ModSAF RED ADA:
An Overview of Enemy Air Defense Capabilities in ModSAF v2.2.1
CDT Cyril S. Paulo, USMA '99
August, 1997

Table of Contents:

INTRODUCTION
ModSAF Red ADA WEAPON SYSTEMS

SA-6
SA-9
SA-15
SA-16
2S6
ZSU23-4M
Additional Red ADA Systems
ModSAF Red ADA SCENARIOS redada.5
redada.6
redada.7
WORKS CITED

APPENDIX: DEFINITIONS OF ACRONYMS USED IN ModSAF SCENARIOS
 


Return to Papers

INTRODUCTION

Although an extensive knowledge of one's own defensive and offensive capabilities is critical to success in battle, an extensive knowledge of the enemy's assets and doctrine has also proven to be a determining factor in battle. Having at least some idea of how, when, and where the enemy will react to certain situations is absolutely critical to successful operations and operations planning. Sending soldiers into hostile territory with an unknown enemy situation is rarely, if ever, done.

To help ensure that such a situation does not have to occur, the training of soldiers is often conducted against opposing forces that are trained to react using the known methodology and doctrine of other enemies. However, as with most live training situations, the cost to run such scenarios, particularly those involving considerably large and expensive equipment, usually tends to run fairly steep. Battle simulators help to reduce these costs, as well as considerably increase the safety to the soldier, by allowing different battle scenarios to be played out on screen instead of on the battlefield or training site. Different aspects of the friendly and enemy forces, as well as the environment in which they fight can be altered to see how each affects the outcome of the battle. ModSAF (Modular Semi-Automated Forces) is one such battle simulator that is currently being developed to be used in such a manner.

The purpose of this report is to provide information on the enemy capabilities currently available in ModSAF_2.2.1, focusing specifically on the red (enemy) air defense artillery (ADA) capabilities. Since German ADA is not included in ModSAF_2.2.1, the focus will primarily be on USSR ADA. This report will also provide information and analyses of various scenarios involving red ADA that were played out with ModSAF. The appendices at the end of this report include excerpts from Jane's Land-Based Air Defence.

(Back to the Table of Contents)


ModSAF Red ADA WEAPON SYSTEMS

The following are descriptions of the red ADA weapon systems that are currently available on ModSAF_2.2.1:

SA-6 NII Priborostroeniya 2K12 Kub (SA-6 ‘Gainful') is a low to medium altitude surface-to-air missile system with the following specifications:

 
 
Length: 5.8 m 
Diameter: 0.335 m
Wing span: 1.245 m
Max speed: Mach 2.8
Launch weight: 599 kg
Max effective range: 24,000 m
Min effective range: 3,700 m
Max effective altitude: 12,000 m
Min effective altitude: (radar mode) 100 m 

(optical mode) 50 m

Guidance: semi-active radar homing
Propulsion: integral rocket motor/ramjet booster and sustainer motor assembly
Warhead: 59 kg HE fragmentation with contact and proximity fuzes
Reload time (SPU): 10 min
 (Back to the Table of Contents)
 

SA-9 Nudelman 9K31 Strela-1 (SA-9 ‘Gaskin') is a low altitude surface-to-air missile system with the following specifications:

 
 
  9M31 9M31M
Length: 1.803 m 1.803 m
Diameter: 0.12 m 0.12 m
Wing span: 0.36 0.36
Max speed: Mach 1.8 Mach 1.8
Max target speed: 300 m/s 300 m/s
Launch weight: 32 kg 32 kg
Max effective range: 4,200 m 8,000 m
Min effective range: 800 m  560 m
Max effective altitude: 3,500 m 6,100 m
Min effective altitude: 30 m 10 m
Guidance: 1-3 m waveband uncooled PbS passive IR homing seeker  1-5 m waveband cooled PbS passive IR homing seeker
Propulsion: single-stage solid propellant rocket motor single-stage solid propellant rocket motor
Warhead: 2.6 kg HE fragmentation with contact and proximity fuzing 2.6 kg HE fragmentation with contact and proximity fuzing
 (Back to the Table of Contents)
 

SA-15 Antey Tor (SA-15 ‘Gauntlet') is a low to medium altitude self-propelled surface-to-air missile system with the following specifications:

 
 
Length: 2.85 m
Diameter: 0.735 m
Wing span: Not available 
Max speed: 850 m/s
Max target speed: 700 m/s
Min target speed: 0 m/s
Launch weight: 165 kg 
Max effective range: 12,000 m
Min effective range: 1,500 m
Max effective altitude: 6,000 m
Min effective altitude: 10 m
Guidance: command guidance
Propulsion: Thruster jet with two-stage solid propellant rocket motor
Warhead: 15 kg HE fragmentation with proximity fuze
 (Back to the Table of Contents)
 

