1 June 1997

AFPAM 10-1403 

AIR MOBILITY PLANNING FACTORS

Introduction 3

About This Pamphlet 3

How To Use This Pamphlet 3

References 3

Terms and Definitions 4

Formulas 10

Airlift 10

Air Refueling 11

Aeromedical Evacuation 12

Planning Factors 14

Aircraft Airfield Restrictions 14

Aircraft Size 15

Aircraft Payloads 16

Aircraft Block Speeds 17

Ground Times 18

Aircraft Utilization 19

Productivity Factors 20

Maximum Airfield Throughput 21

Fuel Burn Rates 22

Tanker Offload Capabilities 23

KC-135 Tanker Aircraft Required 24

KC-10 Tanker Aircraft Required 25

Aeromedical Evacuation Capabilities 26

Examples 27

Airlift 27

Air Refueling 30

Aeromedical Evacuation 31

 About This Pamphlet

This pamphlet provides broad air mobility planning factors for peacetime and wartime operations. It is designed to help service, joint, and combined planners make gross estimates about mobility requirements in the early stages of the planning process. It covers strategic airlift, air refueling, and aeromedical evacuation (AE). For greater detail, or in-depth mobility analysis call HQ AMC/DOXP at DSN 576-2110 or TACC/XOP at DSN 576-3388.

How To Use This Pamphlet

There are four basic parts to this pamphlet; terms and definitions, formulas, planning factors, and examples. Although each of these parts can be individually used, we recommend you review the entire contents to get a full understanding of the planning process.

Due to the number of variables involved in every air mobility operation, the planning factors presented are not universally applicable. Instead they provide "order of magnitude" approximations in the context of a generic scenario. The use of detailed computer simulation models is encouraged for extensive calculations.

References

HQ AMC/DOXP, Regional Plans Branch, DSN 576-2110/4133, Commercial (618) 256-2110/4133

HQ AMC/DOF, Civil Air Division DSN 576-6751,Commercial (618) 256-6751

HQ AMC/SGXP, Aeromedical Evacuation Plans Branch, DSN 576-2205, Commercial (618) 256-2205

TACC/XOP, Contingency Operations & Exercise Division, DSN 576-7940/3388, Commercial (618) 256-7940/3388

AMC Pamphlet 55-41, Civil Reservv Air Fleet Load Planning Guide, 1 Oct 92.

AMC Pamphlet 55-53, AMC Tanker/Airlift Operations, 15 Oct 93

AMC Omnibus OPLAN, 1 Jun 95 (Unclassified data only)

AF Pamphlet 144-4, Fuels Logistics Planning, 22 Apr 91 1997 Air Mobility Master Plan

The Joint Staff Officer's Guide 1993, AFSC Pub 1

  • ACN = See Pavement/Aircraft Classification System

    Active route flying time (ARFT) = The flying time from the onload to the offload location including all intermediate locations en route. This does not include ground time.

    Active route ground time (ARGT) = The cumulative ground time of all intermediate stops from the onload location to the offload location. This does not include flying time.

    Aeromedical Evacuation (AE) Patients

    Litter = Patient requires assistance to enplane and deplane.

    Ambulatory = Patient does not require assistance to enplane and deplane.

    Aircraft block speed = The average true airspeed over a specified distance, including takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, approach, landing, and taxi to block-in.

    Aircraft parking size = The ramp space a particular aircraft occupies, usually expressed in C-141 equivalents (See table 2).

    Airfield througgput capability = The amount of passengers or cargo which can be moved through the airfield per day via strategic airlift based on the limitations oo the airfield (such as parking spots).

    Air refueling track = A track designated for air refueling reserved by the receiver unit/planner. If possible, the track from the ARIP to the ARCP should be along a TACAN/VORTAC radial and within 100 NM of the station.

    Air Refueling Initial Point (ARIP) = A point located upstream from the ARCP at which the receiver aircraft initiates a rendezvous with the tanker.

    Air Refueling Control Point (ARCP) = The planned geographic point over which the receiver(s) arrive in the observation/precontact position with respect to the assigned tanker.

    Air Refueling Control Time (ARCT) = The planned time that the receiver and tanker will arrive over the air refueling control point (ARCP).

    Air Refueling Exit Point (AR EXIT PT) = The designated geographic point at which the refueling track terminates. In a refueling anchor it is a designated point where the tanker and rrceiver may depart the anchor area after refueling is completed.

    Allowable Cabin Load (ACL) = The maximum payload which can be carried on a mission. It may be limited by the maximum takeoff gross weight, maximum landing gross weight, or by the maximum zero fuel weight.

     Anchor point = A designated geographical point on the down stream end of the inbound course of the Anchor Refueling Pattern.

    Anchor refueling = Air refueling performed as the tankers maintain a prescribed pattern which is anchored to a geographical point or fix.

    Anchor Rendezvous = The procedures normally employed by radar (CRC/GCI/AWACS) to vector the tanker(s) and receiver(s) for a visual join-up for refueling.

    Planning payload = The payload (expressed in short tons of cargo or number of passengers) expected on a fleet-wide basis, and used by planners to make initial gross planning estimates. The size, shape, and density of most payloads, as well as passenger constraints (i.e., oxygen or life preservers available), rarely permit loading to 100 percent capacity. Planning payload data, not maximum payload data, should be used for operations/transportation planning.

    Base air refueling altitude = A reference altitude at which lead aircraft of a tanker formation (or single aircraft for individual air refueling) will fly at initial contact.

    Cargo = There are six different classifications of military cargo, categorized as follows:

    Bulk Cargo, including the 463L pallet itself, that is within the usable dimensions of a 463L pallet (104" x 84" x 96") and within the height and width requirements established by the cargo envelope of the particular model of aircraft.

    Oversize Cargo exceeding the usable dimensions of a 463L pallet loaded to the design height of 96" but is equal to or less than 1,090" in length, 117" in width, and 105" in height. This cargo is transportable on the C-5, C-17, C-141, C-130, and to a limited extent the KC-10.

    Outsize Cargo which exceeds the dimension of oversize (1,090" x 117" x 105") and requires the use of a C-5 or C-17.

    Rolling Stock Equipment that can be driven or rolled directly into the cargo compartment.

    Special Items requiring specialized preparation and handling procedures, such as space satellites or nuclear weapons.

    Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF) = A program in which civil aircraft are allocated by the Department of Transportation (DOT) to augment the military airlift capability of the Department of Defense (DOD). The CRAF is composed of three segments; International, National, and Aeromedical Evacuation. Airccaft are assigned to a segment based on their capabilities. CRAF can be incrementally activated in three stages in response to defense-oriented situations, up to and including a declared national emergency or war. Aircraft volunteered to CRAF are manned at a 4 to 1, aircrew to aircraft ratio with a minimum utilization rate of 10 hours per day.

      CRAF Stage I. Composed only of long-range international assets, this stage may be activated by USCINCTRANS, during increased airlift operations in support of substantially expanded military airlift requirements. When Stage I is activated, carriers have 24 hours after aircraft call-up, within which to respond and have aircraft and crews ready for mission assignments.

    CRAF Stage II. USCINCTRANS may activate this stage when additional airlift is required for a major contingency requiring substantially increased airlift upport or an airlift emergency. Composed of all CRAF assets except Domestic Services. This stage has a 24-hour response time, with the exception of the Aeromedical Evacuation Segment, which has a 48-hour response time.

    CRAF Stage III. USCINCTRANS may activate this stage in time of war or during a defense-oriented national emergencc. Composed of all CRAF segments with a response time of 48 hours.

    Closure = The elapsed time to move a requirement from the onload airfield to the offload airfield. The time starts when the first aircraft takes off from the onload location and stops when the final aircrrft lands at the offload location.

    Cycle Time = Total elapsed time for an aircraft to depart home station, fly a complete mission and be back to start a second time.

    Dual role mission = A mission where both air refueling and airlift are provided to the user. The primary mission role is normally air refueling. Missions where cargo movement is primary require a dedicated funded special assignment airlift mission (SAAM).

    Enroute Rendezvous = A rendezvous procedure where-by the tanker and receiver arrive at a common rendezvous (RZ) point at the same time with 1,000 feet altitude separation.

    Fleet capability = The amount of cargo or passengers which can be moved into or out of a location or theater expressed in short tons or pax per day. Limitations include the number of aircraft in the operation, their USE rate, and the distance between onload and offload locations.

    Fuel MOG = See Maximum on Ground

    Ground time = The planned ground time for the type of aircraft used.

    Maximum on Ground (MOG) = Although this term literally refers to the maximum number of aircraft which can be accommodated on the airfield (usually the parking MOG), it is often specialized to refer to the working MOG (maximum number of aircraft which can be simultaneously "worked" by maintenance, aerial port, and others), the fuel MOG (maximum number of aircraft which can be simultaneously refueled) or other constraininggfactors. It is most commonly expressed in C-141 equivalents.

     Missions required = The number of strategic airlift missions (by aircraft type) required to move a requirement from the onload to the offload location.

    Noncombatant Evacuation Operation (NEO) = The planned operation to move noncombatants from areas of danger overseas to safe havens, or to the United States. Standard NEO planning factors (refer to Table 3) should be used when planning NEO operations. Emergency NEO capabilities represent the most extreme of circumstances.

    Number of aircraft = The specific number of aircraft apportioned to any peacetime operation, contingency, or exercise, or the number apportioned in the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP) enclosure 11 for tasked OPLANs.

    Parking MOG = See Maximum on Ground.

    Pavement/Aircraft Classification System = The ICAO standard method of reporting pavement strengths. The Pavement Classification Number (PCN) is established by an engineering assessment of the runway. The PCN is for use in conjunction with an Aircraft Classification Number (ACN). ACN values (provided in table 1) relate aircraft characteristics to a runway's load bearing capability, expressed as a PCN. An aircraft with an ACN equal or less thannthe reported PCN can operate on the pavement subject to any limitations on the tire pressure. Refer to DOD Flight Information Publication (Enroute) for an airfield's specific PCN.

    Payload = The load (expressed in short tons of cargo, or number of passengers) which an aircraft transports.

    PCN = See Pavement/Aircraft Classification System

    Point Parallel Rendezvous = A rendezvous accomplished with the tanker maintaining an appropriate offset, the receiver flying the ARIP to ARCP track, and the tanker turning in front of the receiver at a computed range.

    Primary Mission Aircraft Inventory (PMAI) = Aircraft authorized to a unit for performance of its operational mission. The Primary authorization forms the basis for the allocation of operating resources to include manpower, support equipment, and flying hours funds.

    Productivity factor = Gross measure of an aircraft's expected useful ability to move cargo and passengers to a user, expressed as a percentage. Positioning, depositioning, and other non-productive legs all diminish the overall productivity. For example, on a strategic airlift mission involving an outbound and a return leg, the return leg is normally considered nonproductive. The productivity factor, in this case would be 50 percentt However, this assumes cargo has already been positioned at the aircraft's departure point. In most situations, airlift aircraft must fly one or more positioning legs to an onload location. Since productive cargo is usually not moved at this time, these positioning legs reduce the overall productivity factor to a value less than 50 percent.

      For planning purposes use the productivity factors found in table 7, or calculate your own by dividing productive leg distance (onload to offload) by round trip cycle distance.

    Queuing Efficiency = A factor used by planners and applied in formulas (i.e.,. throughput capability) to account for the physical impossibility of using limited airfield facilities with perfect efficiency. For example, when a parking spot is vacated, it is never instantly re-occupied. Historically, planners have applied a queuing efficiency of 85 percent.

    Requirement =

    Airlift. The force to be moved in number of passengers or short tons of cargo.

    Tanker. The number and type of receivers, fuel desired, time to loiter, and AR track.

    Round trip flying time (RTFT) = The accumulated flying time from the aircraft's starting point, to the onload location, through the en route structure, to the offload location, back through the enroute system, to starting point of origin or other final destination .

    Round trip ground time (RTGT) = The accumulated ground time from the aircraft's starting point, to the onload location, through the en route structure, to the offload location, back to the final destination.

    Short Ton (S/T) = A unit of measure equal to 2,000 pounds.

    Time to arrival = The time required for cargo/pax to arrive at the offload location including all enroute ground times.

