TABLE OF CONTENTS

FIGURES
TABLES
CHEMICAL AND MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS
ACRONYMS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1 INTRODUCTION

2 PROPERTIES, CHARACTERISTICS AND LIFE CYCLE OF URANIUM USED BY THE ARMY 3 THE DU LIFE CYCLE IN THE ARMY 4 COMBAT AND POST-COMBAT DU ISSUES 5 PREVIOUS DU STUDIES 6 HEALTH ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH U.S. ARMY USE OF DU 7 ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH U.S. ARMY USE OF DU AND WAYS TO REDUCE THEIR LONG-TERM EFFECTS› 8 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS APPENDIX A - SUMMARY REPORT TO CONGRESS
APPENDIX B - LOCATIONS INVOLVING DU RESEARCH, TESTING, STORAGE›
GLOSSARY
REFERENCE LIST


FIGURES

2-1 The Uranium-238 Daughter Products 10
2-2 The Uranium-235 Daughter Products 11
2-3 Uranium/Depleted Uranium Life Cycle 20
3-1 120 mm DU Round 27
3-2 Defense Systems Acquisition Process 28
3-3 Cartridges that Contain DU Penetrators 39
3-4 Intact and Broken DU Penetrators 43
3-5 Catch Box at USACSTA 44
3-6 Bomb Throwing Device Range 44
3-7 Superbox at FordŪs Farm 45
3-8 Decontamination Facility at BTD Range 46
3-9 Uniform Shielding Block 47
3-10 Jefferson Proving Ground 48
3-11 Yuma Proving Ground 50
3-12 Aberdeen Proving Ground 53
3-13 Policies and Procedures Pertaining to DU Handling, Storage and Use 57
3-14 30-Container Pallet of DU Ammunition Rounds 58
3-15 Contaminated Soil Awaiting Disposal at YPG 68
3-16 DU Penetrator in Dense Vegetation at JPG 69
4-1 DU Entry Holes in Bustle 77
4-2 Fire and Detonation Damage 78
4-3 144th Service and Supply CompanyŪs Central Receiving and Storage Point 82
4-4 Iraqi Armored Car 84
4-5 Destroyed Bradley Fighting Vehicle 86
4-6 Packaging of M1 Abrams for Shipping Back to DCF 87
6-1 Embedded DU Fragments 116
7-1 pe-pH Diagram for Uranium 139
7-2 Bacteria Reducing Soluble and Insoluble DU 143
7-3 Terrestrial Pathway at APG and JPG 149
7-4 Aquatic Pathway at APG 150
7-5 Terrestrial Pathway at YPG 151
7-6 DU TRUCleanTM Process 158



TABLES

2-1 Components of Naturally Occurring Uranium 8
2-2 The Uranium-238 Decay Series 13
2-3 The Uranium-235 Decay Series 15
2-4 Naturally Occurring Uranium Compared with the Depleted Uranium Used›by DoD 24
3-1 Environmental Documentation for Army Systems with DU 33
3-2 Depot Maintenance Work Requirements Documentation 64
6-1 Comparison of the Relative Radiation Dose per Unit Mass Internalized, for DU and Other Substances› 104
6-2 Comparison of the OSHA Time Weighted Average Values for the Elements Listed for Inhalation Exposures 108
6-3 Uranium Content of the Body from Natural Sources 110
7-1 1992 DU Disposal and Recycling Operations at Aberdeen Proving Ground 171


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