Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTP)
The Army Tactical Missile System (Army TACMS)
Family of Munitions (AFOM)


APPENDIX A
JSTARS GSM/CGS INTEROPERABILITY PROCEDURES FOR THE MLRS BATTALION

 

Overview. If the commander desires to use decentralized execution for certain targets, he designates a subordinate commander (unit) as the execution authority. Decentralized execution missions attack high payoff, short dwell or moving targets that are vulnerable for short time periods. In essence, the commander is tailoring information flow to the minimum number of nodes necessary to responsively attack these targets, reducing processing time. Decentralized execution requires information processing facilities to directly interface with the FA Brigade, or MLRS Battalion TOC. All decentralized execution planning including airspace deconfliction must be completed during the Decide function. Also, all Detect function tasks except for "trigger event" are completed prior to this function. All pre-firing coordination is complete. The remainder of this appendix discusses the planning and tasks for successful completion of a decentralized execution mission. See FM 34-25-1, Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS) for additional information.

Purpose. This appendix provides the Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP) for MLRS Battalion employment of a Ground Station Module (GSM) or Common Ground Station (CGS) while performing decentralized execution of an AFOM mission. The MLRS battalion and GSM/CGS crew should use these procedures as a guide for development of individual SOPs tailored to their mission(s).

JSTARS

The JSTARS is an Army and U.S. Air Force multiservice system designed to provide real time surveillance, intelligence, targeting, and battlefield management information to the Land Component Commander. The JSTARS components consist of two major subgroups: The E-8C aircraft (a Boeing 707 variant) and the Army GSM. The CGS replaces the GSM once it is fielded. In addition to mobile ground stations, stand alone fixed systems called JSTARS Work Stations can be found at hardened TOCs and C2 facilities. JSTARS can locate and track moving vehicles over a large surveillance area day or night and in almost all weather conditions. The aircraft sends this information Near Real Time (NRT) to GSMs/CGSs on the ground. The radar aboard the aircraft operates in two modes; Moving Target Indicator (MTI) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Commanders often use the SAR capability to determine the disposition of stationary vehicles and weapon systems. Figure A-1 displays the JSTARS MTI radar capabilities. Figure A-2 outlines some of the JSTARS SAR capabilities.

 

JSTARS MTI CAN DETECT-

  • Moving ground vehicles the size of a HMMWV.
  • Slow-moving aircraft (fixed and rotary wing).
  • Convoy movement (speed, direction, location and time).
  • Choke points based on traffic analysis.
  • Operational bridges and causeways due to traffic pattern analysis.
  • Possible locations of logistics sites, CPs, and rest stops.
  • Provide rough classification of vehicle type.

JSTARS MTI Cannot-

  • See through hills and mountains because of terrain masking.
  • Identify the difference between types of vehicles (e.g., T-55 or T-72).
  • Determine where static defended areas are; if they are manned, with what type of weapon system.
  • Locate, track and identify people moving on the ground.
  • Detect or track rockets or tactical ballistic missiles in flight.

Figure A-1. JSTARS Moving Target Indicator (MTI) Capabilities

 

JSTARS SAR CAN-

  • Through pattern analysis, confirm the presence of occupied artillery, surface to air missile (SAM), and Air Defense Artillery (ADA) sites.
  • Locate individual vehicles.
  • Refine target accuracy/description.
  • Support limited TDA; e.g., bridges (by looking for traffic on them).

JSTARS SAR Cannot-

  • Tell you what kinds of vehicles are in a particular location, only if they are there or not.
  • By itself, detect mobile SSM units (The JSTARS must cue or be cued by other sensors).
  • Build a theater-level mosaic (because the SAR frame is relatively small compared to the view given by the MTI radar).

Figure A-2. JSTARS Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Capabilities

Ground Station Module (GSM) / Common Ground Station (CGS)

The GSM/CGS is the ground communications link to the airborne station of the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS). There will be up to six GSMs/CGSs at corps, supporting the corps FSE and other elements designated by the commander. The GSM/CGS can send targets to the FATDS, FDDM, and AFATDS using the fire mission - call for fire (FM;CFF) message format. Because MLRS units doe not have intelligence analysts, the FDS cannot process an ATI;CDR message. However, the FATDS at corps or FA Brigade can receive and process it. The GSM/CGS can communicate using wire, MSE, SINCGARS or TACSAT.