    USE rate = The capability of a subset of PMAI aircraft to generate flying hours expressed in average flying hours per aircraft per day. Computed only for those aircraft applied to a specific mission. For example, consider an operation using 2 C-141 aircraft. If 1 aircraft flies 10 hours while the other is in maintenance, then one aircraft has 10 hours of USE rate and the other has 0 hours of USE rate. Collectively, these two aircraft generate 5.0 hrs/day of "USE".

    Utilization rate (UTE rate) = The capability of a fleet of aircraft to generate flying hours in a day, expressed in terms of per Primary Authorized Inventory (PAI). Applies only to long-term, large scale operations such as OPLANs. For small operations involving less than the entire fleet, UTE rates are not normally a factor.

    Wartime Objective "Surge" UTE Rate = A command established flying hour goal for planning and programming to meet JCS directed wartime objectives in the first 45 days of the most demanding wartime operations. AMC sets this rate as a target for planning and programming aircrews, maintenance, and aerial port manpower, active and reserve force mixes, and spare parts. This early 45 day surge period assumes the deferral of  scheduled maintenance, suuport people working overtime, and the full mobilization of both active and reserve forces with fully funded and fully stocked spares in supply.

    Wartime Objective "Sustained" UTE Rate = Sustained UTE rates represent another Command goal for planning purposes. After a 45 day surge operation in wartime, the immediate demand for airlift decreases somewhat and a greater percentage of needed equipment arrives by ship. AMC plans to fly at a lower operational tempo known as a sustained UTE rate.

    This reduced rate is based upon normal duty days, 100% active and reserve participation, and the accomplishment of maintenance activities deferred in the surge period.

    Contingency Non-Mobilized USE Rate = Sustained rate of flying hour activity based upon full active duty participation and 25% reserve volunteerism. (e.g. JUST CAUSE, RESTORE HOPE, PROVIDE COMFORT).

    Working MOG = See Maximum on Ground

  •  Airlift Formulas

    These formulas can be used to calculate the airlift values most often needed during planning. Refer to definitions, tables, or examples as needed.

  • Number of Cargo Missions Required
    = requirement .
    average payload

    Number of Passenger (PAX) Missions Required
    = Total Pax - Pax on Cargo Missions.
    Pax Capability per Pax Mission

  • Note: Pax on Cargo Missions = Number of Pax seats available on each cargo mission x Number of Cargo Missions.
  • Total Missions Required

    = Cargo missions + Pax missions

    Time to Arrival
    = (active route flying time) + (active route ground time)

    ARFT = dist 1 + dist 2 +.....

    block speed 1 block speed 2

    ARGT = gnd time 1 + gnd time 2 + gnd time 3 +...

    Cycle Time
    = round trip flying time + round trip ground time

    RTFT = dist. 1 + dist. 2 + ...
    block speed 1 block speed 2

    RTGT = gnd time 1 + gnd time 2 + gnd time 3 +...

    Closure

    = (requirement) x (RTFT) .
    (average payload) x (number of aircraft) x (USE rate)

  • Note: For major wartime operations we recommend planners use the wartime objective surge UTE rates published in table 6. For non-mobilized contingencies we recommend the contingency USE rates published in table 6. The computations

    involved in determining actual USE rates is quite involved and not necessary for initial gross planning stimates.

  • Fleet Capability (short tons delivered to the theater per day)

    = (average payload) x (number of aircraft)t x (USE rate)
    (RTFT)

  • Note: This formula is preferred for deliberate planning because it accurately relates the variables affecting the deployment of forces.
  • Fleet Capacity (million ton-miles per day)

    = number of x block x average x UTE x productivity

    aircraft speed payload rate factor .

  • 1,000,000

  • Note: Although this formula is not commonly used by planners, occasionally we need to convert short ton figures into million ton-miles per day (MTM/D). AMC force structure programmers use MTM/D when funding out-year aircraft purchases, and many civilian agencies are accustomed to visualizing our fleee capability in terms of MTM/D. Fleet Capacity is generally more optimistic than actual Fleet Capability for a particular contingency.
  • Airfield Throughput Capability (station capability)

    = (MOG) x (average payload) x (operating hours)
    (ground time)

    X 85% queuing efficiency

    Note: Use the lower of either the working, parking, or fuel MOG

  • Air Refueling Formulas

    Refer to tables 10, 11 and 12 for determining the approximate number of tankers required to meet the air refueling requirements for various size fighter/airlift deployments. These tables were constructed using average/historical data and will provide a gross estimate of the size and duration of an air refueling operation. If actual mission specifics and data are known, such as aircraft model, configuration, air refueling altitude, airspeed, tanker basing, etc, using the formulas below will provide more accurate planning estimates. However, this formula does not consider specific air refueling abort reserves and its impact on destination fuel. As stated in the introduction we recommend using computer simulation models whenever feasible.

     Offload Required (per receiver)

  • = (dist / TAS x fuel flow) - total fuel + dest resv

    dist = total distance from takeoff to landing

    TAS = average airspeed of receiver leg (use AFP 10-1403

    Table 4 Blockspeeds for mobility aircraft or applicable flight

    manual airspeeds for combat aircraft.)

    fuel flow = fuel burn rate in lbs/hr

    total fuel = total fuel on board at takeoff

    dest resv = required fuel reserves at destination

    Offload Available (per tanker)

    = total fuel - (dist / TAS x fuel flow) - dest resv

  • Tankers required

    = offload required

    offload available

     Aeromedical Evacuation Formulas (AE)

    Use the following formulas and data in table 13 to determine the AE force and capabilities. The primary strategic AE aircraft are the B-767, and the C-141. The C-130 and C-9A are the primary tactical AE aircraft. An AE crew consists of 2 flight nurses and 3 medical technicians.

     AE Missions (# required per day)

  • = # of Evacuees per day

    Load Planning Factor

    Load Planning Factor = standard number of patients loaded per aircraft for aeromedical evacuation. (See table 13)

    AE Crews (# required for missions flown, does not include stage)

    = (Msns / day) x (1.25 Crew Planning Factor) x (Crews Per Aircraft)

    x (Crew Cycle Time)

    Use the following standard AE planning factors:

    Crews per Aircraft : (Refer to table 13)

    Tactical = 1

    Strategic = 1.5 for C-141, C-17 (3 flight nurses, 4 technicians)

    2 for B-767 (4 flight nurses, 6 technicians)

    Crew Cycle Time:

    Tactical = 2 days

    Strategic = 4 days (dedicated) 5 days (retrograde)

    Dedicated = AE mission from CONUS to CONUS

    Retrograde = AE mission from theater to CONUS

    Note: Flight hours per crew member must not exceed published 30/90 day limit.

