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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U -V - W - X - Y - Z

A

Ammunition

Generic term related mainly to articles of military application consisting of all kind of bombs, grenades, rockets, mines, projectiles and other similar devices or contrivances.

AMMUNITION, ILLUMINATING with or without burster, expelling charge or propelling charge

Ammunition designed to produce a single source of intense light for lighting up an area. The term includes illuminating cartridges, grenades and projectiles; and illuminating and target identification bombs. The term excludes the following articles which are listed separately: CARTRIDGES, SIGNAL; SIGNAL DEVICES, HAND; SIGNALS, DISTRESS; FLARES, AERIAL and FLARES, SURFACE.

AMMUNITION, INCENDIARY

Ammunition containing incendiary substance which may be a solid, liquid or gel including white phosphorus. Except when the composition is an explosive per se, it also contains one or more of the following: a propelling charge with primer and igniter charge; a fuze with burster or expelling charge. The term incLudes:

AMMUNITION, INCENDIARY, liquid or gel, with burster, expelling charge or propelling charge;
AMMUNITION, INCENDIARY with or without burster, expelling charge or propelling charge;
AMMUNITION, INCENDIARY, WHITE PHOSPHORUS with burster, expelling charge or propelling charge.

AMMUNITION, PRACTICE

Ammunition without a main bursting charge, containing a burster or expelling charge. Normally it also contains a fuze and a propelling charge. The term excludes the following articles which are listed separately: GRENADES, PRACTICE.

AMMUNITION, PROOF

Ammunition containing pyrotechnic substances, used to test the performance or strength of new ammunition, weapon component or assemblies.

AMMUNITION, SMOKE

Ammunition containing smoke-producing substance such as chlorosulphonic acid mixture, titanium tetrachloride or white phosphorus; or smoke-producing pyrotechnic composition based on hexachloroethane or red phosphorus. Except when the substance is an explosive per se, the ammunition also contains one or more of the following: a propelling charge with primer and igniter charge; a fuze with burster or expelling charge. The term includes grenades, smoke but excludes SIGNALS, SMOKE which are listed separately. The term includes:

AMMUNITION, SMOKE with or without burster, expelling charge or propelling charge;
AMMUNITION, SMOKE, WHITE PHOSPHORUS with burster, expelling charge or propelling charge.

AMMUNITION, TEAR-PRODUCING with burster, expelling charge or propelling charge

Ammunition containing tear-producing substance. It also contains one or more of the following: a pyrotechnic substance; a propelling charge with primer and igniter charge; a fuze with burster or expelling charge.

AMMUNITION, TOXIC with burster, expelling charge or propelling charge

Ammunition containing toxic agent. It also contains one or more of the following: a pyrotechnic substance; a propelling charge with primer and igniter charge; a fuze with burster or expelling charge.

ARTICLES, EXPLOSIVE, EXTREMELY INSENSITIVE (ARTICLES, EEI)

Articles that contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and which demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation (under normal conditions of transport) and which have passed Test Series 7.

ARTICLES, PYROPHORIC

Articles which contain a pyrophoric substance (capable of spontaneous ignition when exposed to air) and an explosive substance or component. The term excludes articles containing white phosphorus.

ARTICLES, PYROTECHNIC for technical purposes

Articles which contain pyrotechnic substances and are used for technical purposes such as heat generation, gas generation, theatrical effects, etc. The term excludes the following articles which are listed separately: all ammunition; CARTRIDGES, SIGNAL; CUTTERS, CABLE, EXPLOSIVE; FIREWORKS; FLARES, AERIAL; FLARES, SURFACE; RELEASE DEVICES, EXPLOSIVE; RIVETS, EXPLOSIVE; SIGNAL DEVICES, HAND; SIGNALS, DISTRESS; SIGNALS, RAILWAY TRACK, EXPLOSIVE; SIGNALS, SMOKE.

B

BLACK POWDER (GUNPOWDER)

Substance consisting of an intimate mixture of charcoal or other carbon and either potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate, with or without sulphur. It may be meal, granular, compressed or pelletized.

