Big Bullets for Beginners




 
UNITED STATES ARMY
FIELD ARTILLERY SCHOOL
FORT SILL, OKLAHOMA
 

(M102, M119, M198, M109A2-A5, 109A6)

ANNEX C
HCXTAA
LP
JAN 99
 
LESSON PLAN
 

INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT: Introduction to Field Artillery Ammunition.

CLEARANCE: None.     ACCESS: No restrictions.

CRITICAL TASKS TAUGHT: 061-266-1508 Prepare Ammunition for Firing.

TYPE: Conference, Demonstration, and Practical Exercise.

TIME ALLOTTED: 120 minutes (2 Hours).

CLASS PRESENTED TO: 13B10 Field Artillery Cannon Crewmember.

TOOLS, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS:

96 Slides (Power Point 4.0)

STUDENT ISSUE: None.

PERSONNEL: One primary instructor for lecture and one instructor per 16 students during demonstration and PE.

TRAINING AIDS:

REFERENCES:
          FM 6-50
          TM 9-1015-211-10
          TM 9-1015-234-10
          TM 9-1015-252-10
          TM 9-2350-311-10
          TM 9-2350-314-10
          TM 43-0001-28
          ST 6-50-19

STUDY ASSIGNMENT: None

STUDENT UNIFORM AND EQUIPMENT: Seasonal duty uniform.

TROOP REQUIREMENTS: None

TRANSPORTATION REQUIREMENTS: None

ADVANCE ARRANGEMENTS: Ensure that board work is set up at least 30 minutes prior to the start of class. Exact number of students must be known in order to prepare seating arrangements.

CONDUCT OF CLASS: Total time is 120 minutes. Demonstration will not exceed 30 minutes and the Practical exercise will not exceed 90 minutes.



SECTION I

1.   ATTENTION STEP:

          The destructive force of the Field Artillery has dominated battlefields for centuries. The weapons used to deliver this destructive power are very important to the accomplishment of the Field Artillery mission, but of equal importance is the tool of destruction, the ammunition. The weapon system enables us to deliver our payload accurately to the target while the ammunition employed produces the desired effect. For many years the only effect artillery had on the target area was immediate destruction. Through continuous research and application of improved technology, artillery ammunition has evolved into a multifaceted tool for the maneuver commander and can produce many different effects on the target area. These range from total destruction of a target area to obscuration of friendly troop movements and activities.

2. NEED TO KNOW:

          With ever-changing technology comes a continual flow of new munitions and new ways of using it. As a cannon crewmember in the Field Artillery one of our most important tasks is being able to readily identify our main tools of destruction… the ammunition. With the correct assembly, we are capable of creating maximum destruction on a wide variety of enemy targets.

3. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE:

          You will be able to identify the components of a complete round of artillery ammunition, determine the different types and nomenclature of primers, propellants, projectiles, and shell/fuze combinations.

4. SAFETY STATEMENT:

          a. Hearing protection.

          b. Smoking.

         c. Authorized shell/fuze combinations.

          d. Handling of class demos.

5. RISK ASSESSMENT: Low

6. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS: None

7. PREREQUISITES: None



Section II

EXPLANATION



Instructor note: (Introduce the Instructor and the Assistant Instructor.)

1.   The references that apply to artillery ammunition are TM 43-0001-28 with changes, the technical manual (-10) for the howitzer system.

       (Slide #1) The Field Artillery has the proud reputation of being the number one casualty producer on the modern battlefield. This distinction has earned us the grand name of "The King of Battle". The Field Artillery is so powerful due to the wide variety of ammunition available for us to perform our mission.

       (Slide #2) The mission of the Field Artillery is to destroy, neutralize, or suppress the enemy by cannon, rocket, and missile fires and to integrate all supporting fires into combined arms operations.

       (Slide #3) Only through training and proper supervision can we maintain our casualty producing efficiency, thereby delivering the firepower at the decisive time and place on the battlefield. This class will teach you the basics of using artillery ammunition safely and properly.

       (Slide #4) Ammunition will not cause the desired effects on the target unless the proper shell/fuze combination is selected and assembled. It is necessary that all Field Artilleryman recognize the different types of propellants, projectiles, fuzes, and their proper use, so that we are capable of creating maximum destruction on a wide variety of enemy targets.

ELO 1: Identify the Four Components of a Complete Round.

       (Slide #5) (ST 6-50-19 pg. 3-1) The four components of a complete round of artillery ammunition are:

          a. Primer. When the firing pin strikes the primer, it ignites the propellant.

          b. Propellant. The rapid expansion of gases caused by the burning propellant propels the projectile from the tube toward the target.

          c. Projectile. The projectile carries the destructive elements; which creates the desired effects in the target area.

          d. Fuze. The fuze initiates an explosive train in the projectile causing the projectile to produce the desired effects.

ELO 2: Identify Semi-fixed ammunition and Separate Loading Ammunition.

          ST 6-50-19 pg. 3-3 & 3-4.

          a. (Slide #6) Artillery ammunition can be classified in many ways. One classification is base on the manner in which the components are assembled for loading and firing. Complete rounds of artillery ammunition are known as either semi-fixed or separate loading. An M16 round is a type of FIXED ammunition (you cannot adjust the amount of propellant in the cartridge case).

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Remove one 105mm fiber from the wooden crate. Place the 105MM fiber on the table, with the "heavy end" (projectile) placed on the table first. Remember; the demo canister is actually heavier than the demo projectile!

          b. Semi-fixed ammunition is used in 105mm howitzers. The ammunition is shipped in a wooden crate, with two fiber tubes in each crate. The fiber tubes are sealed at each end with tape. Upon removing the tape, the cannoneer will place the heavy end down first, and remove the projectile from the fiber tube. Next, the cartridge case is removed. Both the projectile and canister MUST REMAIN in their fiber cups until firing.

          c. Semi-fixed ammunition is characterized by an adjustable propelling charge. The propellant is divided into increments, or charges, and each increment of propellant is contained in a cloth bag. All of the cloth bags are held together by an acrylic cord, and are stored in the cartridge case. The primer is an integral part of the cartridge case, and is located on the base. Semi-fixed ammunition may be issued fuzed or unfuzed.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Not all 105mm is semi-fixed, the HEAT-T (M622) is fixed. TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-28.1)

          d. Separate loading ammunition has four separate components: primer, propellant, projectile, and fuze. The four components are issued separately. Upon preparation for firing, the projectile and propellant are loaded into the howitzer in two separate operations. Separate loading ammunition is used in 155mm howitzers.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: As you discuss separate loading ammunition, show the students each of the separate items.