    Table 1. Aircraft Airfield Restrictions

  • Aircraft Type

    Min Runway1

    For Landing

    Min Taxiway Width (ft)

    ACN2,3

    (Rigid Pavement Subgrades)

    ACN2,3
    (Flexible Pavement Subgrades)

     
  • Length (ft)

  • Width (ft)

  •  

    High

    Med

    Low

    Ultra Low

    High

    Med

    Low

    Ultra Low

                 
    • C-9

  • 5000

  • 90

  • 40

  • 11-30

  • 12-32

  • 13-33

  • 14-34

  • 10-28

  • 12-31

  • 14-34

  • 17-39

  •              
  • C-130

  • 3000

  • 604

  • 30

  • 8-34

  • 9-37

  • 11-41

  • 12-43

  • 6-30

  • 8-34

  • 11-37

  • 14-43

  •              
  • C-141

  • 6000

  • 98

  • 50

  • 16-48

  • 18-58

  • 21-68

  • 25-75

  • 17-49

  • 18-58

  • 21-70

  • 28-85

  •              
  • C-17

  • 3000

  • 90

  • 50

  • 22-52

  • 22-52

  • 22-52

  • 24-70

  • 18-52

  • 20-59

  • 22-71

  • 28-94

  •              
  • C-5A/B

  • 6000

  • 147

  • 75

  • 8-29

  • 10-32

  • 11-39

  • 14-48

  • 10-37

  • 13-43

  • 17-54

  • 24-80

  •              
  • KC-10

  • 7000

  • 148

  • 75

  • 12-48

  • 13-57

  • 15-68

  • 18-79

  • 14-58

  • 17-64

  • 21-75

  • 27-102

  •              
  • KC-135

  • 7000

  • 147

  • 75

  • 7-37

  • 8-45

  • 9-54

  • 11-61

  • 7-37

  • 8-45

  • 11-54

  • 15-61

  •       TD WIDTH="1%" VALIGN="MIDDLE">       
  • B-747

  • 6600

  • 90

  • 75

  • 16-46

  • 17-55

  • 20-66

  • 24-76

  • 18-52

  • 19-58

  • 21-71

  • 27-92

  •              
  • B-757

  • 4750

  • 90

  • 75

  • 13-30

  • 15-36

  • 17-42

  • 20-48

  • 14-31

  • 15-35

  • 17-43

  • 22-55

  •              
  • B-767

  • 6000

  • 150

  • 75

  • 16-39

  • 17-46

  • 20-56

  • 24-64

  • 18-44

  • 19-48

  • 22-58

  • 28-78

  •              
  • DC-8

  • 6100

  • 90

  • 50

  • 14-50

  • 15-60

  • 19-69

  • 21-78

  • 15-52

  • 16-59

  • 18-71

  • 24-87

  •              
  • DC-10

  • 6100

  • 90

  • 75

  • 20-49

  • 21-59

  • >DIR>

    25-71

  • 29-83

  • 23-59

  • 23-64

  • 26-78

  • 33-106

  •              
  • L-1011

  • 7300

  • 90

  • 75

  • 23-51

  • 25-57

  • 30-70

  • 37-82

  • 24-56

  • 26-63

  • 28-77

  • 36-104

  •              
  • MD-11

  • 7000

  • 150

  • 75

  • 23-58

  • 27-68

  • 34-81

  • 41-94

  • 27-66

  • 30-72

  • 35-88

  • 52-117

  •              
  • Notes: 1. Runway criteria for AMC aircraft can be waived on a case-by-case basis, by the HQ AMC/DO.

    2. Refer to DOD Flight Information Handbook for additional aircraft ACN's. Table reflects values for the heaviest models.

    3. Refer to DOD Flight Information Publication (Enroute) for an airfield's specific PCN and subgrade.

    4. For Non-Tactical Assault Operations , minimum runway width is 80ft, minimum runway length is 5000ft.

     Table 2. Aircraft Size

  • Aircraft Type

    Length (ft)

    Width (ft)1

    Maximum Weight (lbs)

    Landing2

    Gear Type

    Distance For 180 deg. Turn

    Required C141 Parking Spots

  • C-9

  • 119.3

  • 93.4

  • 110,000

  • T

  • 73

  • 0.4

  • C-130

  • 99.5

  • 132.6

  • 175,000

  • ST

  • 74

  • 0.5

  • C-141

  • 168.4

  • 160

  • 343,000

  • TT

  • 137

  • 1.0

  • C-17

  • 173.92

  • 169.75

  • 585,000

  • TRT

  • 1143

  • 1.13

  • C-5A/B

  • 247.8

  • 222.7

  • 840,000

  • TDT

  • 150

  • 2.0

  • KC-10

  • 181.6

  • 165.3

  • 593,000

  • SBTT

  • 149.5

  • 1.1

  • KC-135

  • 136.25

  • 130.85

  • 322,500

  • TT

  • 130

  • 0.7

  • B-747

  • 231.83

  • 195.67

  • 836,000

  • DDT

  • 142

  • 1.7

  • B-757

  • 155.25

  • 124.83

  • 250,000

  • TT

  • 92

  • 0.7

  • B-767

  • 180.25

  • 156.08

  • 352,000

  • TT

  • 146

  • 1.0

  • DC-8

  • 187.42

  • 148.42

  • 358,000

  • TT

  • 132

  • 1.0

  • DC-10

  • 182.25

  • 165.33

  • 593,000

  • SBTT

  • 149.42

  • 1.1

  • L-1011

  • 177.67

  • 164.33

  • 498,000

  • TT

  • 141.25

  • 1.1

  • MD-11

  • 201.34

  • 169.5

  • 626,000

  • SBTT

  • 155.8

  • 1.3

  • Notes: 1. Wingtip clearance: 10 ft on each side with wing walker, 25 ft each side without wing walker. (Do not apply to CRAF)

    2. Refer to DOD Flight Information Publication (Enroute) for an airfield's maximum runway load bearing capability expressed as a maximum aircraft weight for a particular landing gear type.

