Fire Support for Digitized Division Operations
Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures


 

Appendix A

Force XXI Division Fire Support Systems

This appendix provides a brief description of present and future fire support and field artillery systems and munitions that the digitized DIVARTY will employ.

FIRE SUPPORT SYSTEMS

Bradley Fire Support Team Vehicle (BFIST)

The BFIST replaces the M981 FIST vehicle (FISTV) in the active forces and consists of two models the M7 and the M7A1. Both versions have the same mobility, survivability, signature, and night vision capability as the maneuver force they support and will utilize Bradley common repair parts.

M7 BFIST

The M7 integrates FIST Mission Equipment (FME) with an M3A2 Operation Desert Storm (ODS) chassis. It maintains the existing Bradley signature and will significantly improve reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), mobility and survivability. The major subsystems are an inertial navigational system, SINCGARS, a precision lightweight GPS receiver (PLGR), a G/VLLD, AN/UAS-12B, Battlefield Combat Identification System (BCIS) and an LCU.

M7A1 BFIST

The M7A1 combines a digitized M2A3 chassis with FME. M7A1 will expedite mission processing from multiple platforms through the vehicleís core electronic architecture and increase target acquisition and identification with second generation forward looking infrared radar (FLIR), the Driver Thermal Viewer (DTV) and Commanderís Independent Viewer (CIV). The M7A1 will be the digital link between vertical fire support and horizontal maneuver systems.

RADAR

AN/TPQ-47 Firefinder Radar

The Q47 Firefinder is deployable worldwide, has substantial increases in range and target throughout, and will operate in varying climatic conditions. It is more survivable, more transportable, more mobile, easier to repair, more durable, and life-cost is less than the current Firefinder Q-37. The Q47 will provide for forward maintenance support and employ future maintenance concepts to increase sustainability. It will be integrated into the targeting structure by interfacing with such systems as current and projected Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Theater Defense Missile (TMD) systems and others including Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), joint systems such as the Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS), and AFATDS. Enhancements will allow the system to detect, locate, and classify hostile indirect fire sources at ranges up to 300 kilometers, to include ballistic missile launchers. Interoperating digitally with fire direction and intelligence systems, the Q47 will facilitate nearly instantaneous lethal response against acquired enemy attack systems.

AN/TPQ-36 (V8) Firefinder Radar

The AN/TPQ-36 (V8) electronics upgrade eliminates the S-250 shelter and provides a flat panel display/control unit mounted in a Lightweight Multi-purpose Shelter (LMS). LMS provides environmental control, on board backup power, room for system growth and commonality with the Armyís future family of shelters. A hard disc and compact disc drive system will be provided. Also, a software upgrade to extend probability of location and improve the false target problem is included.

MULTIPLE LAUNCH ROCKET SYSTEM (MLRS)

The MLRS is a self-propelled, armored rocket launcher with a crew of three men. It is found in the heavy divisions and in the FA brigades of the corps artillery. The MLRS M270, Self-Propelled Launcher Loader (SPLL) is a rocket and missile firing platform. It is composed of the M993, extended Bradley carrier and the M269, Launcher/Loader Module (LLM). The LLM is a box-like unit that contains a built-in self-loading system capable of servicing the MLRS Family of Munitions (MFOM). The LLM holds two launch pod containers (LPCs). The M270 carrier cab houses the Fire Control System (FCS). The FCS computes firing data that is applied to the LLM via the Stabilization Reference Package/Position Determining System (SRP/PDS) and the LLM Launcher Drive System (LDS). The components, as a whole, apply position survey, vehicle heading reference, and aiming stabilization. The system utilizes standard Army communications systems to transmit and receive digital communications. When the Improved Fire Control System (IFCS) and Improved Launcher Mechanical System (ILMS) system material changes are applied, the launcher is designated as an M270A1.

MLRS Improved Fire Control System (IFCS)

The Multiple Launched Rocket System Improved Fire Control System is a material change to the current fire control system which replaces impending obsolete electronics with an open architecture system capable of supporting future M270 family on munitions (MFOM) weapon systems well into the next century. The feature includes reduced operations and sustainment costs, improved command and control, improved man machine and weapons interfaces, improved position navigation, low level wind measuring capability and embedded GPS. It will also take advantage of built in test maintenance/diagnostic interfaces.