Bombs

Explosive articles which are dropped from aircraft. They may contain a flammable liquid with bursting charge, a photo-flash composition or a bursting charge. The term excludes torpedoes (aerial) and includes:

BOMBS, PHOTO-FLASH;
BOMBS with bursting charge;
BOMBS WITH FLAMMABLE LIQUID with bursting charge.

BOOSTERS

Articles consisting of a charge of detonating explosive with or without means of initiation. They are used to increase the initiating power of detonators or detonating cord.

BURSTERS, explosive

Articles consisting of a small charge of explosive used to open projectiles, or other ammunition in order to disperse their contents.

C

Cartridges, blank

Articles which consist of a cartridge case with a centre or rim fire primer and a confined charge of smokeless or black powder but no projectile. Used for training, saluting or in starter pistols, etc.

CARTRIDGES, FLASH

Articles consisting of a casing, a primer and flash powder, all assembled in one piece ready for firing.

Cartridges for Weapons

  1. Fixed (assembled) or semi-fixed (partially-assembled) ammunition designed to be fired from weapons. Each cartridge includes all the components necessary to function the weapon once. The name and description shall be used for small arms cartridges that cannot be described as "cartridges, small arms". Separate loading ammunition is included under this name and description when the propelling charge and projectile are packed together (see also "Cartridges, blank").
  2. Incendiary, smoke, toxic and tear-producing cartridges are described in this Glossary under AMMUNITION, INCENDIARY etc.
CARTRIDGES FOR WEAPONS, INERT PROJECTILE

Ammunition consisting of a projectile without bursting charge but with a propelling charge. The presence of a tracer can be disregarded for classification purposes provided that the predominant hazard is that of the propelling charge.

CARTRIDGES, OIL WELL

Articles consisting of a casing of thin fibre, metal or other material containing only propellant which projects a hardened projectile. The term excludes the following articles which are listed separately: CHARGES, SHAPED.

CARTRIDGES, POWER DEVICE

Articles designed to accomplish mechanical actions. They consist of a casing with a charge of deflagrating explosive and a means of ignition. The gaseous products of the deflagration produce inflation, or linear or rotary motion, or activate diaphragms, valves or switches or project fastening devices or extinguishing agents.

CARTRIDGES, SIGNAL

Articles designed to fire coloured flares or other signals from signal pistols, etc.

CARTRIDGES, SMALL ARMS

Ammunition consisting of a cartridge case fitted with a centre or rim fire primer and containing both a propelling charge and a solid projectile. They are designed to be fired in weapons of calibre not larger than 19.1 mm. Shot-gun cartridges of any calibre are included in this description. The term excludes: CARTRIDGES, SMALL ARMS, BLANK listed separately in the Dangerous Goods List; and some small arms cartridges which are listed under CARTRIDGES FOR WEAPONS, INERT PROJECTILE.

CASES, CARTRIDGE, EMPTY, WITH PRIMER

Articles consisting of a cartridge case made from metal, plastics or other non-flammable material, in which the only explosive component is the primer.

CASES, COMBUSTIBLE, EMPTY, WITHOUT PRIMER

Articles consisting of cartridge cases made partly or entirely from nitrocellulose.

Charges, bursting

Articles consisting of a charge of detonating explosive such as hexolite, octolite or plastics bonded explosive designed to produce effect by blast or fragmentation.

CHARGES, DEMOLITION

Articles containing a charge of a detonating explosive in a casing of fibreboard, plastics, metal or other material. The term excludes the following articles which are listed separately: bombs, mines, etc.

CHARGES, DEPTH

Articles consisting of a charge of detonating explosive contained in a drum or projectile. They are designed to detonate under water.

Charges, expelling

A charge of deflagrating explosive designed to eject the payload from the parent articles without damage.

CHARGES, EXPLOSIVE, COMMERCIAL without detonator

Articles consisting of a charge of detonating explosive without means of initiation, used for explosive welding, jointing, forming and other metallurgical processes.