    3. The C-17 minimum width for a Star Turn is 90 ft. The C-17 can park in a C-141 spot with a wing walker.

     Table 3. Aircraft Payloads1

  • Aircraft Type

    Pallet Positions

    Cargo (s/t)

    Passengers4

    Standard NEO

    passengers

       

    ACL2

    Planning3

    ACL

    Planning

         
  • C-9

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • 40

  • 32

  • 40

  •    
  • C-130

  • 6

  • 17

  • 12

  • 90

  • 80

  • 92/745

  •    
  • C-141

  • 13

  • 30

  • 19

  • 153

  • 120

  • 200/1535

  •    
  • C-17

  • 18

  • 65

    • 45

  • 102

  • 90

  • 102

  •    
  • C-5A/B

  • 36

  • 89

  • 61.3

  • 73

  • 51

  • 73

  •    
  • KC-10 (Airlift)

  • 25

  • 60

  • 32.6

  • 75

  • 68

  • 75

  •    
  • KC-135 (Airlift)

  • 6

  • 18

  • 13

  • 53

  • 46

  • 53

  •    
  • B-747

  • 44

  • 100

  • 86

  • 335

  • 335

  • 390

  •    
  • B-757

  • 15

  • 38

  • 33

  • 110

  • 110

  • 216

  •    
  • B-767

  • 24

  • 65

  • 56

  • 205

  • 205

  • 215

  •    
  • DC-8

  • 16

  • 38

  • 33

  • 125

  • 125

  • 190

  •    
  • DC-10

  • 30

  • 72

  • 62

  • 210

  • 210

  • 280

  •    
  • L-1011

  • 26

  • 59

  • 51

  • 180

  • 180

  • 350

  •    
  • MD-11

  • 35

  • 93

  • 80

  • 315

  • 315

  • 300

  •    
  • Notes: 1. Cargo and passenger payloads (except for the C-5) are exclusive of one another.

    2. Organic calculated as the maximum ACL for a 3200 nm leg, CRAF calculated for a 3500nm leg.

    3. Historical averages from Desert Storm/Shield. CRAF based on mixed service averages (B-747-100 Eq = 78 s/tons).

    4. CRAF MAX and AVG passengers are the same because passengers are loaded to the max allowable by weight.

    5. Lower NEO number reflects life raft capacity.

     Table 4. Aircraft Block Speeds1

  • Type

    500nm

    1000 nm

    1500nm

    2000 nm

    2500nm

    3000 nm

    3500 nm

    4000 nm

    5000 nm

    C-9

    >

    247

    353

    390

    406

    414

    -

    -

    -

    -

    C-130

    185

    208

    246

    262

    270

    -

    -

    -

    -

    C-141

    227

    332

    370

    386

    394

    399

    405

    414

    -

    C-17

    243

    348

    386

    402

    410

    415

    421

    430

    -

    C-5A/B

    242

    347

    385

    401

    409

    414

    420

    429

    429

    KC-10

    267

    372

    410

    426

    434

    439

    445

    454

    454

    KC-135

    252

    357

    395

    411

    419

    424

    430

    439

    439

    B-747

    287

    392

    430

    446

    454

    459

    465

    474

    474

    B-757

    267

    371

    410

    426

    434

    439

    445

    454

    454

    B-767

    272

    376

    415

    431

    439

    444

    450

    459

    459

    DC-8

    262

    367

    405

    421

    429

    434

    440

    449

    -

    DC-10

    277

    381

    420

    436

    444

    449

    455

    464

    464

    L-1011

    277

    382

    420

    436

    444

    449

    455

    464

    464

    MD-11

    277

    382

    420

    436

    444

    449

    455

    464

    464

  • Note: Organic aircraft block speeds obtained from computer flight plan data.

    Civil aircraft figures are a composite average of various configurations and series participating in CRAF.

    For Civil aircraft whose passenger and cargo configuration speeds differed, the lower speed was used.

     Table 5. Ground Times

  • <

    Aircraft Type

    Passenger and Cargo Operations
    Wartime Planning Times (hrs+min)

    AR

    Regen

    Minimum

    Crew Rest

    Aeromedical Evacuation
    (hrs+min)

     
     

    Onload

    Enroute

    Offload

    Expedited2

  • Times4

  • Times

  • Reconfigure

    Onload / Offload

    Expedited2

             
  • C-9

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • 15+45

  • 1+30

  • 1+30

  • 45

  •          
  • C-130

  • 1+30

  • 1+30

  • 1+30

  • 0+45

  • -

  • 15+15

  • 1+30

  • 1+30

  • 45

  •          
  • C-141

  • 2+15

  • 2+15

  • 2+15

  • 1+15

  • -

  • 16+00

  • 4+15 3

  • 2+15

  • 1+15

  •          
  • C-17

  • 2+15

  • 2+15

  • 2+15

  • 1+45

  • -

  • 16+00

  • 4+153

  • 2+15

  • 1+45

  •         
  • C-5A/B

  • 4+15

  • 3+15

  • 3+15

  • 2+00

  • -

  • 17+00

  • -

  • -

  • -

  •          
  • KC-10

  • 4+15

  • 3+15
  • 3+15

  • 3+15

  • 2+30

  • 17+00

  • -

  • -

  • -

  •          
  • KC-1355

  • 3+30

  • 2+30

  • 3+30

  • 2+30

  • 2+30

  • 17+00

  • -

  • -

  • -

  •          
  • B-747

  • 3+30 / 5+00 1

  • 1+30

  • 2+00 / 3+001

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  •          
  • B-757

  • 2+00

  • 1+30

  • 2+00

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  •          
  • B-767

  • 2+00

  • 1+30

  • 2+00

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • n/a

  • 5+00

  • 5+00

  •          
  • DC-8

  • 2+30 / 3+301

  • 1+30

  • 2+00 / 1+15 1

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  •          
  • DC-10

  • 2+30 / 5+00 1

  • 1+30

  • 3+00

  • -
  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  •          
  • L-1011

  • 2+30 / 5+00 1

  • 1+30

  • 2+00 / 3+001

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  •          
  • MD-11

  • 3+30 / 5+001

  • 1+30

  • 3+00

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • -

  •          
  • Notes: 1. Passenger/Cargo.
      1. Onload or offload operations only. Does not include refuel or reconfiguration operations.
  • 3. The time required to reconnigure for limited retrograde evacuation of patients only as far as the next location