ELO 3: Explain the Explosive Trains. (Slide #7)(ST 6-50-19 pg. 3-4)

          a. Artillery ammunition does not perform its intended purpose while it is stored in the battery area. We must deliver the proper ammunition from the cannon to the target area. This is accomplished through the use of an explosive train.

          b. An explosive train is a designed arrangement of a series of explosives beginning with a small quantity of sensitive explosive and progressing through a relatively large quantity of comparatively insensitive, though powerful, explosive.

          c. (Slide #8) There are two explosive trains in each conventional round of artillery ammunition; the PROPELLING CHARGE EXPLOSIVE TRAIN, and the PROJECTILE EXPLOSIVE TRAIN. The projectile reaches the target area by the power obtained from the propelling charge explosive train. The function of the projectile in the target area depends on the type of projectile explosive train.

ELO: 4 Discuss the propelling charge explosive train (ST 6-50-19 pg. 3-5).

       (Slide # 9) The propelling charge explosive train consists of the primer, igniter, and propellant. We will now discuss each of these components in greater detail, beginning with the primer.

ELO: 5 Discuss the function of the Primer (ST 6-50-19 pg. 3-5).

       (Slide #10) The propelling charge explosive train is initiated by the primer, which is a small amount of very sensitive explosive. The primer is very sensitive to shock, friction, spark, and heat, and must be kept protected and away from other ammunition components.

          a.(Slide #11) In semi-fixed ammunition, the primer is located in the center of the base of the canister, which hold the propellant. (SHOW THE STUDENTS THE DEMO 105MM CANISTER).

          b. When inspecting the primer, ensure it is flush with the base of the canister. If it were raised from the base of the canister, it could interfere with the closing of the breech, and may cause premature ignition of the explosive train. If the primer were indented from the base of the canister, the firing pin may not be able to properly strike the primer. Inspect the primer for pits, rust, or corrosion on the base of the projectile canister. Normal brown oxidation is acceptable. However, if any other discoloration is found the canister should be rejected. Finally, inspect to ensure that the primer has not been previously fired.

          c. In separate loading ammunition, the primer is a separate item of issue.

       (Slide #12) The M82 primer consists of a brass case, a base, and is sealed on the end with a wax substance. It is used on 155mm howitzers. DISPLAY PRIMER TO THE STUDENTS. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 8-49.)

          d. (Slide #13) Inspection criteria for the M82 include checking the primer for rust, pits and corrosion. Normal brown oxidation is acceptable. Ensure the primer has not been fired and the end is sealed to keep the black powder in the primer.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The M82 primer is a cylindrical brass case with an extraction flange base, and a container loaded with 22 grains of black powder.

ELO 6: Discuss the Igniter (ST 6-50-19 pg. 3-5)

       (Slide #14) The igniter provides hot flaming gases and particles to ignite the propelling charge. The igniter consists of black powder or Clean Burning Igniter (CBI). The igniter is very hygroscopic and subject to rapid deterioration on absorption of moisture. If kept dry, however, it retains its explosive properties indefinitely.

          a. (Slide #15) The igniter for semi-fixed ammunition is an integral part of the primer. It consists of a perforated tube filled with black powder (Slide #16) and is permanently mounted in the cartridge case. (SHOW THE STUDENTS THE DEMO 105MM CANISTER).

       Inspection criteria: Ensure that the igniter tube is centered in the cartridge case; not loose, bent, or broken; and that the holes are sealed to keep the filler inside the igniter tube. Light brown oxidation is acceptable.

          b.(Slide #17) In separate loading ammunition, the igniter is in a circular red pancake shaped bag sewn to the base increment of the propellant. When ignited by the primer, the igniter sends hot flaming gases around the charge to ignite the propellant (DISPLAY RED IGNITER TO THE STUDENTS).

       Inspection criteria: Check for rips or tears, ensure the igniter is properly sewn to the base increment and determine if there are lumps caused by moisture. If any of these conditions exist, the charge should be rejected. It should have a sandy, gritty feeling.

ELO 7: Discuss the Propellants.

(INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The minimum information presented to students is caliber, number of increments, type of propellant (single, multi-perforated, or slotted-stick), and any safety restrictions that apply for that particular propellant/weapon combination.)

       (Slides #18 & 19) A propellant is a large amount of insensitive but powerful explosive that propels the projectile to the target.

          a. (Slide #20) Semi-fixed ammunition propellant is generally issued with seven increments numbered 1 through 7, and connected by a thin acrylic cord. Each increment is a different size because each increment has a different premeasured amount of propellant. Increment 1 and 2 are single perforated and increments 3-7 are multi-perforated. (DISPLAY THE INCREMENTS TO THE STUDENTS).

       Inspection: Remove the seven increments to ensure all are present and are in proper numerical order. Check the increments for rips, tears, lumps, or any discoloration caused by moisture. Charge 5 includes a layer of lead foil, which act as a decoppering agent to prevent copper build-up in the tube during firing. Feel and smell the propellant; a urine-like smell or lumpiness indicates moisture in the propellant.

INSTRUCTORS NOTE: After inspecting show how to repack the M67 canister with 105mm propellant. Show how to cut a charge and repack the propellant into the canister in the proper numerical sequence using a "washing machine fashion." The additional increment(s) remain outside the cartridge case until the section chief verifies the correct charge to be fired. Explain briefly dangers of what happens during firing with additional increments.) Display the additional 105mm powders M200 (Slide 21), M174 (Slide 22), and M229(Slide 23).

          b. Separate loading ammunition propellants are issued as a separate unit of issue in sealed canisters to protect the propellant. Discuss the inspection of the canister. Explain that the canister should be sealed. Show key information on exterior of canister (propellant type & lot).