CHARGES, PROPELLING

Articles consisting of a propellant charge in any physical form, with or without a casing, for use as a component of rocket motors or for reducing the drag of projectiles.

CHARGES, PROPELLING FOR CANNON

Articles consisting of a propellant charge in any physical form, with or without a casing, for use in a cannon.

CHARGES, SHAPED, without detonator

Articles consisting of a casing containing a charge of detonating explosive with a cavity lined with rigid material, without means of initiation. They are designed to produce a powerful, penetrating jet effect.

CHARGES, SHAPED, FLEXIBLE, LINEAR

Articles consisting of a V-shaped core of a detonating explosive clad by a flexible metal sheath.

CHARGES, SUPPLEMENTARY, EXPLOSIVE

Articles consisting of a small removable booster used in the cavity of a projectile between the fuze and the bursting charge.

COMPONENTS, EXPLOSIVE TRAIN, N.O.S.

Articles containing an explosive designed to transmit the detonation or deflagration within an explosive train.

CONTRIVANCES, WATER-ACTIVATED with burster, expelling charge or propelling charge

Articles whose functioning depends upon physico-chemical reaction of their contents with water.

CORD, DETONATING, flexible

Article consisting of a core of detonating explosive enclosed in spun fabric, with plastics or other covering unless the spun fabric is sift-proof.

CORD (FUSE), DETONATING, metal clad

Article consisting of a core of detonating explosive clad by a soft metal tube with or without protective covering. When the core contains a sufficiently small quantity of explosive, the words "MILD EFFECT" are added.

CORD, IGNITER

Article consisting of textile yarns covered with black powder or another fast burning pyrotechnic composition and of a flexible protective covering; or it consists of a core of black powder surrounded by a flexible woven fabric. It burns progressively along its length with an external flame and is used to transmit ignition from a device to a charge or primer.

CUTTERS, CABLE, EXPLOSIVE

Articles consisting of a knife-edged device which is driven by a small charge of deflagrating explosive into an anvil.

D

DETONATOR ASSEMBLIES, NON-ELECTRIC for blasting

Non-electric detonators assembled with and activated by such means as safety fuse, shock tube, flash tube or detonating cord. They may be of instantaneous design or incorporate delay elements. Detonating relays incorporating detonating cord are included. Other detonating relays are included in "Detonators, non-electric".

Detonators

Articles consisting of a small metal or plastics tube containing explosives such as lead azide, PETN or combinations of explosives. They are designed to start a detonation train. They may be constructed to detonate instantaneously, or may contain a delay element. The term includes:

DETONATORS FOR AMMUNITION and
DETONATORS for blasting, both ELECTRIC and NON-ELECTRIC.

Detonating relays without flexible detonating cord are included.

E

Entire load and total contents

The phrases "entire load" and "total contents" mean such a substantial proportion that the practical hazard shall be assessed by assuming simultaneous explosion of the whole of the explosive content of the load or package.

Explode

The verb used to indicate those explosive effects capable of endangering life and property through blast, heat and projection of missiles. It encompasses both deflagration and detonation.

Explosion of the total contents

The phrase "explosion of the total contents" is used in testing a single article or package or a small stack of articles or packages.

Explosive, blasting

Detonating explosive substances used in mining, construction and similar tasks. Blasting explosives are assigned to one of five types. In addition to the ingredients listed, blasting explosives may also contain inert components such as kieselguhr, and minor ingredients such as colouring agents and stabilizers.

EXPLOSIVE, BLASTING, TYPE A

Substances consisting of liquid organic nitrates such as nitroglycerin or a mixture of such ingredients with one or more of the following: nitrocellulose; ammonium nitrate or other inorganic nitrates; aromatic nitro-derivatives, or combustible materials, such as wood-meal and aluminium powder. Such explosives shall be in powdery, gelatinous or elastic form.

The term includes dynamite gelatine, blasting and gelatine dynamites.