    4. Sortie regeneration times for Air Refueling missions.

      1. KC-135 times apply to roller-equipped aircraft.
  • Table 6. Aircraft Utilization
  • Aircraft

    UTE Rates1

    Contingency

    Primary Mission Aircraft Inventory (PMAI)2

    Type

    Surge

    Sustained

    USE Rates

    1997

    1998

    1999

    2000

    2001

  • C-93

  • 8

  • 8

  • 8.0

  • 18

  • 18

  • 18

  • 18

  • 18

  • C-1301

  • 6.0

  • 4

  • 6.0

  • 432

  • 388

  • 388

  • 388

  • 388

  • C-141

  • 12.1

  • 9.7

  • 7.4

  • 161

  • 143

  • 135

  • 103

  • 88

  • C-17

  • 15.15

  • 13.9

  • 11.7

  • 24

  • 30

  • 37

  • 46

  • 58

  • C-5A/B

  • 10.0 / 11.4

  • 8.4/ 8.4

  • 5.8/7.5

  • 104

  • 104

  • 104

  • 104

  • 104

  • KC-104

  • 12.5

  • 10

  • 7.9

  • 54

  • 54

  • 54

  • 54

  • 54

  • KC-1354

  • -

  • -

  • 5.6

  • 472

  • 472

  • 472

  • 472

  • 472

  • CRAF5

  •      
  • STAGE 1

  • STAGE 2

  • STAGE 3

  • B-747

  • 10

  • 10

  • 10

  • 16 / 14

  • 36 / 36

  • 59 / 71

  • B-757

  • 10

  • 10

  • 10

  • 0 / 7

  • 0 / 9

  • 0 / 30

  • B-767

  • 10

  • 10

  • 10

  • 0 / 4

  • 0 / 12

  • 0 / 57

  • DC-8

  • 10

  • 10

  • 10

  • 19 / 0

  • 36 / 0

  • 85 / 0

  • DC-10

  • 10

  • 10

  • 10

  • 4 / 5

  • 9 / 31

  • 40 / 76

  • L-1011

  • 10

  • 10

  • 10

  • 0 / 8

  • 0 / 17

  • 5 / 24

  • MD-11

  • 10

  • 10

  • 10

  • 2 / 5

  • 14 / 14

  • 27 / 19

  • Notes: 1. Surge UTE rates apply for the first 45 days, (C-130’s surge for 30 days).

    2. Reflects active/ARC aircraft inventory , not apportionment. See JSSP, Enclosure 11.

  • 3. PMAI reflects Air Evac aircraft only.

    4. KC-10 and KC-135 UTE rates apply in the airlift role.

    5. CRAF CARGO/PASSENGER aircraft contracted for FY 1997.

    6. CRAF Stage 3 Cargo Planning Factor = 120 B-747-100 Wide Body Equivalents.

    Table 7. Productivity Factors1

  • Tactical (Intra-theater)

    Onload to Offload Distance

  • 500nm

  • 1000nm

  • 1500nm

  • 2000nm

  • 2500nm

  • 3000nm

  • Productivity Factor

  • .33

  • .40

  • .43

  • .44

  • .45

  • .46

  •  

  • Strategic (Inter-theater)

    Onload to Offload Distance

  • 3000nm

  • 4000nm

  • 5000nm

  • 6000nm

  • 7000nm

  • 8000nm

  • Productivity Factor

  • .43

  • .44

  • .45

  • .46

  • .47

  • .47

  •  

  • Note: 1. Productivity Factors published above reflect average values for broad planning applications. The values above assume average non-productive positioning legs (home station to onload, and offload to recovery)of 250nm for tactical missions and 500nm for strategic missions. A scenario specific productivity factor can besttbe approximated with the equation: Productivity = (onload to offload dist) / (round trip cycle dist).
  • Table 8. Maximum Airfield Throughput

  •  

    24 Hour Operations

    16 Hour Operations5

    10 Hour Operations6

    MOG1

    Passengers2,4

    Cargo3,4
    (s/tons)

    Passengers

    Cargo
    (s/tons)

    Passengers

    Cargo (s/tons)

       

    1

    1139

    172

    759

    115

    475

    72

       

    2

    2278

    345

    1519

    230

    949

    144

       

    3

    3417

    517

    2278

    345

    1424

    215

       

    4

    4556

    689

    3037

    459

    1898

    287

      >  

    5

    5695

    861

    3797

    574

    2373

    359

       

    6

    6834

    1034

    4556

    689

    2848

    431

       

    7

    7973

    1206

    5315

    804

    3322

    502

       

    8

    9112

    1378

    6075

    919

    3797

    574

       

    9

    10251

    1550

    6834

    1034

    4271

    646

       

    10

    11390

    1723

    7593

    1148

    4746

    718

       
  • Notes: 1. Use the lower of either the working MOG, parking MOG, or fuel MOG.

    2. Passenger throughput based on B-747 equivalents (average payload 335 passengers, ground time 3+00).

    3. Cargo throughput based on C-141 equivalents (average payload 19 s/tons, ground time 2+15).

    4. Queuing efficiency of 85% applied.

    5. Daylight operations in summer months.

    6. Daylight operations in winter months.

  • Table 9. Fuel Burn Rates1

  • Aircraft Type

    Fuel Burn

  • Aircraft Type

  • Fuel Burn

  • Aircraft Type

  • Fuel Burn

     
  • Rate lbs/hr

  •  
  • Rate lbs/hr

  •  
  • Rate lbs/hr

  • C-9

  • 6,667

  • B-707

  • 13,916

  • F-117

  • 9380

  • C-130

  • 5,360

  • B-747

  • 26,800

  • RF-4

  • 9,715

  • C-141

  • 13,902

  • B-767

  • 10,552

  • F-15C

  • 7,500

  • C-17

  • 21,440

  • DC-8

  • 13,916

  • F-15E

  • 10,586

  • C-5

  • 23,450

  • DC-10

  • 20,616

  • EF-111

  • 9,715

  • KC-10

  • 17,755

  • L-1011

  • 17,219

  • F-16

  • 5,360

  • KC-135R

  • 10,921

  • MD-11

  • 17,511

  • A/OA-10

  • 4,121

  • Notes: 1. Fuel burn rates extracted from AFP 144-4, Fuels Logistics Planning, 22 Apr 91 (converted to lbs/hr using 6.7 lbs/gal conversion rate). These fuel burn rates are for planning purposes only. Actual consumption varies according to mission profile, aircraft model, configuration, altitude, airspeed etc.
  • Table 10. Tanker Offload Capabilities