                    (1)      155mm:

                           Green Bag, M3A1, (Slide #24) Propellant is designed for firing charges 1 through 5. The propellant is fastened together with four cloth straps sewn to the base and hand tied on top of increment 5. The igniter pad (3.5 oz. CBI) is located on the base increment. The entire M3A1 propellant contains approximately 5.5 pounds of single perforated neutral burning powder. DISPLAY PROPELLANT TO THE STUDENTS. There are flash reducers containing potassium sulfate or potassium nitrate sewn forward of charges 1 (2 oz. pad), 4 and 5 (1 oz. pad each). Explain that each increment varies in size and also explain the purpose and function of flash reducers. The flash reducers limit breech flare back, muzzle flash, and blast over-pressure.

INSTRUCTORS NOTE: Cut a charge, twist the tie ends, and tuck under as you would a loaf of bread. Discuss procedures and commands used to load propellant into tube; I.E., I see red, close, prime. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 8-5)

                           White Bag, M4A2. (Slide #25) This propellant is designed for charges 3 through 7. Their basic configuration is the same as GB propellant. The M4A2 contains approximately 13 lbs. of multi-perforated, (Progressive burn) propellant. DISPLAY PROPELLANT TO THE STUDENTS. A flash reducer pad containing one ounce of potassium nitrate or potassium sulfate is sewn to the base increment. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 8-7

                           Charge 8WB, M119 - This single increment, multiperforated, white bag charge with a perforated igniter core tube extending through the center of the propellant with a flash reducer sewn to the forward end. It can only be used in the long tube 155mm howitzers (M19 series and the M198). DISPLAY PROPELLANT TO THE STUDENTS. STORE HORIZONTALLY due to the central, perforated igniter core tube. Cannot fire rocket-assisted projectiles using M119 due to the design of the flash reducer.

                           Charge 8WB, M119A1, (Slide #26) Exactly the same as the M119 except for the donut shaped flash reducer sewn to the forward end. This design of the flash reducer precludes ignition of the rocket motor for RAP. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 8-9)

                           Charge 7RB, M119A2, (Slide #27) It is a single increment 7 red bag charge for firing in 155mm howitzers that have the M185 and M199 cannon tubes. The forward end of the charge has a 3-ounce lead foil liner and four pockets sewn longitudinally to the circumference. Each of the four pockets contains 4 oz of potassium sulfate to act as a flash reducer. Charge 7RB can be used interchangeably with charge 8WB with a minor difference in muzzle velocity. The M119A2 was created to correspond with existing NATO firing tables. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 8-9)

                           M203(Slide #28) propellant is a zone 8S charge designed to provide extended range for the M198, M19A5/A6 howitzers. The M203 propellant charge is a single increment, red bag charge with a central igniter core extending through its entire length and a donut-shaped flash reducer at the forward end of the charge. The M203 is used only with the M549A1 (TNT loaded) RAP, the M825 FELT WEDGE, and the M864 base bleed projectiles. DISPLAY PROPELLANT TO THE STUDENTS. STORE HORIZONTALLY. (ST 6-50-19 pg. 3-8)

                           M203A1 Propellant (Slide #29)Also a single increment base ignited charge. The outer casing is a solid combustible material. There is still an igniter pad at the base of the propellant, and it contains .7 ounces of black powder and 1- ounce of CBI. The propellant is not made up of granules; it consists of 28-pounds of slotted, stick propellant. DISPLAY PROPELLANT TO THE STUDENTS. The M203A1 charge is fired only with the M549A1 (TNT loaded), RAP, M825 felt wedge, and M864 projectiles in the M198 and M109A5/6 howitzers. The reasons for design of the M203A1 propelling charge are; 1) cooler burning, less flash, blast, and tube wear. 2) Casing form is more durable causing for less igniter core damage. 3) For automatic loading systems, it allows fewer mechanical problems. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 8-1.5)

                    (3) Inspection Criteria: Check to make sure all increment bags are present. Inspect the bags for rips, tears, caking and discoloration. Propellants should not have urine-like smell. If it does the powder may contain high moisture content. If any of these conditions exist, the charge should not be fired.

ELO 8: Discuss Powder burning Techniques .

       (Slide #30) Discuss the proper procedures to dispose of unused powder increments by burning. Discuss use of the powder pit.

          Procedures for burning unused increments:

NOTE: Have fire fighting equipment and extra water available to control fires. Conduct the burn at least 2 feet from personnel and equipment. (Slide #31)

                              (a) Determine the direction of the wind. (Slide #32)

                              (b) Place charge increments in a single layer row not more than 1-increment high and 12 inches wide. (Slide #33)

                              (c) The row should be placed so that the powder will burn into the wind.

                              (d) Establish a powder train at least 15 feet long, perpendicular to, and at the downwind end of the row of increments. Light the train at the end farthest from the increments. (Slide #34) (Inspect, Light, observe/control the burn. Ensure fire from powder burning is completely out. (Slide #35)

       (Slide #36) Break so the instructor can setup class for Projectiles.

ELO : Discuss the Projectiles.

(INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The minimum information is weapon system used on, explosive train, type of target used on, and any special remarks for that particular projectile.)

          The next component of a complete round of ammunition is the projectile. Before we discuss specific projectiles, let's discuss functioning. There are three types of projectile explosive trains.

          a. (Slide #37) The Projectile Explosive Train is designed to cause a projectile to perform its intended purpose upon reaching the target area. The three types are: (ST 6-50-19 pg. 3-10.)

                    (1)(Slide #38) The Bursting Charge explosive train consists of a FUZE, BOOSTER, and BURSTING CHARGE. It is commonly used in High Explosive rounds.

                    (2) The Bursting Tube explosive train consists of a FUZE, BOOSTER and a small burster TUBE. It is commonly used in chemical and white phosphorus projectiles.