The Joint STARS system can locate and potentially classify (wheel/track) targets with sufficient accuracy for AFOM employment. JSTARS can also predict movement routes. The JSTARS GSM/CGS can predict target locations and time-on-location data for moving targets.

The GSM/CGS also supports cross-cueing operations against single and multiple vehicle targets. In this role, the GSM/CGS operator can track vehicle movements from SSM launch sites reported from other sources to hide or reload locations. The GSM/CGS automatically records "tracks", so the operator can "replay them" to monitor the target's movement until it stops moving. The GSM/CGS operator may give the location to the Joint STARS aircraft (or other sensors such as a UAV) with a request for more information or target location confirmation. He may also pass it to the FDC as a target location for engagement.

The GSM/CGS can receive and display imagery from UAV Ground Control Stations. It has a Commanders Tactical Terminal (CTT) communications system for the receipt of SIGINT data from the various IEW sensors capable of collecting this type of data. The GSM/CGS can overlay the SIGINT data on its display for correlation with JSTARS and UAV imagery data.

The setup data required to synchronize digital communications between GSM/CGS and the MLRS FDC is critical to the success of the mission. Setup instructions may be found in the technical manuals for the GSM/CGS and FS computers.

When the target activity observed in the target area meets the established criteria, the GSM/CGS initiates the mission. The battalion FDC processes a fire mission (based on the GSM/CGS' input) and transmits it through the battery to the launcher postured on a firing point.

The JSTARS GSM/CGS has the ability to input and display maps, terrain, friendly graphics, enemy graphics, NAIs, and TAIs. This allows the GSM/CGS operator to scan areas that the corps commander has deemed vital to the operation. The GSM/CGS is also a valuable tool in supporting cue-track operations against single and multiple vehicle targets. For example, the GSM/CGS operator may be tasked to track vehicle movements from SSM launch sites to locations where the vehicle may return to hide, or begin reloading operations.

The GSM/CGS operator can only view or enter locations expressed in either latitude/ longitude (lat/long) or MGRS (Military Grid Reference System), not the UTM system normally used by the FDS. However, the GSM/CGS can convert the lat/long coordinates to UTM grid before sending it to FDS. To avoid confusion, send only short UTM grids to the GSM/CGS. The GSM/CGS location data is expressed in the default datum entered during setup. The GSM/CGS and FDS must operate in the same datum to avoid coordinate errors.

The GSM/CGS is evolving through several product models. Each model adds to the capabilities of previous models. Table A-1 provides the GSM/CGS variants’ system capabilities.

Table A-1. GSM/CGS Variant Capabilities

 

PRIME MOVER

COMMUNICATIONS

CAPABILITIES

 

 

 

 

MEDIUM GROUND STATION MODULE (MGSM)

  • 5 TON TRUCK & SHELTER
  • 5 TON SUPPORT TRUCK
  • 2 x 30 kW GENERATORS
  • 2 x AN/VRC-92 SINCGARS (VHF) (1 VOICE / 1 DIGITAL)
  • 1 x AN/VRC 83 (UHF)
  • 2 x TA/312 FIELD PHONES
  • 1 x KY-68 (MSE)
  • 1 x CTT
  • 1 x SATCOM RADIO
  • 1 x STU-III
  • 1 x CELLULAR PHONE
  • INTERFACES WITH ASAS, FATDS & AFATDS
  • MSE & SINCGARS CAN USE DIGITAL FATDS MESSAGES
  • RECEIVES MTI & SAR IMAGERY FROM E-8C AIRCRAFT
  • RECEIVES UAV ELECTRO-OPTICAL AND INFRARED IMAGERY

LIGHT GROUND STATION MODULE (LGSM)

  • 2 x HMMWVs WITH SHELTERS
  • 2 x 15 kW GENERATORS
  • SAME AS MGSM
  • SAME AS MGSM PLUS: CAN OPERATE WHILE MOVING

 

 