EXPLOSIVE, BLASTING, TYPE B

Substances consisting of (a) a mixture of ammonium nitrate or other inorganic nitrates with an explosive such as trinitrotoluene, with or without other substances such as wood-meal and aluminium powder, or (b) a mixture of ammonium nitrate or other inorganic nitrates with other combustible substances which are not explosive ingredients. Such explosives shall not contain nitroglycerin, similar liquid organic nitrates, or chlorates.

EXPLOSIVE, BLASTING, TYPE C

Substances consisting of a mixture of either potassium or sodium chlorate or potassium, sodium or ammonium perchlorate with organic nitro-derivatives or combustible materials such as wood-meal or aluminium powder or a hydrocarbon. Such explosives shall not contain nitroglycerin or similar liquid organic nitrates.

EXPLOSIVE, BLASTING, TYPE D

Substances consisting of a mixture of organic nitrated compounds and combustible materials such as hydrocarbons and aluminium powder. Such explosives shall not contain nitroglycerin, similar liquid organic nitrates, chlorates or ammonium nitrate. The term generally includes plastic explosives.

EXPLOSIVE, BLASTING, TYPE E

Substances consisting of water as an essential ingredient and high proportions of ammonium nitrate or other oxidizers, some or all of which are in solution. The other constituents may include nitro-derivatives such as trinitrotoluene, hydrocarbons or aluminium powder.

The term includes explosives, emulsion; explosives slurry and explosives, watergel.

Explosive, deflagrating

A substance, e.g. propellant, which reacts by deflagration rather than detonation when ignited and used in its normal manner.

Explosive, detonating

A substance which reacts by detonation rather than deflagration when initiated and used in its normal manner.

EXPLOSIVE, EXTREMELY INSENSITIVE DETONATING SUBSTANCE (EIDS)

A substance which, although capable of sustaining a detonation, has demonstrated through tests that it is so insensitive that there is very little probability of accidental initiation.

Explosive, primary

Explosive substance manufactured with a view to producing a practical effect by explosion which is very sensitive to heat, impact or friction and which, even in very small quantities, either detonates or burns very rapidly. It is able to transmit detonation (in the case of initiating explosive) or deflagration to secondary explosives close to it. The main primary explosives are mercury fulminate, lead azide and lead styphnate.

Explosive, secondary

Explosive substance which is relatively insensitive (when compared to primary explosives), which is usually initiated by primary explosives with or without the aid of boosters or supplementary charges. Such an explosive may react as a deflagrating or as a detonating explosive.

F

FIREWORKS

Pyrotechnic articles designed for entertainment.

Flares

Articles containing pyrotechnic substances which are designed for use to illuminate, identify, signal or warn. The term includes:

FLARES, AERIAL;
FLARES, SURFACE.

FLASH POWDER

Pyrotechnic substance which, when ignited, produces an intense light.

FRACTURING DEVICES, EXPLOSIVE for oil wells, without detonator

Articles consisting of a charge of detonating explosive contained in a casing without means of initiation. They are used to fracture the rock around a drill shaft to assist the flow of crude oil from the rock.

Fuse/Fuze (English text only)

Although these two words have a common origin (French fusée, fusil) and are sometimes considered to be different spellings, it is useful to maintain the convention that fuse refers to a cord-like igniting device whereas fuze refers to a device used in ammunition which incorporates mechanical, electrical, chemical or hydrostatic components to initiate a train by deflagration or detonation.

FUSE, IGNITER, tubular, metal clad

Article consisting of a metal tube with a core of deflagrating explosive.

FUSE, INSTANTANEOUS, NON-DETONATING (QUICKMATCH)

Article consisting of cotton yarns impregnated with fine black powder (Quickmatch). It burns wih an external flame and is used in ignition trains for fireworks, etc.

FUSE, SAFETY

Article consisting of a core of fine grained black powder surrounded by a flexible woven fabric with one or more protective outer coverings. When ignited, it burns at a predetermined rate without any external explosive effect.