                    (3) The Expelling Charge explosive train consists of a FUZE and an EXPELLING CHARGE. It is used for projectiles carrying a payload that is expelled from the projectile in flight.

          b.(Slide #39) PROJECTILE FAMILIES: To give the students a better understanding of the different types of projectiles, explain that projectiles are also categorized by family. A projectile family has ballistic similitude (the same characteristics). I.E. The same mass, external shape, surface finish, center of gravity, driving band (rotating band), and transverse and longitudinal moments of inertia. 105mm have HE and RAP. 155mm have four families; HE, RAP, ICM, and COPPERHEAD.

          c. PROJECTILE TYPE (AKA): HIGH EXPLOSIVE (HE)-HE family

   EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: BURSTING CHARGE

   WEAPON SYSTEMS: 105 and 155mm

  USES/TARGETS: ANTI-PERSONNEL/MATERIAL

REMARKS: Discuss differences between TNT and Comp B, show HE fragmentation, composition B provides 4% more fragmentation.)

105MM: Max Range: M101A1-11, 000, M102 and M119-11, 500 meters.

       HE, M1: (Slide #40) Filler is TNT or Composition B. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-9)

       HE, M760: (Slide #41) this projectile is only certified for firing from the M119 howitzer. M760 achieves the same results as the M1. It is loaded with 4.6 pounds of TNT. Shipped with the M2 propelling charge. Composition B is not used because it is to sensitive. (High charges = high pressure/stress on filler. Comp B may prematurely function if exposed to excessive pressure) (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-7.1)

155mm: Max ranges: M198 and M109-18, 100 meters.

       HE, M107: (Slide #42) filled with TNT or Composition B. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-73)

          d.  PROJECTILE TYPE (AKA): HIGH EXPLOSIVE ROCKET ASSISTED (RAP)-RAP family

     EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: BURSTING CHARGE

    WEAPON SYSTEM: 105 and 155mm

    USES/TARGETS: LONG RANGE engagement of personnel and material.

          REMARKS: RAP has two distinct advantages over normal HE: increased range and fragmentation (more pieces, smaller size). The rocket motor provides increased range. The inside of the projectile is scored which provides the increased fragmentation.

105MM: Max ranges: M101A1-14, 500; M102 and M119-15, 100 meters.

       HERA, M548: (Slide #43) (use display demo) Fired from M102 and M119 cannons. Produced in limited quantity and is found in wartime reserve. The canister contains charges 3 through 7. Charge 7 can be fired in the rocket on or off mode (we have TFTs for both on and off for selected charges); charges 3 through 5 are authorized for the rocket off mode in a combat emergency only. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-59)

155mm: Max ranges: M109-23, 500, M198-30, 000 meters.

       HERA, M549A1: (Slide #44)The earlier models (M549) were filled with Comp B. The A1 is filled with TNT. Composition B is unstable when fired with higher charges. When fired from an M198 or M109A5/A6, RAP achieves a range of 3 Km. Only fired in the rocket-on mode. The M549 cannot be fired with the M203 propelling charge. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-117)

       OTHER REMARKS: Show RAP rocket motor cap and the smaller RAP fragments, discuss motor burn time, and the safety zone needed if motor does not work. 105MM: 16 SEC Rocket Motor delay & 2 SEC burn time. 155: 7 SEC Rocket Motor delay & 3 SEC burn time. A 6-meter safety zone short of the target is required in case of non-ignition of the rocket motor.

          e. PROJECTILE TYPE: CANNON LAUNCH GUIDED PROJECTILE, (COPPERHEAD) -COPPERHEAD family

   EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: Bursting charge.

   WEAPON SYSTEM: 155mm ONLY

   USES/TARGETS: HIGH PAY OFF TARGETS.

          REMARKS: Max ranges: M109-16, 000, M198-16, 400 meters.

       Copperhead, M712: (Slide #45, 46, 47 and 48) point to the "rollout" during your discussion.) This is a 155mm, laser-guided, High Explosive projectile utilizing a shaped charge warhead. It is loaded and fired the same as other projectiles except that it is much longer and is fin stabilized instead of spin stabilized. The projectile has three sections: guidance, warhead, and control sections. It is NOT certified for the M203 or M203A1 Super Charges. The projectile is shipped in a container and weighs 138 lbs. The Copperhead trainer is used for section training and is bronze in color. The actual projectile is black.

       Control Section - The control section contains a battery, high pressure gas bottle, four fins and four wings. The fins are folded into recesses of the projectile and are extended in flight after the round clears the tube by centrifugal force. The wings are electronically extended once the projectile reaches the summit of the trajectory. The design of thenylon-obturating band is unique. Notice it rotates. This reduces the spin of the projectile to approximately 10 revolutions per second. This spin rate allows the fins to deploy (centrifugal force) and fin stabilize the projectile in flight.

       Warhead Section - Shaped charge containing 14.75 lbs of Comp. B and is classified as an antitank warhead.

       Guidance Section - The guidance section consists of two parts, the electronics assembly and the seeker head assembly. The electronics assembly contains the electronic circuits that stabilize and control the flight of the projectile. The electronics are activated by firing and by the setting on the five screwdriver set switches - the first set switch controls the activation of remaining electronic circuits not activated by firing. The second, controls the flight path of the projectile (ballistic or glide). The last three are for the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) code. The seeker head assembly locates the target via reflected laser energy. This energy is a result of the observer's Ground/Vehicular Laser Locator Designator, or G/VLLD, 13 seconds of reflected laser energy is necessary to arm the projectile and accurately engage the target. The PRF code used by the observer and by the projectile must be the same. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 13-124.1)

*************** Transition into Bursting Tube explosive train ***************

(Re-explain what a bursting tube does)

       f. PROJECTILE TYPE: WHITE PHOSPHORUS (WP)

         EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: Bursting tube

         WEAPON SYSTEM: 105 and 155mm

         USES/TARGETS: POL SITES, EQUIPMENT, SMOKE SCREENS, AND MARKING

            REMARKS: WP MUST BE STORED AND TRANSPORTED ON ITS BASE. At 111 degrees (F) the WP filler melts. If the projectile is stored on its side and then allowed to cool, the projectile may be ballistically unstable. WP is NOT compatible with VT fuzes.

105MM: Max ranges: M101A1-11, 000; M102 and M119-11,500 meters.