 

 

COMMON GROUND STATION (CGS)

  • 1 HMMWVs WITH SHELTER
  • 1 CARGO HMMWV
  • 2 x 10 kW GENERATORS
  • 2 x AN/VRC-92 SINCGARS (VHF) (1 VOICE / 1 DIGITAL)
  • 1 x AN/VRC 83 (UHF)
  • 1 x KY-68 (MSE)
  • 1 x CTT
  • 1 x SATCOM RADIOS
  • 2 x STU-IIIs & FAX
  • INTERFACES WITH ASAS, TROJAN, UAV, SIDS, IMPROVED DATA MODEM (IDM) FATDS & AFATDS
  • SAME AS LGSM PLUS: REMOTE WORK STATION, COMMUNICATE WITH APACHE LONGBOW VIA IDM, AND CAPABILITY TO PULL PRODUCTS FROM THE SECONDARY IMAGERY DISSEMINATION SYSTEM

Block I and Block IA Decentralized Mission Execution

Rationale for Decentralized Execution Missions. The orders associated with decentralized execution missions reflect the fact that the corps DOCC, ACE, and planning staffs have determined that JSTARS will watch for movements of enemy forces at specific times in the NAIs and TAIs. The focus is on targets that meet the Commander's Attack Guidance Matrix criteria, and are on the high-payoff target list (HPTL). The goal for this effort is to engage these short dwell (or moving) high payoff targets. The planning includes a thorough battlefield analysis of the enemy’s order of battle and likely courses of action as part of the IPB process.

Decentralized Execution Missions Target Set. The target set for Block IA decentralized missions consists of those high payoff targets that have short dwell times (as determined during IPB). Some potential targets are:

The requirements for decentralized execution are identified by the DOCC. The MLRS battalion focuses on the delivery of munitions within the target's dwell time. The MLRS battalion follows the same procedures to attack all decentralized execution targets. To keep this appendix brief, the following paragraphs focus on SSM TEL target engagement.

JSTARS TBM Attack Operations Mission Execution

During normal surveillance operations, JSTARS provides surveillance of the Named Areas of Interest (NAIs), and Target Areas of Interest (TAIs) according to predetermined IPB analysis and current intelligence updates. Commanders should prioritize these for the GSM/CGS operator. If TBMs are on the high payoff target list, JSTARS focuses its efforts on locations defined by cues from other sensors indicating TBM activity. Once the launcher has been positively located and identified, JSTARS can provide launch site data to support TBM Attack Operations for decentralized execution sensor to shooter missions. If the vehicles depart the area before an attack can be processed, JSTARS can track them to their hide-site and provide vehicle targeting information, such as location and formation description. The preferred attack locations in declining order are: rearm point, hide area, firing point (before launch), and firing point (after launch). If the target leaves the area where airspace is cleared, the mission can proceed using emergency airspace clearance methods (Bull’s Eye Call is a possibility). Successful TBM Attack Operations require procedures to provide the flexibility and timeliness required for mission execution.

JSTARS supports Theater Missile Defense (TMD) Attack Operations by:

At My Command Missions

The At My Command (AMC) mission is used to provide flexible response to decentralized execution missions. Chapter 5 in FM 6-60 (Section II and III) discusses techniques for mission processing and reaction times. AMC missions permit launchers to attack targets using an initial fire mission and subsequent fire command message. This process decreases mission response time and, in some cases, permits fire plan changes. Units must balance launcher availability and survivability when using this method of control.

 