MLRS Improved Launcher Mechanical System (ILMS)

MLRS Improved Launcher Mechanical System is a material change to the launcher which provides MLRS units the capability to attack critical, fleeting targets (e.g., SCUD multiple rocket launchers (MRL) and shoot-and-scoot howitzers). The ILMS also provides enhanced survivability of the launcher crew through quicker stow and displacement times; and enhances survivability of the entire force by providing for more rapid reload of rockets and missiles. The ILMS reduces operations and sustainment costs by reducing the number of batteries required on the launcher, utilizing improved hydraulics, and numerous other base and turret assembly improvements.

CRUSADER

The Crusader is the premier Army XXI attack system. It consists of the next generation self-propelled howitzer (SPH) and its companion resupply vehicle (RSV). The Crusader provides unprecedented lethality based on system responsiveness and rate of fire. The entire fire control and ammunition handling system for both the howitzer and RSV is automated. A solid propellant system called the modular artillery charge system features identical charges that can be handled with automated equipment. The RSV will automatically dock and transfer its 130 round basic load of ammunition and refuel the Crusader in 12 minutes. The rate of fire of the Crusader is 10 to 12 rounds per minute. A multiple round simultaneous impact (MRSI) capability allows one Crusader to deliver 4 to 8 rounds on a target within four seconds in a surprise fire-for-effect mode. Increased survivability is achieved by an integrated defense system that includes stealth design, lighter-weight armor protection, a specially protected three-man crew compartment, NBC collective protection, and the ability to make rapid survivability moves using shoot and scoot tactics to avoid enemy counterfire. The Crusader has a 30-40 km unassisted and a 40-50 km assisted range. It has a 60-75 round on-board storage capacity. The RSV has equal mobility to the Crusader, a three man crew and can upload its 130 round basic load and refuel in 65 minutes.

MUNITIONS

CANNON

XM982 Extended Range Dual Purpose Improved Munition (ER-DPICM)

The XM982 extended range dual purpose improved conventional munition projectile utilizes both base bleed and rocket assist propulsion to achieve extended ranges beyond the current capabilities of the M483A1 or M864. The probable errors associated with extended ranges are nullified through the use of accuracy enhancements. The XM982 is targeted against trucks, personnel, light material, and lightly armored tracked and wheeled vehicles. The warhead is composed of 85 XM80 DPICM bomblets with self-destruct mechanisms. The maximum associated ranges are 37 kilometers with the M109A6 and M198 and 47 kilometers with the Crusader.

Sense And Destroy Armor (SADARM)

The sense and destroy armor projectile is a 155mm fire and forget, top attack, counterfire munition. The system utilizes millimeter wave radar and infrared sensors to locate targets and provide countermeasure resistance. The warhead is an explosively formed penetrator designed for top attack penetration of self-propelled howitzers and lightly armored combat vehicles. SADARM provides the same effectiveness as the M483A1 DPICM with 80 percent fewer projectiles. The product improved SADARM XM982A2 will utilize cost efficient electronics, improved sensors, and a larger footprint to double SADARMís effectiveness. The maximum associated ranges are 22.5 kilometers with the M109A6 and M198 and 28 kilometers with the Crusader.

ARMY TACTICAL MISSILE SYSTEM

ATACMS Block I

ATACMS Block I is designed to engage "soft" stationary targets to a range of 165 km. The target set includes air defense units, C3, surface to surface missile units, logistical site and helicopter forward operating bases. ATACMS Block I is a semi-ballistic, all weather, and highly responsive missile. The missile carries approximately 950 anti-personnel, anti-material M74 bomblets. It has three programmable dispense patterns and has off-axis launch capability. One M270 launcher load is equal to two missiles. Each missile can be shot within 20 seconds of each other and at different targets.