       Smoke, WP, M60 series: (Slide #49) WP provides a quick smoke buildup for a relatively short duration (approx. 1 min) (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-15).

155mm: Max ranges: M109 and M198-18, 100 meters.

       Smoke WP, M110 series: (Slide #50)WP provides a quick smoke buildup for a relatively short duration (approx. 90 sec) (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-81).

(Slide #51) - WP effects slide

*************** Transition into Expelling Charge explosive train *************

(Re-explain what a Expelling Charge does)

       g.          PROJECTILE TYPE (AKA): ANTIPERSONNEL (BEEHIVE)

                    EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: EXPELLING CHARGE

                    WEAPON SYSTEM: 105mm ONLY

                    USES/TARGETS: BATTERY DEFENSE/ANTIPERSONNEL.

                    REMARKS: Max range: M101A1-11, 600; M102 and M119-11,400 meters.

                    APERS, M546: (Slides #52& 53) Designed for use against personnel under direct fire situations. Contains 8 (8) grain flechettes. It is made of aluminum and must be protected from damage to the skin of the projectile. Uses ONLY the M563 fuze! Shipped with M563 fuze, set for muzzle action. It uses dye to mark the direct fire engagement area.

INSTRUCTORS NOTE: Discuss functioning of round, show 15 rollout. Pg. 3-55 of TM 43-0001-28

                 h. PROJECTILE TYPE: SMOKE, HC

                    EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: Expelling charge

                    WEAPON SYSTEM: 105 and 155mm

                    USES/TARGETS: SCREENING, MARKING, and OBSCURING

                       REMARKS:

105MM: Max Range: M101A1-11, 000; M102 and M119-11,500 meters.

       Smoke, HC, M84: (Slide # 54)there are 3 smoke canisters that are ejected above the smokescreen aimpoint. The smoke canister burns for 4-9 seconds and, depending on the weather can provide a screen up to three minutes. Smoke is available in white, red, yellow, and green. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-25)

155mm: Max Range: M109 and M198-18, 100 meters.

       Smoke, HC, M116 series: (Slide #55) if colored smoke, the color is indicated by a series of 3 C's in the color of the smoke. The 155mm projectile contains 4 smoke canisters. Provides up to four minutes of screening. This projectile is no longer in production. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-89)

(INSTRUCTOR'S NOTE: Discuss how round functions.)

                 i. PROJECTILE TYPE (AKA): ILLUMINATION (ILLUM).

                    EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: EXPELLING CHARGE

                    WEAPON SYSTEM: 105 AND 155mm

                    USES/TARGETS: ILLUMINATION FOR A NIGHT ATTACK/DEFENSE, MARKING ROUND ON THE GROUND, HARASSMENT

                       REMARKS: Illuminate begins burning at 600 meters HOB.

105MM: Max Range: M101A1-11, 000; M102 and M119-11,500 meters.

       M314A3:(Slide #56) Burns for 1 min at 45, candlepower, descends @ 1m/second. Illuminates an 8mm-diameter circle. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-35)

155mm: Max ranges: M109 and M198-18, 100 meters.

       M485 series: (Slide #57)Burns for 2 min at 1, candlepower, descends @ 5m/second. Illuminates a 1-Km area. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-113)

(INSTRUCTORS NOTE: Explain how round functions, discuss differences between the 105 and 155mm rounds.) ST 6-50-19 pg. 3-15.

                 j. PROJECTILE TYPE (AKA): ANTI-PERSONNEL IMPROVED CONVENTIONAL MUNITIONS (APICM).

                    EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: EXPELLING CHARGE

                    WEAPON SYSTEM: 105 and 155mm

                    USES/TARGETS: ANTI-PERSONNEL

                       REMARKS:

105MM: Max Range: M101A1-11, 000; M102 and M119-11,500 meters.

       APICM, M444: (Slide #58)Delivers 18 (6 layers of 3 grenades) M39 antipersonnel grenades. Upon impact, the submunitions eject a grenade upward, which detonate 4 to 6 feet above the ground. SHOW THE STUDENTS one of these submunitions. (ST 6-50-19 pg. 3-16)

155mm: Max ranges: M109 and M198-18, 100 meters.

       APICM, M449A1 Series: (Slide # 59) Delivers 60 (1 layers of 60 grenades), M43A1 antipersonnel grenades. The grenades are different from the 105MM, but function similarly. SHOW THE STUDENTS one of these grenades.

******** As you transition to DPICM, mention the new projectile family *******

                 k. PROJECTILE TYPE: DUAL PURPOSE IMPROVED CONVENTIONAL MUNITIONS (DPICM). Family-ICM. (Slide #61)

                    EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: EXPELLING CHARGE

                    WEAPON SYSTEM: 155mm

                    USES/TARGETS: EQUIPMENT, LIGHTLY ARMORED VEHICLES, and TROOPS

                       REMARKS:

155mm: Max ranges: M109 and M198-17, 740 meters.

       DPICM, M483A1: (Slide #62)Delivers 88 dual-purpose anti-material and anti-personnel grenades - the M42 (qua. 64) and M46 (qua. 24). The M46s are located at the base of the projectile and are heavier and thicker than the M42s to withstand the shock of firing and set back. The submissions have a shaped charge warhead that penetrates 2.75 inches of homogeneous armor. Antipersonnel effects are obtained by fragmentation of the submission body. SHOW THE STUDENTS one of these submunitions. This projectile introduces a different family of projectiles, the ICM Family. The ICM family is approximately 3 1/2 inches longer and has a standard square weight of 103.5 lbs. This projectile has a self-registration mode with projectile spotting charge M1025. The M577 fuze is the only authorized fuze. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-15)

(INSTRUCTORS NOTE: Show students DPICM demo.)

       l. PROJECTILE TYPE: FAMILY OF SCATTERABLE MINES (FASCAM) ICM Family

          EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: EXPELLING CHARGE

          WEAPON SYSTEM: 155mm only.

          USES/TARGETS:      TO EMPLACE MINEFIELDS and BLOCK AVENUES OF APPROACH ST 6-50-19 pg. 3-18.

