Joint Strategic Planning System (JSPS)
Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System (PPBS)
INSTRUCTOR: Lt Col Bob Barthelmess
DESCRIPTION:This lesson presents an overview of the Joint Strategic Planning System (JSPS) and the Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System (PPBS), and their significance to Air Force deliberate planning. These systems are presented together because of the interaction between them.
OBJECTIVE:TOOTLIFEST describe the elements and functions of both the Joint Strategic Planning System, and objective of the phases of the Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System, and how they impact deliberate planning..
SAMPLES OF BEHAVIOR:Each student will be able to:
1. Describe how the JSPS and PPBS support National Objectives and Strategy
2. Define and know the purpose of the JSPS.
3. Describe the five products of JSPS
4. Define and know the purpose of the PPBS
5. Describe the objective of the three major phases of PPBS
Review the CWPC Desktop Reference for definitions of the following:
a. Budget Estimate Submission (BES).
d. Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP)
e. Joint Strategy Review (JSR)
f. National Military Strategy (NMS)
g. Program Budget Decision (PBD)
g.. Program Decision Memorandum (PDM).
h. Program Objective Memorandum (POM).
Scan paragraph 502, Defense Resource Management- A Joint Perspective, page 5-5 through page 5-21, Joint Staff Officer's Guide, 1997.
1. JSPS and PPBS Support to the National Objectives and Strategy:The Joint Strategic Planning System and the Planning Programming and Budgeting System support the National Security Objectives and Strategy by identifying the threat, developing military strategy and plans, programming forces, and providing a fiscally responsible budget. Together, these systems provide the CINCs with the best possible mix of resources (forces and equipment) to ensure our nationís security objectives are met. Some of the systems discussed in this lesson are:
a. DoD Acquisition System. Not discussed in this course.
c. Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System (PPBS). Provided in the second part of this Instructional Period.
d. Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES). Details in another lecture.
2.The Role of the Joint Strategic Planning System (JSPS):
a. Definition: The JSPS is the primary, formal means by which the CJCS, in consultation with the JCS and the CINCs, carries out statutory responsibilities required by Title 10, USC. It is governed by CJCSI 3100.01, The Joint Strategic Planning System. The JSPS interacts with other DoD systems, notably the Planning Programming and Budgeting System (PPBS), as discussed later, and the Joint Operations Planning and Execution System (JOPES), presented in IP 3100.
(1) In conjunction with the PPBS, the JSPS combines to provide the best possible mix of missions, forces, equipment, and support to the combatant commanders.
(2) The JSPS provides the means for the CJCS to review the national security environment and US national security objectives; evaluate the threat; assess current strategy and existing or proposed programs and budgets; and, propose military strategy, programs, and forces necessary to achieve national security objectives.
3. The Purpose and Scope of the Five Products of the JSPS:
a. Joint Strategy Review (JSR):
(1) Purpose: The Joint Strategy Review (JSR)
(a) assesses the strategic environment for issues and factors that affect the national military strategy in the near and long term. It is a process that continuously gathers information, examines current issues, emerging and future issues, threats, opportunities, technologies, organizations, doctrinal concepts, force structures, and military missions; and, reviews and assesses current strategy, forces, and national policy objectives.
(b) facilitates the integration of strategy, operational planning, and program assessment.
(2) Scope: The JSR
(a) consists of JSR working groups, with representatives from the Joint Staff, the Services, and the Unified Commands, who continuously study the near and long-term strategic environment.
(b) produces three products:
1. JSR Issue Papers (products of the Near-Term Strategy Working Group): are published after study and issue evaluation that could potentially change the National Military Strategy (NMS) or Joint Planning Document (JPD). Each paper provides the CJCS, JCS, and CINCs an issue summary, significant changes in the strategic environment, and assesses its impact on the NMS.
2. Long-Range Vision Paper (product of the Long-Range Strategy Working Group): This document, derived from an analysis of the spectrum of plausible future environments and organizational, technological, force structure and doctrinal contracts, provides the framework for developing strategy for the period 20 years from the current year.
3. JSR Annual Report: (staffed and published by 1 August): The report highlights the threat assessment and issues from JSR issue papers, their impact on NMS, and provides the CJCS with options and a recommendation.
b. National Military Strategy (NMS):
(1) Purpose: The NMS
(a) furnishes the President, the National Security Council, and the Secretary of Defense the advice of the CJCS, in consultation with the other members of the JCS and combatant commanders, as to the recommended national military strategy and fiscally constrained force structure required to support attainment of national security objectives. It fulfills the CJCSís statutory responsibility to assist the NCA in providing for the strategic direction of the Armed Forces and to prepare strategic plans.
