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Russian Navy

Project 877 Kilo class
Project 636 Kilo class
Diesel-Electric Torpedo Submarine

The Kilo Class (Project 877) submarine was designed for anti-submarine and anti-ship warfare in the protection of naval bases, coastal installations and sea lanes, and also for general reconnaissance and patrol missions. The Kilo is considered to be to be one of the quietest diesel submarines in the world. The submarine consists of six watertight compartments separated by transverse bulkheads in a pressurised double-hull. This design and the submarine's good reserve buoyancy lead to increased survivability if the submarine is holed, even with one compartment and two adjacent ballast tanks flooded. The foreplanes are positioned on the upper hull in front of the fin or sail. The command and control systems and fire control systems are located in the main control room which is sealed off from the other compartments.

The Project 636 design is a generally improved development of the Project 877EKM Kilo class that represents an interim design between the standard 'Kilo' and the new Lada project. The Project 636 is actively promoted for the world market by the Rosvoorouzhenie state-owned company. This submarine has improved range, firepower, acoustic characteristics and reliability. Visually distinguished by a step on the aft casing, the length of the hull is extended by two frame spacings (2 x 600 mm). The additional length permitted increasing the power of diesel-generators and mounting them on improved shock-absorbing support, and reducing twofold the main propulsion shaft speed. Owing to these improvements, the submarine speed and sea endurance were increased, while the noise level was radically decreased. The low noise level of the submarine has been achieved with the selection of quiet machinery, vibration and noise isolation and a special anti-acoustic rubber coating applied on the outer hull surface.

The Project 636 is equipped with six 533 mm forward torpedo tubes situated in the nose of the submarine and carries eighteen torpedoes with six in the torpedo tubes and twelve stored on the racks. Alternatively the torpedo tubes can deploy mines. The submarine can carry 24 mines with two in each of the six tubes and twelve on the racks. Two torpedo tubes are designed for firing remote-controlled torpedoes with a very high accuracy. All torpedo tubes and their service systems provide effective firing from periscope to operational depths. The computer-controlled torpedo system is provided with a quick-loading device. It takes only 15 seconds to prepare stand-by torpedo tubes for firing: The first salvo is fired within two minutes and the second within five minutes.

The Russian fleet operates three variants of the Kilo 877: the basic 877; the 877K that has an improved fire-control system; and the 877M that has wire-guided torpedoes from two tubes. Export models, designated with an 'E' suffix, are generally similar though with some reduced features. A total of at least 26 and perhaps as many as 30 were built for the Russian navy, one of which was subequently exported to Iran. All the 30 Kilo-class submarines built for service with the Russian Navy are designated Project 877, although 15 of these are the earlier-developed 877EKM and 15 the later 636 versions. As of early 2000 as many as 14 units were believed to remain active, with an additional 7 in reserve, though specific identities are not known.

As of early 1998 construction of the Project 877EKM submarines was nearly completed, with only one submarine left under construction in St.Petersburg for the Indian Navy. Russia exported 21 Project 877 and 636 submarines, including: India - 10, and China - 4, Iran - 3, Algeria - 2, Poland - 1, Romania - 1.

On 04 August 1993, Iran took delivery of a second Russian Kilo-class diesel submarine, and the third arrived 18 January 1996. Russia went ahead with the first two deliveries despite vigorous US protests. In response to Administration pressure and US sanctions legislation, Russia formally pledged in June 1995 not to enter any new arms contracts with Iran, although prior arms contracts could be implemented.

India took delivery of the first of the two additional Russian-built Kilo class submarines in January 1999. On 17 August 2000 the Sindhushastra began the two month voyage from St Petersburg to India. The 877EKM submarine was the last in a series of 10 submarines built at Russian shipyards for Indian customers. In August 2000 the Zvezdochka engineering enterprise at Severodvinsk started the work of servicing and modernizing the Indian series-877EKM submarine Sinduratna, the second Indian sub to have had a refit at Zvezdochka. In 1999 the Indian Navy took delivery of the Sinduvir, the first submarine to have been modernized at Severodvinsk. The Sinduratna will be the second Indian submarine to be fitted with four ZM-54E1 missiles, with a range of 300 km. The missiles are part of the latest Klab-S anti-ship missile complex designed by the Novator bureau at Yekaterinburg.

In the spring of 1997, the first Project 636 submarine was launched, and China became the first customer for this submarine. The last of four export Kilo-class boats for China, the second improved model Project 636 unit, was launched on 17 June 1998 and departed the Baltic aboard a heavy-lift ship on 11 December 1998, bound for the submarine base at Ning-bo. China is also said to be interested in purchasing several more 636 series submarines, one of which is now in an unfinished state at the Krasnoye Sormovo yard in Nizhniy Novgorod, while others may be built at the Admiralteyskiye Verfi [Admiralty Shipyards] in St Petersburg.