            REMARKS: (Slide #63 - FASCAM)

       Area Denial Artillery Munitions (ADAM), M692-L and M731-S: (Slide #64) They deliver 36 antipersonnel mines that are spread by centrifugal force after ejection from the rear of the projectile. Once settled on the ground, arming takes place, and 7 trip wires, each 2 feet long, are deployed. If disturbed, a grenade is propelled upward detonating 2 to 8 feet above the ground projecting 6 1.5-grain steel fragments in all directions. In this triangle is the code (L or S) for the self-destruct time of the mines. REMEMBER: The self-destruct times are pre-set and unchangeable. Mines begin to self-destruct at 8% of laid life. (4 X .8 = 3 hours, 12 min) If projectile is coded "S" the self-destruct time is 2 hours; with an "L" the time is 4 hours. 100% of the mines self-destruct by the 2 or 4 hr mark as appropriate. Regardless how the mines land (right side up or up side down) a liquid propellant accumulates at the base to detonate the shape charge and propel it upward. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-121)

(INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Show students ADAM demos.)

       Remote Anti-Armor Mine (RAMM), M741A1-S and M718L: (Slides # 65 And # 66) They deliver 9 antitank mines to delay access to a particular area for a specific time period. The time period is found on the projectile as an S or L in the yellow triangles (same times as for ADAM). The mines sense the magnetic signature of the vehicle as it passes over the mine. Just after the signature peaks, the mine detonates. Some mines have anti-disturbance mechanisms that discourage hand removal of the minefields (1 in each projectile). Neither the ADAM nor RAAM are certified to be fired with the M203/A1 Super Charges, both use only the M577 fuze. If the mines are upside down or angled at more than 3 degrees the effects are reduced. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-128.1)

(INSTRUCTORS NOTE: Show and talk through mine's functions. Normal planning area for the standard minefield is 4 by 4.)

       m. PROJECTILE TYPE(AKA): IMPROVED WP (M825). ICM Family

           EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: Expelling charge and bursting tube.

          WEAPON SYSTEM: 155mm only.

          USES/TARGETS: SCREENING

             REMARKS: Max range: M109 and M198-17, 740 meters.

       Smoke WP, M825/M825A1: (Slides #67and #68) The projectile dispenses 116 WP impregnated felt wedges. It is used to produce screening smoke for .5 to 1-min duration. The concentration of smoke is thicker and longer lasting then normal HC/WP. Build up time is also quicker than HC. Upon fuze function, a thin wall steel canister, containing the wedges, is expelled. 100 milliseconds after expulsion, the bursting tube functions, rupturing the steel canister, exposing the wedges to air and they begin to burn. Uses the M577 fuze. M825 - don't fire above 95 mils with M203 propellant. Don't fire if projectile has been exposed to temperatures of 110 degrees or greater (applies to the M825 projectile only). The M825A1 projectile contains an improved payload and a new base to correct the M825 flight instability. (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 3-128.18)

(INSTRUCTORS NOTE: Explain hazards of felt wedges once deployed. The M825A1 projectile does not have to be shipped or stored on its base; can store it horizontally.)

NEW EXPERIMENTAL PROJECTILES (Instructor Info Only)

105MM:

HERA:

DPICM: 155mm:

       HE, M864; DPICM (Slides #71and #72)

       The projectile contains a total of 72 dual - purpose grenades (48-M42 and 24-M46). The base burner unit contains a propellant that ignites upon firing of the projectile ("base bleed"). If desired, the expulsion charge may be replaced by a spotting charge designed to detonate the entire projectile as if it were a HE projectile. The M864 can be fired from the M198, and M19 series howitzers. It is also compatible with the standard M4A2, M119A2, M203, and M203A1 propelling charges. The M864 compliments the M483A1 by providing increased range capability to 27 km.

Sense and Destroy Armor: (SADARM)

Description:

       SADARM artillery munitions are identified for full-scale development using the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) and the 155mm Howitzer. SADARM, whether delivered by projectile or rocket, will dispense submunitions over a designated target. The submunitions orient, stabilize and descend by parachute over the target area. When a target is identified within the submunition scan area by millimeter wave or infrared sensor, an explosively formed penetrator is fired from the submunition into the target. These munitions are primarily employed against counterfire targets. Additionally, they will have a supplementary role against other targets in close support, attack in depth, and suppression of enemy air defense.

ELO 10 : Identify Parts of A Projectile(Slide #73)

       The Eyebolt Lifting Plug located in 155mm projectiles, keep the projectile fuze well clean, dry, free of foreign material, and damage.

       The Ogive is the curved portion of the projectile. Give the projectile its aerodynamic shape. The SQUARE weight is marked on the Ogive.

       The Bourrelet is slightly larger than the body of the projectile and centers the projectile in the tube when resting on the lands of the tube.

       The Body is slightly smaller than the bourrelet to reduce friction on the tube and contains most of the projectile filler.

       The Rotating Band is made of soft metal and engages the forcing cone of the tube to provide forward obturation. The rotating band imparts spin and prevents the escape of hot propelling gases past the projectile (forward obturation).

       The Obturator Band of HERA and Illumination projectiles assists in forward obturation.

       The Base of the projectile is a boat-tail shape that streamlines the base and gives the projectile stability during flight. (Except 105MM Illum).

       The Base Cover is a metal cover that is crimped, caulked, pinned, welded, or screwed to the base of the projectile to prevent the hot gases of the propelling charge from contacting the fillers within the projectile.

Discuss where the square weight is located…
Lot # is located ...
Dodac # is located...

ELO 11: Discuss Projectile Inspection Criteria.

       Inspect projectiles for rust, nicks, and burrs. Ensure the fuze well is clean and the threads are not stripped. Ensure the projectile filler is not seeping through the fuze well. Ensure that the projectile has the proper markings on it. Also, it is extremely important to ensure the rotating band is secure on the projectile and that there are no cuts, dents, or excessive rust on the band.

       Show slides when discussing the proper procedures for the care, handling, and storing of artillery ammunition. – (Slide #74)

       -Care must be taken to protect ammunition from weather such as rain, snow, ice, etc.

