: Response Time and Update Rate. The primary radar must process target data in a timely fashion or aircraft position data appearing on the controllersí displays will not reflect the true real time aircraft position. The FAA standard for radar data processing response time is <0.8 seconds. Current primary radars provide aircraft detection updates at intervals of 4.8 seconds, which is adequate to support terminal area ATC requirements.

Parameter 9: Accuracy Range and Azimuth: The range accuracy must not exceed an error of Ī 1/32nm bias and 200 ft root mean squared (RMS) jitter (combined RMS 275 ft) for aircraft target with median signal to noise ratio greater than 30 dB. The radar system must achieve an azimuth accuracy of 0.16 degrees RMS for aircraft target with median signal to noise ratio greater than 30 dB.

Parameter 10: Resolution. To ensure adequate discrimination between closely spaced targets in the radar coverage area, the primary radar must provide acceptable range and azimuth resolution. The range resolution of the primary radar must be 760 ft or less. In azimuth, the radar must be able to detect as separate targets aircraft separated by three degrees at all ranges.

Parameter 11: Antenna Wind Bearing Capability. The radar must operate when the antenna is subjected to wind speeds of up to 65 kts (threshold, 85 kts objective) to support all ATC operational environments.

SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR

Parameter 1: Output Signal. To provide the ability to perform interim mission support, the secondary radar output format must be compatible with existing and future DoD and FAA automation systems.

Parameter 2: Coverage. These requirements are necessary for the system to provide terminal ATC service and secondary air defense functions.

Parameter 3: Update Rate. Based on current systems, the nominal radar update rate must be 4.8 sec to support mission requirements.

Parameter 4: Target Capacity. Based on the maximum traffic density, a minimum target capacity of 400 aircraft targets and 300 non-aircraft targets is required to support mission requirements.

Parameter 5: False Targets. The secondary radar must produce an average of no more than one false target per radar scan to ensure controllers do not misidentify an aircraft under their control.

Parameter 6: Accuracy. The secondary surveillance radar must provide sufficient range and azimuth accuracy to support terminal ATC separation standards. The system must provide, at a minimum, a range accuracy of 190 ft. and azimuth accuracy of 0.26 degrees. The FAA Mode S standards are range accuracy of 40 ft. and azimuth accuracy of 0.068 degrees.

Parameter 7: Resolution. To ensure adequate discrimination between two closely separated targets in the radar coverage area, the secondary surveillance radar must provide, at minimum, a range resolution of 304 ft and azimuth resolution of 2.1 degrees for identical targets and 1.5. for dissimilar targets.

Parameter 8: Detection and Validation. To receive basic ATC services, aircraft entering the controllers' area of responsibility must be reliably detected. A probability detection of 99.0% supports mission requirements. The FAA's Mode S standard is 99.0%.

Parameter 9: Wind Load. The secondary radar must operate when the antenna is subjected to wind speeds of up to 65 kts (threshold and 85 kts objective) to support all ATC operational environments.

Parameter 10: Mode S. System must be upgradeable to Mode S to operate in host nation ATC environments.

OPERATIONS SYSTEM

Parameter 1: Controller Positions. These positions represent the minimum number of positions required to provide safe terminal approach control services in contingency situations, interim mission support, and major theater wars.

Parameter 2: Multifunction Displays.

a. Display Type. Flat panel displays are required to limit the amount of space and weight allocated to system displays. Color is required to accurately depict the weather data supplied by the digital airport surveillance radar.

b. Display Modes. These modes represent all the types of display information required for the system to perform its mission. Having one display handle all five modes eliminates the need for individual systems and reduces overall system weight.

Parameter 3: Communications.

a. G/A Radios (Radio Range, Azimuth and Altitude). Fully robust radio communications are required for the MACS to provide ATC service under all mission scenarios. HAVE QUICK radios are the standard in the existing mobile approach controls. These are necessary for controllers to be able contact aircraft prior to entering the approach controlís airspace.

b. Communications Switch.

(1) Number of Lines. This number of lines will provide controllers with primary and secondary methods of contacting base agencies and adjacent ATC facilities.

(2) Type of Lines. These represent the two classes of lines required to contact outside agencies.

(3) Configuration. These represent the types of landlines required to conduct ATC operations. Being able to configure system lines for any type of service provides the capability to handle the vast majority of mission situations.

(4) Interface. To operate effectively in a combat environment, the system must interface with the current and projected USAF deployable communications system.

c. Radar and Tower Coordination System. This system is required by AFI 13-203, Air Traffic Control. It will enable deployed radar controllers to coordinate quickly and safely with deployed tower controllers for sequencing and spacing of inbound aircraft. It allows immediate visual and aural coordination and allows tower controllers to "break outí or issue "go around" instructions for approaching aircraft. This is a safety of flight requirement.

d. Voice Recorder and Playback. Although emergency operations do not require voice recording equipment, full ATC operations require recording of all communications to and from the MACS. This capability is present in current deployable systems. Forty-eight channels are required.