SA-16 SA-16 (Igla-1E) is a two–stage, low–altitude, man–portable surface-to-air missile system with the following specifications:

 
 
Length: 1.673 m (with fins folded)
Diameter: 0.072 m
Average speed: 570 m/s
Max target speed: 320m/s
Launch Weight: 20.1 kg (total launch assembly in firing position) 

10.8 kg (missile at launch)

Max effective range: 4,500 m
Min effective range: 500 m
Max effective altitude: 2,500m
Min effective altitude: 15 m
Guidance: single channel 3.5-5 m wavelength passive infrared homing
Propulsion: solid fuel booster and two-grain solid fuel sustainer rocket motor
Warhead: 1.3 kg HE chemical energy fragmentation w/ contact and grazing fuzing circuits
 (Back to the Table of Contents)
 

2S6 Tunguska 2S6M Quad 30 mm is a self-propelled air defense system with the following specifications:

 
 
Length: 7.93 m
Width: 3.236 m
Height: 4.021 m (radar up) 

3.356 m (radar down) 

Combat weight: 34,000 kg
Engine: V-12 turbocharged, 4-cycle, water-cooled turbocharged diesel Model V-46-4 developing740 hp at 2000 rpm
Max road speed: 65 km/h
Range: 560 km
Vertical obstacle: 1 m
Trench: 2 m
Fording: 0.8 m
Gradient: 60% 
Side slope: 30% 
Crew: 4
Armament: 2 X 2 30 mm cannon
Ammunition: 1904 X 30 mm (gun)
 (Back to the Table of Contents)
 

ZSU23-4M ZSU-23-4 Quad 23 mm is a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun system with the following specifications:

 
 
Length: 6.54 m 
Width: 2.95 m 
Height: (with radar) 3.8 m (w/o radar) 2.25 m 
Combat weight: 20,500 kg
Engine: Model V-6R, 6-cylinder in-line water-cooled diesel developing 280 hp
Max road speed: 44 km/h
Range: 450 km
Vertical obstacle: 1.1 m 
Trench: 2.8 m
Fording: 1.07 m
Gradient: 60%
Side Slope: 30%
Fuel capacity: 250 liters
Fuel consumption: 0.96 l/km
Armor Glacis plate: 15 mm at 55° 

Hull sides: 15 mm  

Turret front: 9.2 mm at 15° 

Turret sides: 9.2 mm  

Turret rear: 9.2 mm

Crew: 4
Armament: 4 X 23 mm cannon
Ammunition: 2,000 rounds
Turret traverse: 360° 
Max traverse speed: 70° /s
Gun elevation/depression: +85° /-4° 
Max elevation speed: 60° /s
Firing height (lower guns): 1.83 m 
 (Back to the Table of Contents)
 

Additional Red ADA Systems Additional information is not available for the following ModSAF red ADA weapon systems: (Back to the Table of Contents)


ModSAF Red ADA SCENARIOS

The purpose of the scenarios created in ModSAF was to help gain a general idea of the capabilities of the red ADA, as well as obtain information on how they would react to our attacks. Three scenarios were created to help accomplish this mission and were saved on file as redada.5, redada.6, and redada.7. These subsections describe and analyze each one of these scenarios.

(The Appendix contains definitions of the acronyms used in these scenarios.)

redada.5 This scenario places a SA-9 platoon in a fairly open area and a T-80 platoon with a SA-15 escort in a valley. The SA-9 platoon has been tasked to set up an ADA hasty occupation and the T-80 platoon has been assigned a road march with the SA-15 following behind. A-10s and F-16Cs have been assigned to attack the SA-9 platoon from the west, while F-16Ds will be attacking the road marching T-80 platoon from the east. The A-10 is attacking at a speed of 200 m/s and an altitude of 300 m, which is well within the ranges of the SA-9 missile. The F-16C, however, will be attacking at a speed of 275 m/s and an altitude of 5,500 m, which is slightly pushing the limits of the SA-9. The F-16D is attacking at a speed of 600 m/s and an altitude of 200 m, which is also pushing the ranges of the SA-15.

In each iteration of the scenario, one of the following outcomes usually occurred: 1) Since the fixed-wing aircraft (FWA) commence firing before the red ADA (the red ADA are on a tight firing permission), they usually hit their targets before they can react. This usually results in nothing left to fire back at them. 2) If the FWA do not destroy their targets on the first run, the red ADA usually immediately lock on and destroy most of the FWA.