       -Ammunition needs to be protected from enemy fire as much as possible. Burning ammo isn't much good to us, now is it. Dig ammo in and store ammunition in separate stacks to decreases the chance of all the ammunition being destroyed by a single enemy attack.

       -Ammunition needs protection from improper handling. Ammunition should not be carried by positioning the hand under the fuze.

       Smoking is not allowed within 1 feet of artillery weapons and ammunition.

       Example storage area. (Slide #75); Point out all the problems on this slide. (Look For: Projectiles fuzed and NOT stored upright, not protected from the elements, unused propellant increments stored at the same location.)

BREAK (Slide #76)

ELO 12: Discuss Field Artillery Fuzes (Slide #77) (ST 6-50-19 Sect IV pg. 3-20)

       a. The purpose of the fuze is to initiate the projectile explosive train. Artillery fuzes are classified according to their methods of functioning. There are three types.

                 (1) The Impact fuze is designed to cause the projectile to function upon impact with the ground/target.

                 (2) The Mechanical Time fuze functions at a preset time.

                 (3) The Proximity or variable time fuzes cause the projectile to function at a uniform height above the ground.

                 (4) The Electronic Time fuzes function at a preset time.

       b. FUZE DISCUSSION: On each fuze describe the characteristics and projectile compatibility. Describe fuze setting scales in terms of graduations, labeling, min, and max fuze settings and the type of projectile explosive train that the fuze initiates. BUILD THE NEED for fuze wrenches and setters. DEMONSTRATE their use as you discuss the first fuze. Match fuzes displayed on table with fuze wrenches/setters. (Use the correct projectile-fuze combination.)

                 (1) IMPACT FUZES

                           (Slide #78) M557 point detonating fuze is a selective super-quick or .5 second delay impact fuze (Slide #79). The M557 fuze is placed on Bursting Charge & Bursting Tube type projectiles (HE, HERA, M804 Practice, and WP M110). Should not be used during HEAVY rain (note firing pin location). (TM 43-0001-28 pg. 7-63)

                           M18 Fuze Wrench: (Slide #80)Show the M18 Fuze Wrench and how the screwdriver tip is used to set the fuze for delay. Also point out that this is the fuze wrench used to seat all fuzes. Mate the M557 fuze to a M107 projectile and demonstrate the use of the M18.

                           The M739/A1 point detonating fuze is a selective super-quick or .5 second delay impact fuze. It has a rain insensitive sleeve that allows firing in heavy rain with reduced probability of premature functioning. The M739 fuze is placed on Bursting Charge & Tube type projectiles (HE, HERA, M804 practice, and M110 WP) with the M18 fuze wrench. Chromatic (M739) or anodized green (M739A1) in color. The M739A1 has a cocked striker assembly that presents an extreme hazard to EOD personnel (Slide # 81) TM 43-0001-28 pg. 7-78.4.1

                           The MK399 MOUT concrete piercing fuze (no slide) is constructed especially for destroying hardened targets. It is a selective super-quick or .5 second delay impact fuze. The MK399 is more reliable, has a greater penetration capability (8" reinforced concrete), and has been safety certified for every howitzer system.

                    (2) MT/MTSQ.

                           The M563 mechanical time (MT) fuze is used to detonate the 105MM APERS projectiles ONLY. The fuze is shipped set on muzzle action, (1/2 second), and fuze settings are set using the M34 fuze setter. (Slide #82)

                           The M564 mechanical time/super-quick (MTSQ) fuze is used when a choice between time and super-quick action is desired. Time settings can be achieved between 2 and 1 seconds. For super-quick action, all fuzes dated prior to January 197 - must be set for 9 seconds, while fuzes dated from January 197 on should be set on "S". The M564 fuze is compatible with HE, Practice, and WP projectiles. Set the desired fuze setting with the M34 fuze setter. Bursting Charge & Tube. (Slide #83) & TM 43-0001-28 pg. 7-33)

                           The M565 is a mechanical time fuze only and is mated to a number of base-ejecting projectiles when a super-quick point detonating backup is not a requirement. The M565 fuze is placed on the base ejection Illumination, HC Smoke, and APICM projectiles with the M18 fuze wrench. Expelling Charge.(Slide # 84) & TM 43-0001-28 pg. 7-19)

                           M34 Fuze Setter:(Slide #85)used to set the proper time on the M563, M564, and M565. Set the desired fuze setting with the M34 fuze setter. Show (Slides #86 & #87) and discuss in detail how to set a fuze setting using the vernier scale. (ST 6-50-19 pg. 3-26) NOTE: The fuze setting is set in the direction of arrow on fuze or clockwise.

                           The M577 mechanical time and super-quick fuze is used with projectiles carrying payloads that are expelled during flight. The fuze contains a timing mechanism that may be set to function from 2 to 2 seconds in increments of tenths of a second. Three digital rotating dials indicate the time setting. The fuze is used with ADAM, RAAMS, Illumination, APICM, DPICM, M825 WP, and HC Smoke projectiles with the M18 fuze wrench. The time is set counter-clockwise using the M35 fuze setter. The fuze is shipped between 93.5 to 95.5 and set on 98.0 for super-quick action. It does not have a booster. It functions as an expelling Charge. (Slide # 88) M1025 Booster can be attached to DPICM for self-registration mode.

                           The M582 mechanical time and super-quick fuze (MTSQ) is the same fuze as the M577 except for the addition of a booster. The fuze contains a mechanical clockwork timing mechanism that may be set to function at any time from 2 to 2 seconds. The fuze is placed on HE and Smoke (WP) and is the only authorized MTSQ fuze for RAP. The M18 fuze wrench is utilized to secure the fuze. The fuze is shipped on 93.5 to 95.5 and set on 98.0for super quick action. Bursting charge/tube explosive trains.(Slide # 89) TM 43-0001-28 pg. 7-36.2.1.

(INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The M582 has a super-quick back-up; the fuze must impact within 3 seconds prior to the set fuze setting or the fuze may not function.)