Fuzes

Articles designed to start a detonation or a deflagration in ammunition. They incorporate mechanical, electrical, chemical or hydrostatic components and generally protective features. The term includes:

FUZES, DETONATING;
FUZES, DETONATING with protective features;
FUZES, IGNITING.

G

GRENADES, hand or rifle

Articles which are designed to be thrown by hand or to be projected by a rifle. The term includes:

GRENADES, hand or rifle, with bursting charge;
GRENADES, PRACTICE, hand or rifle.

The term excludes grenades, smoke which are listed under AMMUNITION, SMOKE.

I

IGNITERS

Articles containing one or more explosive substances used to start deflagration in an explosive train. They may be actuated chemically, electrically or mechanically. This term excludes the following articles which are listed separately: CORD, IGNITER; FUSE, IGNITER; FUSE, INSTANTANEOUS, NON-DETONATING; FUZES, IGNITING; LIGHTERS, FUSE; PRIMERS, CAP TYPE; PRIMERS, TUBULAR.

Ignition, means of

A general term used in connection with the method employed to ignite a deflagrating train of explosive or pyrotechnic substances (for example: a primer for a propelling charge; an igniter for a rocket motor; an igniting fuze).

Initiation, means of

  1. A device intended to cause the detonation of an explosive (for example: detonator; detonator for ammunition; detonating fuze).
  2. The term "with its own means of initiation" means that the contrivance has its normal initiating device assembled to it and this device is considered to present a significant risk during transport but not one great enough to be unacceptable. The term does not apply, however, to a contrivance packed together with its means of initiation provided the device is packaged so as to eliminate the risk of causing detonation of the contrivance in the event of accidental functioning of the initiating device. The means of initiating can even be assembled to the contrivance provided there are protective features such that the device is very unlikely to cause detonation of the contrivance in conditions which are associated with transport.
  3. For the purposes of classification any means of initiation without two effective protective features shall be regarded as Compatibility Group B; an article with its own means of initiation, without two effective protective features, would be Compatibility Group F. On the other hand a means of initiation which itself possesses two effective protective features would be Compatibility Group D; and an article with a means of initiation which possesses two effective protective features would be Compatibility Group D or E. Means of initiation adjudged as having two effective protective features shall have been approved by the competent national authority. A common and effective way of achieving the necessary degree of protection is to use a means of initiation which incorporates two or more independent safety features.

J

JET PERFORATING GUNS, CHARGED, oil well, without detonator

Articles consisting of a steel tube or metallic strip, into which are inserted shaped charges connected by detonating cord, without means of initiation.

L

LIGHTERS, FUSE

Articles of various design actuated by friction, percussion or electricity and used to ignite safety fuse.

M

Mass explosion

Explosion which affects almost the entire load virtually instantaneously.

MINES

Articles consisting normally of metal or composition receptacles and a bursting charge. They are designed to be operated by the passage of ships, vehicles or personnel. The term includes "Bangalore torpedoes".

O

OXYGEN GENERATORS, CHEMICAL

Oxygen generators, chemical, are devices containing chemicals which upon activation releases oxygen as a product of chemical reaction. Chemical oxygen generators are used for the generation of oxygen for respiratory support, e.g. in aircraft, submarines, spacecraft, bomb shelters and breathing apparatus. Oxidizing salts such as chlorates and perchlorates of lithium, sodium and potassium, which are used in chemical oxygen generators, evolve oxygen when heated. These salts are mixed (compounded) with a fuel, usually iron powder, to form a chlorate candle, which produces oxygen by continuous reaction. The fuel is used to generate heat by oxidation. Once the reaction begins, oxygen is released from the hot salt by thermal decompostion (a termal shield is used around the generaotr). A portion of the oxygen reacts with the fuel to produce more heat which produces more oxygen, and so on. Initiation of the reaction can be achieved by a percussion device, friction device or electric wire.

P

POWDER CAKE (POWDER PASTE), WETTED

Substance consisting of nitrocellulose impregnated with not more than 60% of nitroglycerin or other liquid organic nitrates or a mixture of these.

