NBC Reconnaissance Vehicle
1. General Description of Operational Capability.
a. Mission Area. The Interim Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) will potentially operate in a nuclear, chemical, and biological (NBC) environment, which could include weaponized agents, toxic industrial hazards, and battlefield residues. The NBC Reconnaissance Vehicle must be capable of hosting existing and planned NBC detection capabilities to "enable our Divisions to dominate across the full spectrum of operations"... and ... "prosecute war with an intensity that wins." The Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Integrated Detection System (CBRIDS) will be the principal manned, automated NBC reconnaissance, surveillance, monitoring, marking, reporting, and sampling system for the maneuver force commander. CBRIDS missions will include the conduct of NBC and Toxic Industrial Material (TIM) reconnaissance operations across the spectrum of conflict.
b. Operational and Organizational Concept. CBRIDS will provide NBC situational awareness and Detect to Warn via cooperative NBC networks and reconnaissance to increase the combat power of the deployed force, and to minimize force effectiveness degradation under NBC conditions. This enhanced capability to see and avoid contamination through extending battlespace time results in a significant improvement in "Protect the Force" capability. The core of the CBRIDS will be its on-board integrated NBC sensor suite. The CBRIDS will perform NBC reconnaissance (route and area/zone reconnaissance on primary and secondary roads and cross-country), NBC surveys (to determine limits of contamination), and NBC surveillance, as directed by the Maneuver Force Commander, to shield forces deployed within the theater battlespace and obtain NBC/TIM information within the area of operations (AO). The CBRIDS will replace the need for separate M93A1 Fox NBC Reconnaissance Systems and Biological Detection Systems (BIDS) in select Chemical organizations throughout the Force, to include the NBC Reconnaissance Platoon, SRC 03-XXX, within the IBCT. The platoon will comprise four CBRIDS, the entire allotment for each IBCT. The systems are supported at unit level and by direct support/general support maintenance in support of the IBCT. Contractor Logistics Support (CLS) may support NBC sensors. The sensor network will provide real-time digitized data through radio frequency and/or satellite links to the NBC Center to provide operational NBC situational understanding and detailed hazard analysis. Detection, identification, and sampling of chemical, biological, and radiological agents in solid, liquid, and gaseous states enables the commander to mitigate risk and maximize combat power of deployed forces. The surveillance capability, enhanced by the remote NBC sensor suite, will provide the maneuver force commander with a Detect to Warn capability. Remote sensors also address reconnaissance challenges due to complex and urban terrain. This will enhance the commanderís ability to assess courses of action and take early appropriate action to minimize the threat.
3. Shortcomings of Existing Systems. The M93A1 Fox was purchased in limited quantities and is in need of upgrade or replacement. There is no other existing capability that provides integrated NBC capabilities onto a single reconnaissance platform.
4. Capabilities Required.
a. System Performance. The NBC Reconnaissance Vehicle must be capable of hosting existing and planned NBC detection capabilities to detect, identify, and sample NBC agents and selected TIMs throughout the battlespace using available point, standoff, and remote systems, and to preserve agent samples for the National Command Authorities (NCA).
(1) The NBC Reconnaissance Vehicle (CBRIDS) is based on the ICV variant.
Rationale: The NBC Reconnaissance is based on the ICV due to the close parallels of operational requirements between the two vehicles. The NBC Reconnaissance is an organic vehicle to the IBCT maneuver formation and helps maximize commonality of the platform while simultaneously reducing the maintenance footprint and variety of logistics support.
(2) The following mission package will be integrated into the ICV:
(a) Integrate the MM-1 mass spectrometer on-board to provide a mounted sensor capable of detecting and identifying chemical agents and selected TIMs on the ground and in the air, at or below lethal concentrations.
Rationale: Threat forces are capable of employing persistent and nonpersistent chemical agents, and TIM hazards may exist on the battlefield. Chemical point detectors allow units to implement contamination avoidance, provide warning, and provide information delineating chemical hazards through specific identification of chemical agents and survey to determine the extent of contamination.
(b) Integrate a vehicle-mounted Automatic Chemical Agent Detector/Alarm (ACADA) to continuously monitor the exterior and interior of the CBRIDS for chemical agent and selected TIM contamination.