                           M35 Fuze Setter: (Slide # 90) The M35 Fuze Setter is used to set the time on the M577 and M582 fuzes. The time is set counter-clockwise with the fuze setter. Reference ST 6-50-19 pg. 3-30)

                 (3) PROXIMITY (Commonly called VT or variable time).

                           The M728 proximity fuze is an airburst fuze used against ground targets. The fuze contains radar, which begins measuring its height above the ground approximately 3 to 5.5 seconds prior to the set fuze setting. The fuze functions 7 meters above the target. Since the fuze setting only effects the arming time, settings are set only for whole second increments (with the M27 fuze setter). Fuze M728 is a long intrusion fuze, which requires the removal of the supplementary charge before placing the fuze on the projectile. The fuze has a PD backup and the PD setting is 9.Fuze is shipped on 1. It has a glass ampule that contains electrolyte that may break when dropped. Used on Bursting Charge explosive trains. (Slide # 91) TM 43-0001-28 pg. 7-13.

(INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Show students how to remove sup charge and how to insert fuze. (Slide # 92)

                           The M732 proximity fuze is a short intrusion VT fuze. It does not require the removal of the supplementary charge when placed on HE projectiles. The fuze is also compatible with the M84 practice round. Warning: If the VT fuze is accidentally dropped, the electrolyte battery may break. Since battery life is so short, the fuze will probably not function as an airburst. Shipped on PD index mark and has a PD backup. Has copper electrolyte ampule to increase drop reliability. Used on Bursting Charge explosive trains.(Slide # 93) TM 43-0001-28 pg. 7-14.1.

(INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Show M27 fuze setter and set a fuze. Reinforce that settings are to the whole second.(Slide # 94) ST 6-50-19 pg. 3-34).

                           M762 Electronic Time Fuze(Slide # 95) Used with 105MM and 155mm firing expelling charge explosive train projectiles. The fuze contains an electronic time system that may be set to function from .5 to 199.9 seconds. The time can be handset so there is no need for fuze setters with this fuze. When set for PD, the fuze is armed at .45 seconds in flight.

Show slide #96---End of lesson.



Section III

SUMMARY



REVIEW MAIN POINTS:

       Check to see if students have any questions, regarding the material discussed during the instructio

CLOSING STATEMENT

       In this class you have been exposed to the components of artillery ammunitions, their uses, and safety handling procedures. Regardless what position you are in (cannoneer, gunner, asst. gunner or the section chief) knowledge of artillery ammunition handling is critical to accomplish the mission.



Section IV

PERFORMANCE



       Ensure you have enough instructors for a ratio of one instructor for every sixteen students during the practical exercise. During the instructions, students are given opportunities to set a fuze, cut a charge, and inspect the projectile and propellant for serviceability.



Section V

EVALUATION



          This task will be tested after the period of instruction, using a performance evaluation based on the soldiers’ manual performance standards. The students must receive a GO to pass and this should give the instructor an idea of how well the students are receiving the instruction.



SLIDE LIST FOR ARTILLERY AMMUNITION

1. Gunnery Department
2. The Mission of the Field Artillery
3. Artillery Ammunition
4. Effects on a Target
5. Components of a Complete Round
6. Two Types of Artillery Ammunition
7. Explosive Trains
8. Two Types of Explosive Train
9. Propelling Charge Explosive Train
10. Primer
11. Semi-Fixed Primer
12. M82 Primer Diagram
13. M82 Photo
14. Igniter
15. Semi-Fixed Igniter
16. Semi-Fixed Igniter Photo
17. Separate-Loading Igniter
18. Propellant
19. Powder Grain Form
20. 105mm Propellant, M67
21. 105mm Propellant, M200
22. 105mm Propellant, M176
23. 105mm Propellant, M229
24. 155mm Propellant, M3A1 (Green Bag)
25. 155mm Propellant, M4A2 (White Bag)
26. 155mm Propellant, M119A1 (Chg 8 White Bag)
27. 155mm Propellant, M119A2 (Chg 7 Red Bag)
28. 155mm Propellant, M203
29. 155mm Propellant, M203A1
30. Select a Powder Burn Site
31. Fire Fighting Equipment
32. Direction of Wind
33.Single Layer of Powder
34. Burning Powder
35. Clean-up
36. "Break"
37. Projectile Explosive Train
38. Types of Projectile Explosive Trains
39. Projectile Families
40. 105mm HE, M1
41. 105mm HE, M760
42. 155mm HE, M107
43. 105mm HE, RAP,M548
44. 155mm HE, RAP,M549A1
45. 155mm CLGP, M712 "Copperhead"
46. Copperhead Targeting
47. Copperhead in Flight
48. Copperhead on Target
49. 105mm WP, M60
50. 155mm WP, M110
51. Effects of WP
52. 105mm APERS, M456 "Beehive"
53. Inside the Beehive
54. 105mm SMOKE (HC), M84
55. 155mm SMOKE (HC), M116
56. 105mm ILLUM, M314A3
57. 155mm ILLUM, M585
58. 105mm APICM, M444
59. 155mm APICM, M449A1
60. M43A1 Submunnition
61. 155mm HE, M795 (DPICM FAMILY)
62. 155mm DPICM, M483A1
63. ADAM Deployment
64. 155mm ADAM, M692 / M731
65. RAAMS Deployment
66. 155mm RAAMS, M741A1 /M718
67. M825 Effects
68. 155mm Improved WP M825A1
69. 105mm HE, RAP, M913
70. 105mm DPICM, M915 / M916
71. 155mm BBDPICM, M864
72. BBDPICM in Flight
73. Exterior Parts of a Projectile
74. AMMO Storage Hazzards
75. Proper Storage
76. "Break"
77. Types of Artillery Ammunition
78. M557 (PD)
79. Delay Switch
80. M18 Fuse Wrench
81. M739 and M739A1 (PD)
82. M563 (MT)
83. M564 (MTSQ)
84. M565 (MT)
85. M34 Fuse Wrench
86. Vernier Scale
87. Vernier Scale
M577 (MTSQ)
M582 (MTSQ)
M35 Fuse Setter
M728 (VT)
Supplementary Charge
M732 and M732A2 (VT)
M27 Fuse Setter
M762 (ET)
End of Class