Specifications

Designation Project 877 Paltus
Kilo
Project 636
Designer Rubin Rubin
Builder Admiralty Shipyard (Sudomekh),
Shipyard 199, Nizhniy Novgorod
[completed at Sevmashpredpriyatiye, Severodvinsnk]
Shipyard 112, Komsolol'sk-na-Amur
Admiralty Shipyard
Displacement (tons) 2,300-2,325 tons Surfaced
3,076-3,950 tons Full load submerged
2,350 tons Surfaced
3,126-4,000 tons Full load submerged
Speed (kts): 10-12 knots Surfaced
17-25 knots Submerge
11 knots Surfaced
20 knots Submerged
Dimensions (m): 70.0-72.6 meters long
9.9 meters beam
6.2-6.5 meters draft
72.6-73.8 meters long
9.9 meters beam
6.3-6.5 meters draft
Propulsion: diesel and electric motors
2 x 1000 kW Diesel generators
1 x 5,500-6,800 shp Propulsion motor
1 x 7-blade [? or 6-blade] fixed-pitch Propeller
diesel and electric motors
Diving depth: 240 meters Operational
300 meters Maximum
250 meters Operational
300 meters Maximum
17.5 meters Periscope
Endurance: 6,000 miles With snorkel (@ 7 knots)
400 miles Submerged (@ 3 knots)
12.7 miles At full run (@ 21 knots)
45 days Sea Endurance
7,500 miles With snorkel (@ 7 knots)
400 miles Submerged (@ 3 knots)
?? miles At full run (@ 20 knots)
45 days Sea Endurance
Armament:
Missiles:
  • 8 Strela-3 (SA-N-8 Gremlin) or
  • 8 Igla (SA-N-10 Gimlet)
  • 8 Strela-3 (SA-N-8 Gremlin) or
  • 8 Igla (SA-N-10 Gimlet)
  • Torpedoes: 6/533 mm Torpedoe Tubes
  • 18 VA-111 (w: c/nucl) Torpedoes or
  • 24 mines
  • 6/533 mm Torpedoe Tubes
  • 18 VA-111 Torpedoes or
  • 24 mines
  • Systems:
  • radio communications
  • combat control information system
  • navigation system
  • 1 MRK-50 (Snoop Tray-2)general purpose detection radar
  • MGK-400 Rubikon (Shark Teeth) active/passive Sonar
  • 2 Periscopes
    [one for commander, one for air defence]
  • radio communications
  • combat control information system
  • navigation system
  • 1 MRK-50E (Snoop Tray-2) general purpose detection radar
  • 1 MGK-400EM Rubikon (Shark Teeth) active/passive Sonar
  • 2 Periscopes
    [one for commander, one for air defence]
  • Class Listing

    UnitShipyardFleetChronologyNotes
    #numberName Laid Down Launched Comm. Stricken
    Project 877, 877K, 877M ("Paltus" type), NATO code "Kilo"
    1B-248 SY 199 ---------- 09/**/1980 04/**/1982 09/12/1982 operational
    2B-177 SY 112 ---------- ---------- 1982-94 lead ship built at NN
    3B-187 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94
    4B-190 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94
    5B-219 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94 199210/1992 sold to Iran
    6B-224 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94 2000 in reserve?
    7B-227 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94 2000 in reserve?
    8B-229 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94 2000 in reserve?
    9B-260 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94 2000 in reserve?
    10B-345 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94 2000 in reserve?
    11B-354 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94 04/04/1989 fire
    2000 in reserve?
    12B-394 Komsomolets Tadjkistana SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94 08/26/1980 named
    1991 unnamed
    2000 in reserve?
    13B-401 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94
    14B-402 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94
    15B-404 Tyumensky Komsomolets SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94 1991 unnamed
    16B-405 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94
    17B-425 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94
    18B-437 Magnitogorsky Komsomolets SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94 06/09/1980 named
    1991 unnamed
    19B-439 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94
    20B-445 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94
    21B-459 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94
    22B-464 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94
    23B-468 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94
    24B-470 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94
    25B-471 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94
    26B-494 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1982-94
    27B-800 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1991-93
    28B-806 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1991-93
    29B-871 SY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1991-93
    30B-880 Del'finSY 199 or SY 112---------- ---------- 1991-93
    Project 877E, NATO code "Kilo"(export type)
    1SY 196---------- ---------- 19861 for Romania
    Project 877EKM, NATO code "Kilo" (export type)
    1SY 196---------- ---------- 06/21/1986 1 for Poland
    2SY 196---------- ---------- 9 for India (1986-)
    3SY 196---------- ---------- 9 for India (1986-)
    4SY 196---------- ---------- 9 for India (1986-)
    5SY 196---------- ---------- 9 for India (1986-)
    6SY 196---------- ---------- 9 for India (1986-)
    7SY 196---------- ---------- 9 for India (1986-)
    8SY 196---------- ---------- 9 for India (1986-)
    9SY 196---------- ---------- 9 for India (1986-)
    10SY 196---------- ---------- 9 for India (1986-)
    11SY 196---------- ---------- 08/17/2000 10 for India
    12SY 196---------- ---------- 19872 for Algeria
    13SY 196---------- ---------- 01/19882 for Algeria
    1419962 built for Iran
    1519962 built for Iran
    1619952 for China
    1719952 for China
    Project 636, NATO code "Kilo"(export type)
    1BN-529Rossiyadisplay ship of Rosvoorouzhenie
    219982 for China
    319982 for China

    Sources and Resources



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