A special use of the At My Command mission has been developed to provide responsive fires for decentralized execution missions. The corps DOCC/FSE and the ACE analyze the battlefield prior to the decentralized execution mission. They determine areas where these types of high payoff targets are likely to be attacked. The DOCC pairs platoons with specific target areas through a process known as weapon target pairing. To shorten the command and control timelines, a GSM/CGS is attached or placed under the operational control of an MLRS battalion, or a battalion/battery can be placed under the DOCC’s control. The MLRS launchers are postured on firing points for rapid execution using an Amended AMC mission. The launchers load the fire mission data into the missile. The missile then powers down. The GSM/CGS tracks the TEL until it disappears from the screen. This is often at a reload point where the TEL rendezvous with its resupply vehicle (dwell times at such locations are within the response time for the postured launchers). As time permits, the GSM/CGS operator requests a SAR image or confirmation from another sensor. He also verifies the trigger criteria, and refines the target location. AMC missions are "amended" with changes either in target location, time to fire, method of control, method of engagement, method of attack, or dispersal pattern. For example, using guidance from the FRAGO, the GSM/CGS operator may change the target grid to the new location and transmits the new target location to the MLRS FDC. The FDS operator then formats an amended MLRS;CFF message with the updated grid and a Method of Control of When Ready for transmission to the launcher(s). The launcher activates the missile(s) and fires the mission at the new target location. Figure A-3 depicts the decentralized execution mission. Figure A-4 provides an example of the steps involved in conducting an amended at my command mission. The paragraphs immediately following Figure A-4 provide specific staff procedures for each node.

Figure A-3. Decentralized Missions Communications Channels

Figure A-4. Example of Amended At My Command Mission

 

Staff Actions and Equipment Setup Procedures

Corps. The corps commander (or his designated representative) determines the need for decentralized execution missions based on his concept of operation, intent and guidance for attacking HPTs with short dwell times. His guidance is incorporated into taskings for the target acquisition systems and fire support units. These taskings include Engagement Areas (EAs), Named Areas of Interest (NAIs), Target Areas of Interest (TAIs), cueing and reporting instructions for sensors and instructions for "shooters". The EAs or TAIs are developed where SSM TEL activities have been identified through the IPB process. The corps matches launchers with targets through weapons target pairing. The corps sends the targets and target numbers to the MLRS battalion. The corps then clears the platoon and target area airspace (and conducts necessary coordination) for the decentralized execution missions. Careful positioning of launchers can enable them to range a majority of targets on the battlefield without moving the Launcher Loader Module due to the AFOM off axis launch capability.

The FRAGO. The FRAGO provides the execution authority for decentralized missions. It changes the mission for both the GSM/CGS and the MLRS battalion. The corps must provide reaction time (GSM/CGS travel time, database maintenance, etc.) prior to FRAGO effective time.

The FRAGO for either the GSM/CGS or MLRS Battalion should contain (not all-inclusive):

MLRS Battalion. The MLRS battalions with a decentralized execution TMD mission must ensure the locations of platoons equipped with AFOM are reported to the corps FSE for airspace deconfliction. If the platoon locations change, the battalion must inform the corps FSE so they may clear the airspace with the appropriate agencies. The battalion FDC must confirm that launchers can still range the target areas from the new firing point locations. The ammunition allocation plan must support the expected AFOM expenditures. The battalion builds fire missions (FM;CFF) from mission data contained in the FRAGO. The battalion sends the initial FM;CFF (with AMC method of control) down through the battery to the launcher. This causes the launcher to complete the mission sequence up to the point of achieving aim point, and then report ready status. This enables the launcher to be postured in a "Hot" status on a firing point for quick reaction. A launcher sitting on a firing point is vulnerable to enemy attack. Having the launcher remain in a hide location until the enemy activity warrants moving to the firing point can reduce this vulnerability. If this is not possible, the unit can rotate Hot launchers on different firing points. Like all other tactical decisions, METT-T factors apply. Commanders have the flexibility to posture their launchers any way they deem appropriate, as long as mission execution timelines are achieved.

GSM/CGS. The GSM/CGS operator initiates the execution of decentralized fire missions. When the target activity meets the trigger event criteria, the GSM/CGS sends the SYS;PTM or FM;CFF message he constructed earlier for that particular target area. In the SYS;PTM he sends the new target location and any new information concerning the target.

MLRS Battery, Platoon, and Launchers. The battery/platoon must designate launchers to "Hot" status to ensure continuity. The battalion must be informed of launcher status at all times. The firing points should be selected with great care since the launchers will be in a "Hot" status in the open for extended times. The launchers’ vulnerability to enemy air attack must be considered. If possible, the launchers should consider firing from their hide positions. Launchers may fire from hide areas or concealed firing points if the terrain permits.