(b) provides guidance used in the development of the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP) and the Joint Planning Document (JPD).
(2) Scope: The NMS consists of:
(a) a description of the strategic landscape to include discussion of the threats to US national security interests (derived from the JSR).
(b) a discussion of national military objectives and how to achieve them. (based on National Security Objectives/Strategy)
(c) a description of military capabilities required to implement the strategy and a discussion of the foundations upon which those capabilities are built.
c. Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP): (Further instruction will be provided in IP 4210.)
(1) Purpose: The JSCP
(a) provides guidance to the JCS, CINCs, and Services to accomplish tasks and missions based on current military capabilities.
(b) apportions resources to CINCs, based on military capabilities resulting from completed program and budget actions and intelligence assessments.
(c) is the principal vehicle by which the CINCs are tasked to develop Operations Plans (OPlans), Concept Plans (ConPlans), and Functional Plans.
(2) Scope: The JSCP
(a) consists of a single instruction that covers planning guidance, objectives, tasks, assumptions, and forces.
(b) apportions major combat forces expected to be available during the planning period for both Active and Reserve component forces.
(c) contains 14 supplemental instructions which provide further planning guidance in specific functional areas (see IP 4210).
(d) contains an intelligence enclosure (drawn from the JSR, NMS, and JPD) which addresses the threat environment and probability of Operations Other than War (OOTW) in various countries throughout the world.
d. Chairmanís Program Assessment (CPA): (The lecturer will come back to this section)
(1) Purpose: The CPA is the CJCSís assessment of the composite Program Objective Memorandum (POM). It:
(a) assists the CJCS in fulfilling his Title 10, USC responsibility to provide advice to the SecDef on how well the Program Objective Memorandums (POMs) conform to established priorities established in CINC strategic plans.
(b) summarizes the views of the CJCS on the balance and capabilities of the POM force and the support levels required to attain US national security objectives, and allows for alternative program recommendations and budget proposals.
(2) Scope: The CPA is:
(a) an assessment of how well the POMs, submitted by the Military Departments, USSOCOM, and the Defense Agencies conform to national military priorities and strategic guidance.
(b) an iterative process which begins before POMs are published and ending with critical issue identification for inclusion in the CPA.
(c) also reliant on inputs from various sources, in addition to the POM. These are all weighed prior to the CJCSís submission of the CPA:
1. Solicited comments from the Services, Unified Commands, Defense Agencies, and Joint Staff
2. The OSD fiscal guidance, DPG, NMS, JPD, Joint Warfighting Capabilities Assessment (JWCA), Joint Military Net Assessment (JNMA), CINCís Integrated Priorities List (IPL), Chairmanís Readiness System (CRS), etc.
e. Joint Planning Document (JPD):
(1) Purpose: The JPD supports the NMS by furnishing concise programming priorities, requirements, or advice to the SecDef for consideration during preparation of the Defense Planning Guidance (DPG) (PPBS). It is intended to furnish insight on CJCS priorities in development of the defense program for the affected FYDP The JPD is the document which links the JSPS to the PPBS.
(2) Scope: The seven-volume JPDs are stand-alone documents addressing specific functional areas. They are coordinated and collaborated with the JCS and CINCs as another conduit for input to the DPG.
(a) Volume 1 -- Intelligence. (DIA/J2 lead): Establishes CJCS intelligence policy guidance and associated goals and objectives in support of the NMS during the Future Years Defense Plan (FYDP).
(b) Volume 2 -- Nuclear. (J5 lead): Outlines the nuclear capabilities required by the CINCs to support the strategy for the planning period. Determines the number of nuclear warheads necessary to support the NMS, CINC requirements, and fiscally constrained forces recommended by the CJCS.
(c) Volume 3 -- C4 Systems. (J6 lead): Provides CJCS advice on C4 capabilities required to support the NMS and its force structure for the FYDP. Summarizes major C4 capability objectives and programming priorities needed to support future joint military operations.