  • Aircraft

    Takeoff

    Gross Weight (lbs)

    Takeoff

    Fuel

    Load (lbs)

    Max Offload Available (lbs)

         

    Mission Radius

         

    500nm

    1000nm

    1500nm

    2500nm
  • KC-135E

  • 275,700

  • 160,000

  • 101,200

  • 78,600

  • 55,800

  • 10,500

  • KC-135R/T

  • 301,700

  • 180,000

  • 122,200

  • 99,400

  • 76,400

  • 30,700

  • KC-10

  • 587,000

  • 327,000

  • 233,500

  • 195,200

  • 156,000

  • 78,700

  • Notes: 1. This table was extracted from MCM 3-1, Vol II, Tactical Employment KC-135/ KC-10, 10 May 95.

    2. Based on Sea level, standard day, 10,000-ft dry runway.

  • 3. Offload data based on 1-hour orbit.

    4. Cargo carried will reduce fuel load on a 1:1 basis.

    5. All KC-10 and a limited number of KC-135 aircraft are refuelable, providing increased range, offload, and loiter capabilities.

     Table 11. KC-135 Tanker Aircraft Required1,2,3

  • Receiver

    Distance (nm)

  • # / Aircraft Type

  • 1000

  • 2000

  • 3000

  • 4000

  • 5000

  • 6000

  •          
  • 6 F-1174

  • 3

  • 3

  • 5

  • 6

  • 8

  • 11

  •          
  • 6 RF-4

  • 1

  • 2

  • 4

  • 6

  • 9

  • 13

  •          
  • 6 F-15C

  • 0

  • 2

  • 3

  • 5

  • 6

  • 9

  •          
  • 6 F-15E

  • 1

  • 2

  • 5

  • 6

  • 10

  • 14

  •          
  • 6 EF-111

  • 0

  • 1

  • 3

  • 5

  • 7

  • 11

  •          
  • 6 F-16

  • 0

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 5

  • 7

  •          
  • 6 A/OA-10

  • 0

  • 1

  • 3

  • 4

  • -

  • -

  •          
  • 1 C-1415

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • 1

  • 1

  • 2

  •          
  • 1 C-175

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • 1

  • 1

  • 3

  •          
  • 1 C-55

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • 1

  • 1

  • 2

  •          

    Notes: 1. Due to the multitude of Air Refueling variables this table reflects an "order of magnitude" only.

    2. Table assumes multiple tanker launch bases would be used for AR distances greater than 3000nm.

    3. Fighter/tanker ratio can be limited by boom cycle time.

    4. The F-117 is currently limited to a ratio of only 2 F-117's per tanker.

  • 5 For the airlift aircraft assume average payloads, maximum takeoff gross weight, optimum located air refueling tracks and divert bases, and a minimum tanker offload capability of 90,000 lbs.

      

    Table 12. KC-10 Tanker Aircraft Required1,2,3

  • <

    Receiver

    Distance (nm)

  • # / Aircraft Type

  • 1000

  • 2000

  • 3000

  • 4000

  • 5000

  • 6000
  •        
  • 6 F-1174

  • 3

  • 3

  • 3

  • 6
  • 6

  • 7

  •        
  • 6 RF-4

  • 1

  • 1

  • 3

  • 3

  • 6
  • 7

  •        
  • 6 F-15C

  • 0

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

  • 5

  •        
  • 6 F-15E

  • 1

  • 1

  • 3

  • 4

  • 5

  • 8

  •        
  • 6 EF-111

  • 0

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

  • 6

  •        
  • 6 F-16

  • 0

  • 1

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

  •        
  • 6 A/OA-10

  • 0

  • 1

  • 1

  • 2

  • -

  • -

  •        
  • 1 C-1415

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • 1

  • 1

  • 2

  •        
  • 1 C-175

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • 1

  • 1

  • 3

  •        
  • 1 C-55

  • -

  • -

  • -

  • 1

  • 1

  • 2

  •        
  • Notes: 1. Due to the multitude of Air Refueling variables this table reflects an "order of magnitude" only.

    2. Table assumes multiple tanker launch bases would be used for AR distances greater than 3000nm.

    3. Fighter/tanker ratio can be limited by boom cycle time.

    4. The F-117 is currently limited to a ratio of only 2 F-117's per tanker.

    5. For the airlift aircraft assume average payloads, maximum takeoff gross weight, optimum located air refueling tracks and divert bases, and a minimum tanker offload capability of 90,000 lbs.

      Table 13. Aeromedical Evacuation Capabilities

  •  

    AE

    Aeromedical Airlift Capability

     

    Crews

    Peacetime

    Wartime or Emergency

     

    Aircraft

    per

    Aircraft

    Total

    Litter/ Ambulatory

    All

    Litter

    All

    Ambulatory

    Surge

    Litter/

    Ambulatory

    Floor

    Loading

    Load Planning

    Factors

               

    C-9A

    1

    9/30

    40

    40

    401

    N/A

    39

               

    C-130A,B,E,H

    1

    24/36

    743

    36/82

    50/221

    15

    50

               

    C-141B (w/comfort pallet)

    1.57

    31/78

    48

    1404/1655

    48/38

    30

    63

               

    C-141B (w/o comfort pallet

    1.57

    31/786

    48

    1614/1952,5

    48/38

    33

    63

               

    C-17

    1.57

    36/54

    36

    54

    36/54

    N/A

    45

               

    B-767 (300/300ER)

    27

    87/48

    87

    48

    87/48

    N/A

    120

               

    B-767 (200/200ER)

    27

    87/33

    87

    33

    87/33

    N/A

    120

               

    Notes: 1. Various litter and ambulatory patient combinations are available at all times.

  • 2. Side facing (Evans) seats are used.

    3. If a full medical crew is on board, only 70 positions are available.

  • 4. Aft facing seats are used.

    5. Due to life raft limitations, the number of ambulatory patients may be reduced to 160 on overwater flights.

    6. Peacetime strategic missions normally use a comfort pallet.

    7. 1.5 crews = 3 flight nurses/4 AE technicians. 2 crews = 4 flight nurses/6 AE technicians.