Communications

GSM/CGS to FDS interface. The GSM/CGS can communicate digitally with field artillery tactical data systems such as the FDS using standard fire support message formats over wire or SINCGARS radios (recent

interoperability exercises reveal radio communications are easier to establish and maintain). The GSM/CGS and FDS have full communications capability for the following message formats:

The GSM/CGS has additional communications means. Upon arrival, the GSM/CGS crew chief and the BN FDC chief establish communications, either by radio or wire (BN FD NET). Source address and the logical name of both nodes (frequency, logical name and address are in the FRAGO or the FS ANNEX of the OPORD). The FDS should already have the GSM/CGS in his subscriber table. If so, the FDS operator simply turns the GSM/CGS subscriber on and conducts a communications check with the GSM/CGS. Once digital communications has been established, the GSM/CGS transmits datum information to the FDC with the SPRT;DATUM message.

GSM/CGS FDS Communications Requirements. The GSM/CGS to FDS data link permits passing information between the systems. The systems must be configured properly for this to occur. Table A-2 provides the configuration requirements. Consult the latest GSM/CGS and FDS technical manuals for configuration details.

CAUTION: The FDS time and date MUST match the GSM/CGS time and date or digital communications CANNOT be established.

Table A-2. GSM/CGS - FDS Configuration Requirements

ACTION

LEGAL ENTRIES

GSM/CGS FDS address 1 digit - wire mode only
GSM/CGS FDS subscriber code 8 digits - wire mode only
GSM/CGS FDS message address 1 digit - wire mode only
FDS unit subscriber code 8 digits - wire mode only
Baud mode 600bps, 1200bps
Link mode Wire, radio*
Block mode GSM/CGS transmits single or double modes
Operating mode Encrypt, clear
Target numbers 6 digits - standard numbering system (e.g. AC 1001)

* Use preamble 21 or 28 only.

Conducting a Rehearsal

CAUTION: Some GSM/CGS operators report the target with multiple target elements as a circular target, others report these type targets with length and width dimensions. Either alternative will work. However, the battalion FDC and GSM/CGS operator need to coordinate which target reporting procedure they will use during the rehearsal. If the GSM/CGS operator can identify the target critical element (e.g. SSM TEL), he should report its grid as a point target since its value surpasses all others.

Verify target numbers against the FRAGO, GSM/CGS and FDS. The corps FSE’s input to the FRAGO contains a list of target numbers used for decentralized fire missions. This permits the tasking artillery headquarters to use the same target number in the fire mission passed to the launcher to maintain mission status. Since the GSM/CGS uses a different target numbering system for intelligence reporting, the FRAGO correlates FS and GSM/CGS target numbers. This permits rapid target engagement by the proper unit. This also ensures that the GSM/CGS operator is able to go back in his track database (using his target numbering system) and find earlier target tracks if necessary. This number stays with that target through the reporting cycle and every time the GSM/CGS generates an updated report.

Verify GSM/CGS and FDS databases. The GSM/CGS crew chief and the BN FDC chief verify that the geometry, datum, fire mission and initialization data in both the GSM/CGS and the FDS are the same. Any differences must be corrected. This is easily accomplished by sending the appropriate message (unless geometry is different). All concerns about geometry should be verified by the FRAGO or by contact with the higher command. It is imperative that those critical files are the same between both systems, prior to conducting the mission. The last item to verify is system time and conduct a time hack, if necessary.

Verify unit postured to accomplish mission:

Mission rehearsal. The MLRS battalion and GSM/CGS operators should practice the decentralized execution procedures outlined in this TTP. Table A-3 provides a basic list of execution procedures to assist in the rehearsal.

Although the following procedures involve digital message traffic between the GSM/CGS and MLRS battalion, the mission can still be accomplished with voice communications. Co-locating the GSM/CGS and Battalion FDC/S3 tracks facilitates communications and coordination, however, it is not required.

Table A-3. FDS-GSM/CGS Interoperability Procedures

Step

BN FDS Procedures

GSM/CGS Procedures

1

Turn the GSM/CGS subscriber on in the FDS.