Rationale: Interior and exterior monitoring is essential for crew survivability and equipment functionality. Hazards exist from collective protection failures or from compromises in the sampling detection or identification systems (e.g., sample probe leaks, vehicle seal failure).
(c) Integrate the AN/VDR-77 to operate in a vehicle-mounted or dismounted mode (includes a hand-held radiation monitor with independent display and interfaces with the common user display).
Rationale: Threat forces are capable of employing nuclear and radiological weapons. Radiation point sensors allow units to implement contamination avoidance, provide warning, and provide information on prompt radiation and radiological hazards. Readings also provide data for breakdown rates and to anticipate effects on personnel. Low and high radiation dose scales are required to obtain well-defined information for medical treatment and preventive measures, as well as tracking the effects of the these weapons.
(d) Integrate a vehicle-mounted M-21 Remote Standoff Chemical Agent Alarm (RSCAAL) that provides an on-board rotating standoff chemical detector that will detect and classify chemical agents.
Rationale: A standoff system extends the detection and monitoring range of the CBRIDS platform, particularly in open terrain, thus supporting Detect to Warn, increasing flexibility in placement of the CBRIDS, enhancing vehicle survivability, and reducing the chance of crew and vehicle contamination. This allows the employment of fewer NBC assets over a larger operating area without exposing the vehicle or crew to associated hazards while increasing unit reaction time to hazards.
(e) Provide an NBC positive overpressure system that minimizes cross-contamination of samples and detection instruments, provides crew protection, and allows extended operations at MOPP 0. Also provide a climate control system that furnishes both heating and air-conditioning for the vehicle.
Rationale: The nature of NBC reconnaissance requires that on-board instrumentation and confirmatory samples must be protected from cross-contamination to eliminate false negative or false positive results. The crew will likely operate for significant periods of time in a lethal contaminated environment. The vehicle overpressure system protects both crew and samples, and allows for safer and more efficient operation of the NBC sensor suite.
(f) The platform will have a sample collection capability to reach the ground and retrieve samples (solids, liquids, and vapors) while maintaining overpressure and without requiring the crew to egress the vehicle into a contaminated environment. CBRIDS will have a sample storage capability for at least 24 NBC samples of 25 milliliters each without requiring the crew to egress the vehicle or expose them to a contaminated environment.
Rationale: Sampling provides material for the National Command Authorities. Sampling also provides material for laboratory analysis for the identification of biological, chemical, and TIM agents. Internal CBRIDS sampling operations protect crewmembers from possible exposure. 25-milliliter sample size allows for triple splitting of a sample for retesting and independent verification. Storage for 24 samples is required to conduct 6 missions (three route and three area/zone), with a requirement of 4 samples per mission (one control and three live samples).
(g) Provide for a crew size of not more than four.
Rationale: CBRIDS will integrate improved capabilities now being performed by M93A1 Fox and BIDS. Estimated crew requirements include driver, commander, mass spectrometer operator, and sampling operator.
(h) Provide a printer capability for hard-copy analytical data of reconnaissance and sampling operations.
Rationale: A hard-copy printout of data is a necessary record of NBC events, and serves as a legal record. Printed records will endure when electronically stored records are lost due to systemic failures and/or EMI events.
(i) Integrate a meteorological system that provides measurements of ground temperature, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and atmospheric pressure while on the move.
Rationale: Meteorological data assists the vehicle commander in determining vehicle and sensor placement and effectiveness. Weather reports for the general area are inadequate in dealing with the microclimates encountered in a specified Named Area of Interest (NAI).
(j) The CBRIDS communications system will provide for secure, jam-resistant, voice and data communications on multiple nets. The communications system must also allow direct contact with any deployed Theater Army Medical Lab (TAML) for the transmission of characteristics of detected known and unknown chemical and biological agents. The sensor network will provide real-time digital data to the NBC Center to assist in providing theater-wide NBC situational understanding and detailed hazard analysis.
Rationale: At least two secure nets are required to communicate simultaneously with the maneuver force and with the NBC Network (TAML, Division Chemical Sections, etc.). Additionally, communications with remote sensors is critical to mission accomplishment.
5. Program Support.
6. Force Structure. Projected Army initial requirement to fielded units is 20 CBRIDS, with four each in five IBCTs.
8. Program Affordability.