Parameter 4: Automation. Compatibility with DAAS/STARS will ensure maximum interoperability between fixed and mobile assets. Also, it will provide controllers the same capabilities they have in their fixed facilities. This familiarity will improve flight safety. The dynamic imbedded simulation capability will provide the ability to train controllers on simulated traffic rather than live trafficóa capability not available in current USAF mobile systems. Independent voice recognition capability will allow controllers to train individually without assistance from pseudo-pilots.

 

PRECISION APPROACH RADAR

Parameter 1: Output Signal. To provide the ability to perform interim mission support by deploying only the radar, the primary radar output format must be compatible with existing DoD digital radar display devices.

Parameter 2: Coverage. These parameters are required to adequately support precision approach operations in deployed locations. They reflect operational requirements for ATC and current industry capabilities.

Parameter 3: Acquisition and Tracking. To receive precision approach radar services, aircraft entering the controller's area of responsibility must be reliably detected. Precision radars which acquire a one square meter Swerling one type target at 15nm with 95% probability in the clear and track 99% of acquired targets provides an acceptable level of service.

Parameter 4: Tracking Capability Over Clutter. The precision radar must be able to detect moving targets imbedded in clutter. Levels below 30dB greatly diminish the precision approach radar system's ability to detect aircraft in clutter within the coverage volume and are unacceptable.

Parameter 5: Target Capacity. Based on current and projected traffic densities at deployed ATC locations, the precision approach radar system must process minimum of six aircraft targets.

Parameter 6: False Targets. More than 1 report per scan will decrease the system's ability to properly track aircraft targets in the critical final approach phase of flight. The number of false targets must average no more than 2 per radar scan.

Parameter 7: Response Time and Update Rate. The precision approach radar must process target data in a timely fashion or aircraft position data appearing on the controllersí displays will not reflect the true real time aircraft position. The current requirement for precision radar data processing response time is 0.5 seconds. Detection updates at intervals of one second are required for precision final approaches.

Parameter 8: Accuracy Range and Azimuth: These parameters are required to ensure the accuracy of approach information provided to pilots during the critical final approach phase of flight.

Parameter 9: Resolution. To ensure adequate discrimination between succeeding aircraft on final approach for landing, the precision radar must provide acceptable elevation, azimuth, and range resolution. These parameters are vital to controllers providing PAR service to multiple aircraft on final approach.

Parameter 10: Antenna Wind Bearing Capability. The radar must operate when the antenna is subjected to wind speeds of up to 65 kts (threshold, 85 kts objective) to support all ATC operational environments.

SYSTEM WIDE CAPABILITIES AND CHARACTERISITCS

Parameter 1: Data Transfer. A minimum of two methods of data transfer are required to ensure data transfer in any terrain situation encountered and to provide an immediate backup capability in the event the primary method fails. The equipment must provide data transfers up to 15,000 feet and one of the systems must be wireless.

Parameter 2: Evacuation Alarm. Evacuation alarms are required on all equipment located on or within 750í of a runway. Due to the mission of the system, all or part of the system could be positioned within the 750í of the runway.

Parameter 3: Weather Equipment. In a bare-base scenario, the MACS' onboard altimeter may be the only means of supplying this information, and is needed to ensure flight safety. Further, departing and arriving aircraft must know the direction and strength of winds on the runway and the local temperature to calculate takeoff data and execute safe takeoffs and landings. This requirement will enable ATC personnel to supply this information in the absence of adequate weather station support.

Parameter 4: Setup time. The required times will ensure the system is capable of providing ATC services in a timely manner, in all deployment situations. The threshold is three hours and objective is six hours.

Parameter 5: Power Source. The system will deploy with generators; however, it will use commercial power if it is available. Therefore, the system must be capable of using both. The Uninterruptable Power Source (UPS) must ensure continuous availability of all equipment for at least 20 minutes, or until electrical power is restored via commercial power or generator. To ensure operations continue with minimal impact during the loss of primary power, the radar system itself must have provisions to prevent critical data loss.

Parameter 6: Mobility.

a. Air Transport. This requirement ensures the system will fit on any aircraft in the USAF airlift inventory. The C-130 is especially important because the C-130 is the primary intra-theater airlift.

b. Road Transport. The capability for ground mobility on and off road will allow the MACS to be quickly positioned once it arrives on base. It will allow the MACS to be driven to its operating location using either unimproved roads or, if necessary, by crossing moderately rough open terrain. The objective to travel at normal highway speeds on paved roads will enable the MACS to be driven from its storage location to embarkation point, or from its debarkation point to its operating location.

Parameter 7: Logistics and Readiness

a. Operational Availability. An operational availability of 99% is the USAF standard for mobile equipment.

Parameter 8: Physical Security. Required to meet minimum security levels for controllers in a deployed location.