The second outcome tended to occur more often than the first, which was a bit surprising because the FWA were thought to be much more accurate than that. The competence level of all blue forces were set at 90+% while the red forces were set in the 50-65% range. Also, if the red ADA were set with a free firing permission, they were sometimes the first to commence the firing.
(Back to the Table of Contents)

redada.6 This scenario is the exact same setup as redada.5 except for that the attacking aircraft are rotary-wing aircraft (RWA) instead of FWA. The red forces are set with the same vehicles and missions. RAH-66s and AH-64Ds are attacking the SA-9 platoon from the west while AH-64s are attacking the T-80 platoon and SA-15 from the east. Since the altitude and speed capabilities of the RWA differ from that of the FWA, they were not set to push the limits of the red ADA ranges. The RAH-66s were tasked to perform a running attack on the SA-9 platoon at a speed of 100 m/s while the AH-64Ds were assigned a hovering attack closing in at a speed of 75 m/s. The AH-64s were tasked to perform a running attack on the T-80s and SA-15 at a speed of 100 m/s.

In each iteration of the scenario, much like the FWA, the RWA were the first to commence firing. Attacking from a distance, the RWA seemed to be much more accurate than the FWA. They were usually able to fire off a couple of rounds before the red ADA returned fire. The red ADA fire also seemed to be more accurate in this scenario.

The RWA aircraft were often a bit stubborn in starting to move. Sometimes there was the need to reassign a mission multiple times before the RWA took any action. A possible reason for the apparent increased accuracy of the RWA, in comparison to the FWA, is that although the RWA took a little bit more time to fire, that time was being used for laser designation. Each hellfire missile hit its mark whenever the RWA took the time to laser designate, which was most of the time. ModSAF_2.2.1 also has options where you can have a HMMWV (High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle) or DI (dismounted infantrymen) laser designate the target for the RWA. The reason for the red ADA's seemingly increased accuracy appears to stem from the RWA's lack of speed, in comparison to the FWA.
(Back to the Table of Contents)

redada.7 This scenario places a convoy of red forces with attached red ADA on a tactical road march heading west. The convoy, from front to rear, consists of the following:

1 T-80/3 BTR80 platoon, SA-15, BRDM2 section, ZSU23-4M platoon, 2 BMP/1BRDM2 platoon, SA-9, BMP1, SA-9, T-72M. The red ADA are intermingled throughout the formation so as to provide complete coverage of the convoy. All red forces, except the lead unit, were tasked to follow the vehicle ahead of them, while the lead unit was tasked with the westward road march. The attacking blue forces are the following: F-16Cs from the northwest, A-10s from the northeast, F-16Ds from the southeast, and A-10s from the southwest. Since speed is not one of A-10s outstanding attributes, its attacking approach was not assigned to push any of the red ADA limits. The A-10s primary targets are the SA-15 in the front and the SA-9s in the rear of the formation. The F-16Cs are attacking at a speed of 300 m/s and an altitude of 6,000 m, thereby pushing the limits of its primary target, the rear SA-9s. The F-16Ds are attacking at a speed of 500 m/s and an altitude of 2500 m, thereby pushing the limits of its primary target, the ZSU23-4M platoon.

Much like the outcome of redada.5, if the FWA did not destroy their targets on the first run, the red ADA were usually able to destroy them after their first pass. In fact, in all the iterations run with this scenario, the FWA never did destroy all of their objectives on the first run. A large number of red forces were hit or destroyed during this first pass due to the high volume of fire produced by the large group of FWA, but not enough of the red ADA were ever destroyed to significantly reduce the threat to the aircraft. High speeds and altitudes pushing the red ADA ranges still did not have much effect as long as the FWA were within range.

Again, it was still a bit surprising to note how inaccurate a lot of the FWA shots were off target. The number of attacking FWA seemed like it should be enough to counter the red ADA threat, especially with the competence of the blue forces being in the high 90%s and the red force averaging around 60%. One might tend to think that either the red ADA is just really "that good", or that the program, at least in this area, might need a little fine tuning.
(Back to the Table of Contents)


WORKS CITED
All information and photocopied excerpts on air defense artillery (ADA) weapon systems were obtained from:
Jane's Land-Based Air Defence, Eighth Edition, 1995-1996, Butler and Tanner Ltd.:  Frome and London, 1995.
(Back to the Table of Contents)



APPENDIX: DEFINITION OF ACRONYMS USED IN ModSAF SCENARIOS (Back to the Table of Contents)
SOURCE