Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP)
IP - 4000
INSTRUCTOR:Lt Col Bob Barthelmess
DESCRIPTION:This lesson examines the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP), the cornerstone document for deliberate planning. The lesson provides information on the organization and content of the JSCP, the type of guidance it offers to the planning community, the specific planning tasks directed to the CINCs and Services, and the apportionment of combat forces.
OBJECTIVE:TOOTLIFEST to comprehend the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP) in relation to contingency wartime planning
SAMPLES OF BEHAVIOR:Each student will be able to:
1. Describe how the JSCP supports national military strategy and national objectives
2. Explain how the JSCP relates to USAF wartime planning
3. Describe the purpose and content of the JSCP
4. Know the availability and classification of the JSCP
5. Describe the adaptive planning process
6. Explain how major combat forces are apportioned
Review the CWPC Desktop Reference for definitions of the following:
a. Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP) e. Intratheater
b. Apportion f. Intertheater
c. Augmentation Forces g Operation Plan (Oplan)
d. Concept Plan (ConPlan)
1. Joint Staff Officers’ Guide (Purple Book) (AFSC Pub 1), Pages 6-11 through 6-20
2. Instructional JSCP, FY96 (S) available for your review--ask your FSL
a. JSCP Support to National Objectives and National Military Strategy: The JSCP is one of the products of the Joint Strategic Planning System (JSPS). The JSCP carries out the Chairman’s National Military Strategy (another product of the JSPS) and National Objectives by directing the CINCs to accomplish strategic planning.
b. JSCP Relationship to USAF Planning: The JSCP directs the CINCs and Services to do strategic planning. The Services take the essence of the JSCP (policies, guidance, apportionment, etc.) and develop their own Service-unique guidance. In the case of the Air Force, the important aspects of the JSCP are translated into the Air Force War and Mobilization Plan (WMP). The WMP brings into the Air Force all the critical parts of the JSCP, and then provides more specific planning guidance for Air Force planners. The Instruction Period on the WMP (IP-4050) will provide more information.
2. Purpose and Content:
a. JSCP Purpose: The JSCP provides guidance, assigns specific planning tasks, and apportions forces. The JSCP is a joint planning document that provides guidance to the CINCs and Chiefs of Services to accomplish tasks and missions based on near-term military capabilities. It is the cornerstone document, which officially starts deliberate planning.
d. One volume, ten sections
(1) A - Introduction
(2) B - Strategic Setting
(3) C - Planning
(4) D - Forces
(5) E - Regional Plans
(6) F - Planning Guidance
(7) G - Intelligence
(8) H - Supplemental Instructions (published separately - see below)
(9) I - References
(10) J - Glossary
d. Fourteen Supplemental Instructions - published separately.
(1) Amplify guidance in the basic JSCP
(2) Provide functional planning guidance
(3) Indicates functional capabilities
(4) JSCP's 14 Supplemental Instructions:
.02 - Intelligence - .09 - C2 Warfare
.03 - Logistic .10 - C4 Systems
.04 - Nuclear .11 - Mobility
.05 - Psychological .12 - Civil Affairs
.06 - Special Operations .13 - Mobilization
.07 - Chemical Warfare .14 - MOOTW
.08 - Mapping, Charting .15 - Special Technical Ops.
(a) Two major supplements: 3110.03 & .11
3. Availability and Classification
a. Developed by the Joint Staff: J5, Strategy Division. CJCS Manual (CJCSM 3110.01)
b. Top Secret, usually available only at the MAJCOM/Service Component level and above (i.e., CINC,
4. JSCP Planning Guidance
Core Strategy: Plan for. "..the United States, in concert with regional allies, must remain able to deter credibly and defeat large-scale, cross-border aggression in two distant theaters in overlapping time frames." (NSS, May ’97)
(1) Major Theater War (MTW): A regionally centered crisis based on a significant threat to US vital interests in a region that warrants the deployment of forces greater than division-wing combinations.
(2) Small Scale Contingencies (SSC): A regionally centered crisis based on a less compelling threat than those involved in an MTW. Missions range from conflict to the lower end of the combat spectrum.
b. Regional Assumptions: Assumptions, in tabular format, which apply to one or more CINCs, and assist them in deliberate planning.
c. Intelligence Estimates: CJCSI 3110.02 (Intelligence Supplement) provides a threat analysis for various regions. The analysis is for the current JSCP (i.e., FY 96)
d. Global and Regional Strategies:
(1) Fundamental Objective: Deter aggression and, should deterrence fail, to defend the nation’s vital interests against any potential foe.