Power up the GSM/CGS equipment. Initialize GSM/CGS in accordance with operations manual to the point of operational readiness. Confirm priority with JSTARS aircraft.

2

Conduct voice commo check with the GSM/CGS on the voice and digital nets.

Conduct voice commo check with FDC on voice and digital nets.

3

 

Transmit a SPRT;DATUM message to BN FDS containing the GSM/CGS subscriber's datum information. See Note 1.

4

Verify the received SPRT;DATUM with the FRAGO (if necessary) and process the SPRT;DATUM message. Acknowledge message receipt by voice.  

5

Conduct time hack.

Verify time hack.

6

Establish/Verify Data Base files. Establish/Verify Data Base files.

7

Send appropriate messages(s) to make data bases common, if needed.

Send appropriate messages(s) to make data bases common, if needed.

8

Conduct OPCON/ Rehearsal with S-3 Conduct OPCON/ Rehearsal with S-3

9

 

Track targets for engagement, as prescribed in the FRAGO, report activity to BN S-3 voice using a SPOT report.

10

Verify / Monitor the SPOT report, anticipating the trigger event. Prepare FM;CFF (leave target location blank). Warning Order or FRAGO may be provided to firing unit(s). Launchers may be postured on firing points. See Note 2.

Request SAR, as required. Analyze SAR and confirm target for engagement. Determine final target coordinates, use SYS;PTM to report to FDC. See Note 3.

11

Verify SYS;PTM message from GSM/CGS. Update FM;CFF message prepared earlier (target location, size, method of control "WR") and send to Battery FDS (See Notes 4,5). The fire unit is already assigned the mission and is in a ready status (see step 10).  

12

Monitor mission and await mission fired report and update ammunition status. Notify GSM/CGS of missile(s) away. Update higher headquarters and await BDA from the GSM/CGS (or other source).

Request SAR, as required. Analyze SAR effects of target engagement, notify BN S-3 of BDA results.

13

Forward BDA results to higher headquarters and await further guidance.  

14

Repeat steps 10-13 until OPCON mission is complete or until receipt of a new FRAGO or mission from higher.

Repeat steps 9-12 until OPCON mission is complete or until receipt of a new FRAGO or mission from higher.

15

Continue to monitor ammunition supply, resupply, BDA, rate of fire, and guidance changes.

 

16

For training missions, repeat steps 10-13 until the GSM/CGS and FDS operators are confident they can process missions. See Note 6.

For training missions, repeat steps 9-12 until the GSM/CGS and FDS operators are confident they can process missions.

Notes:

1. The GSM/CGS operator can initialize his system using any legal datum information (including WGS 84). The SPRT;DATUM message also serves as a digital commo check.

2. Warning Orders and FRAGOs may be found in FM 101-5, page 7-2 to 7-4 and page G-84. Consideration for posturing of launchers may be found in FM 6-60, pages 4-19 to 4-20. AMC could be sent to the launchers from Battalion, allowing enough time for launcher to react while not leaving launcher exposed on a firing point for extended periods.

3. The information the FDC requires is updated target location, size and activity. Although the GSM/CGS can prepare and transmit a FM;CFF message (*), the SYS;PTM from the GSM/CGS is preferred as the FDC ultimately processes all FM;CFFs and any amendments directly on the LCU. This reduces possible operator errors and saves time during transmissions and conversions.

4. AMC and WR mission flow is discussed in the Employment of JSTARS and GSM/CGS in support of decentralized execution missions paragraph in this appendix.

5. * Caution: The GSM/CGS cannot re-execute messages (e.g., the SYS;PTM or FM;CFF). Re-executing the FM;CFF (at the FDS) may cause the coordinates to creep (change). This is because of different datums and conversions that occur between the GSM/CGS and FDS. The FDS operator must check transformed coordinates from the first execution against (updated) GSM/CGS coordinates. Avoid errors at the FDS by clearing the SB field in the comm line before re-executing the message if coordinate conversion was successfully performed. This keys the FDS that the coordinates are now in the FDS’ datum.

6. Rehearsals. To support unit training / practice opportunities, Table A-3 steps 10-15 may be used to support the training scenario. Additional modifications to the scenario can be made to incorporate additional commander's guidance, resupply actions, ground movement, or other tactical requirements and achieve the proper training benefit.