POWDER, SMOKELESS

Substance based on nitrocellulose used as propellant. The term includes propellants with a single base (nitrocellulose (NC) alone), those with a double base (such as NC and nitroglycerin (NG)) and those with a triple base (such as NC/NG/nitroguanidine). Cast, pressed or bag-charges of smokeless powder are listed under "CHARGES, PROPELLING" or "CHARGES, PROPELLING FOR CANNON".

PRIMERS, CAP TYPE

Articles consisting of a metal or plastics cap containing a small amount of primary explosive mixture that is readily ignited by impact. They serve as igniting elements in small arms cartridges, and in percussion primers for propelling charges.

PRIMERS, TUBULAR

Articles consisting of a primer for ignition and an auxiliary charge of deflagrating explosive such as black powder used to ignite the propelling charge in a cartridge case for cannon, etc.

PROJECTILES

Articles such as a shell or bullet which are projected from a cannon or other artillery gun, rifle or other small arm. They may be inert, with or without tracer, or may contain a burster or expelling charge or a bursting charge. The term includes:

PROJECTILES, inert, with tracer;
PROJECTILES with burster or expelling charge;
PROJECTILES with bursting charge.

PROPELLANTS

Deflagrating explosive used for propulsion or for reducing the drag of projectiles.

PROPELLANTS, LIQUID

Substances consisting of a deflagrating liquid explosive, used for propulsion.

PROPELLANTS, SOLID

Substances consisting of a deflagrating solid explosive, used for propulsion.

R

RELEASE DEVICES, EXPLOSIVE

Articles consisting of a small charge of explosive with means of initiation. They sever rods or links to release equipment quickly.

ROCKET MOTORS

Articles consisting of a solid, liquid or hypergolic fuel contained in a cylinder fitted with one or more nozzles. They are designed to propel a rocket or a guided missile. The term includes:

ROCKET MOTORS;
ROCKET MOTORS WITH HYPERGOLIC LIQUIDS with or without expelling charge;
ROCKET MOTORS, LIQUID FUELLED.

ROCKETS

Articles consisting of a rocket motor and a payload which may be an explosive warhead or other device. The term includes guided missiles and:

ROCKETS, LINE-THROWING;
ROCKETS, LIQUID FUELLED with bursting charge;
ROCKETS with bursting charge;
ROCKETS with expelling charge;
ROCKETS with inert head.

S

SIGNALS

Articles containing pyrotechnic substances designed to produce signals by means of sound, flame or smoke or any combinations thereof. The term includes:

SIGNAL DEVICES, HAND;
SIGNALS, DISTRESS, ship;
SIGNALS, RAILWAY TRACK, EXPLOSIVE;
SIGNALS, SMOKE.

SOUNDING DEVICES, EXPLOSIVE

Articles consisting of a charge of detonating explosive. They are dropped from ships and function when they reach a predetermined depth or the sea-bed.

SUBSTANCES, EXPLOSIVE, VERY INSENSITIVE (SUBSTANCES, EVI), N.O.S.

Substances which present a mass explosion hazard but which are so insensitive that there is very little probability of initiation, or of transition from burning to detonation (under normal conditions of transport) and which have passed Test Series 5.

T

TORPEDOES

Articles containing an explosive or non-explosive propulsion system and designed to be propelled through water. They may contain an inert head or a warhead. The term includes:

TORPEDOES, LIQUID FUELLED with inert head;
TORPEDOES, LIQUID FUELLED with or without bursting charge;
TORPEDOES with bursting charge.

TRACERS FOR AMMUNITION

Sealed articles containing pyrotechnic substances, designed to reveal the trajectory of a projectile.

W

Warheads

Articles consisting of detonating explosives. They are designed to be fitted to a rocket, guided missile or torpedo. They may contain a burster or expelling charge or bursting charge. The term includes:

WARHEADS, ROCKET with burster or expelling charge;
WARHEADS, ROCKET with bursting charge;
WARHEADS, TORPEDO with bursting charge.


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