  •  Airlift

    As an example of how to use the formulas and planning factors in this pamphlet, assume the following scenario. The 10th Mountain Div. out of Ft. Drum, NY, is to deploy to Kathmandu, Nepal, at the foot of the Himalayas, to assist in earthquake relief. The requirement is to move 700 personnel and 800 short tons of cargo.

    Suitable Airfield.

    Referring to the Aircraft Airfield Requirements table, we see that the B747 requires a minimum of 6,600 feet of runway and the C-141 requires a minimum of 6,000 feet. Since the airfield at Ft. Drum, Wheeler-Sack AAF, does not have the required runway length, we choose a nearby alternative, Griffiss AFB, with a runway length of 11,820.

    Note: Refer to the HQ AMC Airfield Suitability Report (ASR) to determine suitability. If the airfield does not appear in the ASR, contact your MAJCOM DOTV and request the airfield be evaluated for use by airlift aircraft. Your MAJCOM DOTV will provide prompt feedback and include suitability information in future editions of the ASR.

    Looking in the Kathmandu area, we find Tribhuvan International airport in Kathmandu to have 10,121 feet of run way which, along with the associated taxiways and ramp, is stressed for B747 aircraft. So, we make our initial plans based on using Griffiss AFB as the onload and Tribhuvan International as the offload.

    Missions Required. Our examples will address only the cargo requirements, however passenger movement would be handled in a similar manner. For all examples to follow we will assume we have 40-C141s apportioned for our use.

  • = Cargo requirement
    Avg payload

    = 800 stons .
    19 stons per C-141

    = 42 C-141 equivalent missions

    Time to arrival. The time required for cargo/pax to arrive at the offload location including all enroute ground times. For this example the C-141's will depart McGuire (KWRI), fly to Griffiss (KRME) for onload, then enroute stop at Rota (LERT), Dhahran (OEDR), Delhi, (VIDP), and then offload at Tribhuvan (VNKT). Refer to definitions and tables as needed.

    Time to Arrival
    = (active route flying time) + (active route ground time)

    ARFT = dist 1 + dist 2 +.....

    block speed 1 block speed 2

    3119 + 2911 + 1441 + 436

    400 398 366 227

    = 21.0 hours

    Note: Block speeds were interpolated from table 4.

    ARGT = gnd time 1 + gnd time 2 + gnd time 3 +...

    (refer to table 5)

    = 6.75 hours

    Time to arrival = 21.0 + 6.75

    = 27.75 hours

  • Cycle Time. For this example we calculated round trip flying time (RTFT) and round trip ground time (RTGT) using reverse routing except the last leg will be from Rota (LERT) to McGuire (KWRI). Refer to definitions for RTFT and RTGT.

  • Cycle Time = round trip flying time + round trip ground time

    RTFT = dist. 1 + dist. 2 + ...
    block speed 1 block speed 2

    = 192 + 3119 + 2911 + 1441 + 436

    227 400 398 366 227

    + 436 + 1441 + 2911 + 3140

    227 366 398 400

    = 42.8 hours

    RTGT = gnd time 1 + gnd time 2 + gnd time 3 + ...

    = 20.25 hours

    Cycle Time = 63.05 hours

    Closure

    = (requirement) x (RTFT) .
    (average payload) x (number of aircraft) x (USE rate)

    = (800 stons) x (42.8 hours)

    (19 stons) x (40) x (7.4)

    = 6 days

    Fleet Capability (short tons delivered to the theater)

    = (average payload) x (number of aircraft)t x (USE rate)
    (RTFT)

    = (19) x (40) x (7.4)
    42.8

    = 131.4 stons/day

  • Airfield Throughput Capability. It is necessary to look at the throughput capability of all airfields associated with a deployment, to determine whether any one airfield limits a planned operation. However, for initial planning, the enroute locations may be assumed to have a higher throughput capability than the onload and offload locations. For this example we have used Tribhuvan International and a working MOG of 1narrow body (NB) aircraft.

     

    Airfield Throughput capability (i.e., Tribhuvan)

  • = (MOG) x (average payload) x (operating hours)
    (ground time)

    = (1) x (19 stons) x (24) x (85% queuing efficiency)
    (2.25)

    = 172.3 stons/day (Refer to able 8)

  • Note: Since the arrival airfield can handle more throughput than will be delivered, this calculation is complete. If the throughput had exceeded the airfield's ability to receive it, either the flow would need to be slowed (and throughput decreased) to compensate or the airfield's resources increased to handle the airflow.
  • Air Refueling

    For this example assume you need to deploy 6 F-15C's from

    Langley (KLFI) to Spangdahlem (ETAD). How much fuel and

    how many tankers (KC-135R) are required? Note: For this

    example average/historical figures were used. Actual

    numbers would vary according to aircraft model, configuration,

    altitude, airspeed, etc.

    Offload Required (per receiver)

    = (dist / TAS x fuel flow) - total fuel + dest resv

    dist = total distance from takeoff to landing

    TAS = average airspeed of receiver leg (use Table 4 Blockspeeds for mobility aircraft or applicable flight manual airspeeds for combat aircraft.)

    fuel flow = fuel burn rate in lbs/hr

    total fuel = total fuel on board at takeoff

    dest resv = required fuel reserves at destination

    = (3500/480 x 7500) - 23,000 + 7500

    = 39,187 lbs (per receiver) x 6 = 235,125 lbs

    Offload Available (per tanker)

    = total fuel - (dist / TAS x fuel flow) - dest resv

  • = 175,000 - (3500/480 x 10,000) - 30,000

    = 72,083 lbs per tanker

      

    Tankers required

    = offload required

    offload available

  • = 235,125

    72,083

    = 4 KC-135R's required

  • Aeromedical Evacuation For this example C-141's (with comfort pallet) will be used to evacuate 500 patients per day.

     

  • AE Missions (# required)

    = # of Evacuees per day

    Load Planning Factor

    = 500

    63

    = 8 missions required per day

    AE Crews (# required for missions flown, does not include stage)

    = (Msns / day) x (1.25 Crew Planning Factor) x (Crews Per Aircraft)

    x (Crew Cycle Time)

    = 8 x 1.25 x 1.5 x 5 = 75 crews