Common Ground Station (CGS) Employment Against Moving Targets

Chapter 5 discusses the employment considerations for attacking moving armored targets using Block II. This portion deals with the CGS procedures that support this mission. The CGS is discussed here versus the GSM/CGS since it will be the fielded processor for JSTARS when Block II is fielded.

Monitoring Initial NAIs. Within a corps-size area of interest and operations, the CGS can quickly become over tasked if the system is expected to collect against many NAIs. The CGS operator can overlay the NAIs with area control boxes that serve to indicate/verify enemy movement and intentions (see Figure A-4). For example, a 50 km area control box could be used for main routes. This would provide the same information as four or five NAIs, and the operator would never lose sight of the NAIs contained in the box. This does not preclude the use of NAIs to support target engagements.

Figure A-4. CGS Display of Area Control Box

The CGS operator can confirm or deny enemy activity when cued by the ACE or sensors that provide overwatch within the area control box. The operator has access to IEW data bases via SATCOM data links and can use imagery, message or analytical interface with the ASAS to support the monitoring of the area control boxes. The UAV GCS and the JTT links also provide information. The ATACMS Block II targets (large group of moving ACVs) appear as a succession of moving target indicator (MTI) dots on the CGS display. As targets are tracked, the operator may submit Artillery Target Intelligence (ATI) messages to alert fire units of impending engagements and commence automatic target tracking and group related targets into sets. The ETA of the targets into the TAIs may also be determined.

Tracking Targets in NAIs

As targets proceed into the NAIs outside the area control box, there is more interaction between the CGS and JSTARS and AFATDS. Prior to this time, various sensors have confirmed enemy movement. Generally speaking, JSTARS performed a Wide Area Surveillance (WAS) and information was verified by other Intelligence sources. If the CGS operator is authorized to coordinate directly with the aircraft, he may send Radar Service Request (RSR) messages requesting specific WAS scan modes which include:

  • Sector Search (SS)
  • Attack Planning.(AP)
  • Small Area Target Classification (SATC)
  • Attack Control (AC)

These subsets of MTI are used in special cases when a critical targeting asset is used against a HPT. In the SS scan the radar focuses on a smaller field of view and provides updates faster than it does in the WAS mode. The AP and AC modes respectively increase update rates. SATC differentiates between wheeled and tracked vehicles out to a certain range.

A sequence of events is presented in Figure A-5. The CGS operator monitors targets as they move through the NAIs. For each identified target which meets predefined DP the operator determines a predicted target time of arrival into the adjacent TAI. This predetermined position is the Predicted Engagement Point (PEP). Target changes are reported by way of the Artillery Target Intelligence- Coordinate Report (ATI;CDR), FM-CFF, System-Plain Text Message (SYS;PTM), or voice (the method should be agreed to and rehearsed). GSM/CGS operators also have the capability to send free text messages, such as Size, Activity, Location, Unit, Time, Equipment (SALUTE) reports as required. Initial Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) requests to support Battle Damage Assessments (BDA) requirements may also be submitted at this time.

Figure A-5. Sequence of Target Tracking Events

The CGS can receive imagery from UAVs. The UAVs can complement JSTARS by providing additional information on target characteristics. To display UAV imagery, the CGS operator creates a UAV video window in the operator display (Figure A-6). The CGS can record both JSTARS and UAV imagery and play it back for analysis.

Figure A-6. Example of UAV Video Window on a CGS Display

While the target moves toward the TAI, the CGS operator can submit Radar Service Requests (RSR) for BDA on the target after it is engaged. He submits an AP/SATC next; specifying the location, timing and duration of the request. The AC footprint with specified location, timing and duration is subsequently established at the TAI. (Within this region, the TAI DP will occur, as defined in the fire plan.) The AC footprint is set until the approaching alert appears. Within the AP/SATC (and earlier if possible) the CGS operator will begin to segment the moving array. Radar tracks and associated target numbers are correlated during the time the arrays move through the NAIs to the TAIs. These are refined with each successive use of the AC/AP/SATC.