ATACMS Block IA

ATACMS Block IA complements Block I and is designed to engage "soft" targets to a 300 km range. The target set includes air defense units, C3, surface to surface missile units, logistical site and helicopter forward operating bases. ATACMS Block IA is a semi-ballistic, all weather, and highly responsive missile. The missile carries approximately 310 anti-personnel, anti-material M74 bomblets. The missile maintains its effectiveness over the greater range due to its embedded GPS guidance system. The ATACMS Block IA is fired from M270 launchers that are modified with the Improved Position Determining System (IPDS), a GPS antenna, various interface cables, and new armored doors at the back of the launcher loader module. It has three programmable dispense patterns and has off-axis launch capability. One M270A1 launcher load is equal to two rockets. Each missile can be shot within 20 seconds of each other and at different targets.

ATACMS Block II

ATACMS Block II is a semi-ballistic, surface to surface guided missile that carries 13 BAT or BAT P3I submunitions to ranges out to 140 kms. The ATACMS Block II missile is an adaptation of the ATACMS Block I missile fielded with modifications to accommodate the BAT submunition. The primary target set for the missile are large battalion size concentrations of moving armor. Once dispensed the BAT submunition is capable of autonomously seeking and destroying moving armored targets through use of acoustic and infrared sensors. The BAT P3I submunitions will expand the target set to include hot or cold, stationary or moving hard or soft targets including surface to surface missile transporter erector launchers.

ATACMS Block IIA

ATACMS Block IIA is a semi-ballistic, surface to surface guided missile that carries 6 BAT P3I submunitions to ranges from 100 to 300 kilometers. It will have GPS augmented inertial guidance and off axis launch capability. Once dispensed the BAT P3I submunition is capable of autonomously seeking and destroying moving or stationary targets through use of acoustic, millimeter wave and infrared sensors. The BAT P3I submunitions target set includes hot or cold, stationary or moving hard or soft targets including surface to surface missile transporter erector launchers. The submunition has increased performance over the basic BAT submunition in adverse weather and countermeasure environments.

MLRS ROCKETS

M26 Tactical Rocket

The MLRS M26 is a free flight unguided tactical rocket that provides an all weather, indirect fire capability designed to complement cannon fires. The M26 range is approximately 32 kilometers.

Extended Range Rocket (ER-MLRS)

The ER-MLRS rocket effort consists of a materiel change to the M26 rocket. The extended range of the M26 is increased to 45 kms and includes efforts to bring the dud rate to less than 1%. The warhead is composed of 518 XM85 submunitions.

Guided MLRS Rocket (GMLRS)

The GMLRS is an improvement in accuracy to reduce rocket expenditure to one-sixth the current quantity at maximum ranges. With the addition of low-cost jam proof guidance and control, a two to three mil delivery accuracy is achieved. The maximum range is out to 60 kms. The improved accuracy of the rocket reduces a units logistics burden, increases crew survivability, and reduces collateral damage by increasing the capability to engage point targets.

MLRS Smart Tactical Rocket (MSTAR)

The MSTAR will be a guided MLRS rocket carrying smart submunitions out to a range of approximately 60 kilometers. After dispense these submunitions will use onboard sensors to detect, classify and engage stationary or moving targets.

 

RANGES

Table A-1. MLRS/ATACMS

TYPE

MIN RANGE (KM)

MAX RANGE (KM)

SUBMUNITION

MLRS ROCKETS

M26

10.0

32.5

644 M77

EXTENDED RANGE

13.0

45.0

518 XM85

GUIDED

15.0

60.0

409 XM85

MSTAR

15.0

60.0

3 TGW

ATACMS MISSILES

     

BLOCK I

25.0

165.0

950 APAM

BLOCK IA

70.0

300.0

300 APAM

BLOCK II

35.0

140.0

13 BAT

BLOCK IIA

100.0

300.0

6 BAT

 

Table A-2. 155mm Cannon

TYPE

PALADIN RANGE (KM)

CRUSADER RANGE (KM)

155MM

   

XM982, ER DPICM

37.0

47.0

XM898 SADARM

21.8

25.0

SADARM P3I

22.5

28.2 (2 SMs/rd)

M107 HE

17.8

18.5

M110A2 Smoke, WP

18.1

18.5

M116A1 HC

18.1

18.5

M549 HERA

29.9

40.7

M483A1 DPICM

17.7

22.6

M692/M731 ADAM

17.7

22.6

M718/M741 RAAM

17.8

22.6

M795 HE

22.3

27.3

M825A1 Smoke, WP

21.7

22.6

M864 DPICM (BB)

27.3

36.0