(d) Volume 4 -- Future Capabilities. (J8 lead): Addresses present and future operational capability deficiencies and potential technology exploitation opportunities that require major Science and Technology (S&T) or Systems Acquisition (research and development) efforts in the mid range (FYDP) and long range (FYDP +14 years) time frames.
(e) Volume 5 -- Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy (DMA lead): Discusses major mapping, charting and geodesy (MC&G) resource requirements to support the NMS. States shortfalls and appraises inherent risks in the programmed MC&G resources.
(f) Volume 6 -- Manpower and Personnel (J1 lead): Identifies and examines broad issues and programs common to all Services relating to meeting current and programmed forces. States CJCSís position regarding military and civilian personnel management programs and policies necessary to support manpower requirements.
(g) Volume 7 -- Logistics (J4 lead): States joint logistics policy in support of the NMS, and describes those joint logistic policies and programs affecting the capability of programmed forces to meet present and future requirements.
4. The role of the Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System (PPBS):
a. Definition: The Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System (PPBS) is the DoD Resources Management System, controlled by the SecDef, and used to establish, maintain, and revise the Future Years Defense Plan (FYDP) and the DoD portion of the Presidentís Budget.
b. Purpose: Taken together with the JSPS, PPBS combines to provide the best possible mix of missions, forces, equipment, and support to the combatant commanders.
a. Planning Phase: The objective of the planning phase is to identify the threat to US National security, develop the strategy necessary to meet national objectives, and determine the forces required to carry out the strategy. As such, it is a continuation of the products provided in the JSPS; specifically, the JSR (threat), NMS (strategy), and JPD (forces). These products set the stage for the SecDefís planning document, the Defense Planning Guidance (DPG)
(a) is drafted by the Under SecDef for Policy and takes into consideration previous yearís DPG, Program Decision Memorandums (PDMs), and budget, along with the NMS and JPD.
(b) provides firm guidance in the form of goals, priorities, and objectives, including fiscal constraints, for the development of the Program Objective Memorandums by the Military Departments and Defense agencies.
(c) is the major link between the JSPS and the PPBS
(d) completes the Planning Phase, when published.
b. Programming Phase: The objective of the Programming Phase is to structure the resources Ė major combat and tactical support forces Ė that are expected to execute the national strategy within manpower, fiscal, and other constraints that are established in the Defense Planning Guidance (DPG). The Programming Phase contains two documents:
(1) Program Objective Memorandum (POM). POMs
(a) are based on the strategic concepts and guidance stated in the DPG and express the Servicesí total program requirements for the year covered in the DPG.
(b) identify major issues that must be resolved during the year of submission
(c) include special annexes that show how the submitted POMs respond to the CINCsí needs.
(d) are then reviewed by the Chairman during the Chairmanís Program Assessment Ė see paragraph 3d in the JSPS section
(2) Program Decision Memorandum (PDM). The PDM
(a) contains and addresses concerns (issues/counterproposals) provided by the Chairman through the Chairmanís Program Assessment
(b) is the SecDefís final decision on POM proposals and approves DoD component POMs as modified by these decisions.
(c) ends the Programming Phase and serves as the baseline for the budgeting phase.
c. Budgeting Phase: The Budgeting Phase updates the approved programs from the programming phase, checks the approved programs to see if they are executable (i.e., have enough money to do the job), and establish final program costs prior to submitting the budget for inclusion in the Presidentís Budget. The Budgeting Phase contains three products:
(1) Budget Estimate Submission (BES). The BES
(a) is derived from the POM and PDM and represents the Military Departmentsí and Agenciesí estimate of the cost of the approved programs.
(b) includes data for the prior year, current year, budget year, and the budget year plus one.
(2) Program Budget Decisions (PBDs). The PBD
(a) is derived from the BES and represents the SecDefís decision on the MilDeps/Agenciesí budgets as modified by the major budget issues process.
(b) approves the final MilDeps/Agenciesí budget that will be incorporated into the Presidentís Budget
(3) Presidentís Budget (PB).
(a) The Presidentís Budget represents the end of the Budgeting Phase and includes the Defense Budget. The Presidentís Budget is submitted to Congress in January.
(b) Any unresolved differences with the Defense Budget are presented to the President by the SecDef and Director of the OMB prior to inclusion in the Presidentís Budget.
(c) Once the President signs the Congressional appropriations act into laws, OMB can begin apportioning funds to the federal departments. The Services execute the budget and procure new forces and capabilities.