(2) Three Foundations: (See current NMS, IP-2000)
(a) Shape…the world through Engagement
(b) Deter…conflict through a credible combat force
(c) Prepare…for the future
e. Common Regional Tasks: A list, in tabular form, of tasks which each CINC is required to plan for or include within his operations/concept plans. Examples are: Continuity of Operations, command relationships, enemy prisoners of war, etc.
f. Adaptive Planning Process: Premise: that a crisis can arise under a variety of circumstances that will, in turn, elicit a variety of likely responses. The adaptive planning process provides for three "response options" (from deterrence through counterattack) which meet (or "adapt") to the spectrum of crisis with which the US may be confronted.
(a) Flexible Deterrent Options (FDOs): Political, Military, Economic, and Diplomatic deterrent options which the United States may impose to ward off a potential foe.
(1) Used early on in the adaptive planning process
(2) Rapidly executable
(3) Tailored to send the "right message," i.e., use the correct deterrent option to send a strong message and show US resolve.
(4) For the military option, uses small forces -- brigade/squadron level forces
(5) Forces not placed in jeopardy -- usually there to demonstrate a show of force; conflict is not part of FDOs
(b) Deploy Decisive Force: If FDOs should fail, to take actions, including the rapid deployment of sufficient and supportable war-fighting force to a crisis region, to defend US interests, followed by sufficient additional force to end the conflict quickly and on terms favorable to the United States.
(1) This is the focus of deliberate planning, and encompasses the use of differing size and composition of forces -- called case forces -- to meet the threat. Deploy Decisive Force is a range of options for which detailed force and resource planning is conducted and for which transportation-feasible TPFDDs are developed for Oplans, and perhaps ConPlans.
(c) Counterattack: An attack against US forces or vital interests without prior warning or deterrent moves. The CINCs include concepts for a counterattack option in their operation plans for the employment of assigned and apportioned forces in case of an unexpected attack against the US.
5. Assigns Specific Planning Tasks
a. Establishes the Supported and Supporting CINCs Provides, in columnar format, who the Supported CINC is, and lists (up to eight) other CINCs who will be in a supporting role.
b. Directs the CINCs to develop OPlans, ConPlans, and/or Functional Plans
(1) CENTCOM and PACOM OPlans for MTWs, and CONPLANS with a TPFDD for the second of two concurrent MTWs in their AORs.
(2) For SSCs, CINCs are tasked to develop a CONPLAN either with or without a TPFDD, depending on the likelihood of execution.
c. Directs Regional Taskings: As discussed above, tables are provided for each CINC. The table directs the CINC to write a plan to cover a potential crisis. Within the table are assumptions, which the CINC’s staff and supporting CINCs can use for planning for each crisis. Additionally, the table indicates who the supporting CINCs will be for each crisis.
d. Prioritization of Work: The JSCP directs the priority of work. States that priority will be as follows:
(1) MTW Plans
(2) ConPlans with a TPFDD for the second of two concurrent MTWs that develop sequentially
(3) Most likely SSC ConPlans
(4) Remaining SSC plans
e. Basis for Service Planning: The JSCP is the basic joint document which starts Service planning. The Air Force, for instance, uses the JSCP as the source document to develop the AF War Mobilization Plan (WMP). WMP-1 (WMP Volume one) and WMP-3 depend almost entirely on the guidance and apportionment of forces shown in the JSCP. From this, the WMP further defines deliberate planning for the Air Force. (See IP-4220)
6. Apportions Forces for Planning
a. Apportions Generic Forces: The JSCP apportions combat forces for each CINC so they can begin deliberate planning. The forces are usually "generic." In other words, the CINC may be apportioned:
1 USN Carrier Battle Group
3 USA Divisions (Light)
10 USAF Fighter Squadrons
Note that the type of fighter squadrons is not specified. They could be F16, F15, or A10. However, in some instances, the CINC may be apportioned some high-value, scarce, or unique resources by specific types. For instance, the apportionment table may show:
5 E3 Aircraft
8 AC-130 Aircraft
In spite of these few examples, the JSCP still apportions generic forces. The Service planning document (i.e., AF WMP) then further apportions these forces, being more specific as to type and source.
b. Apportions Current Forces: Forces are apportioned from the present US military inventory, or as reflected in the current President’s Budget. On a specific date -- known as the "snapshot date" -- a "picture" is taken of current military inventory. This is the inventory, which is used for apportionment.
c. Forces are Apportioned by Case: Apportioned forces are divided into four Cases. Each Case, progressively, contains more forces, and the CINC will be apportioned different level of forces (Cases) dependent upon the level of threat and the appropriate response option (FDO, Deploy Decisive Force, or Counterattack). Four Cases are used so that forces can be deconflicted if two concurrent contingencies happen sequentially. -- see below:
(1) Case 1 Forces (FDO). These forces, primarily in-place and active component augmentation forces, are designed to support the array of possible flexible deterrent options available to the CINC and NCA. They are rapidly deployable and relatively small (squadron/brigade level). They are there to support the first option: "Flexible Deterrence."
(2) Case 2 Forces (Early Deployers for Deploy a Decisive Force): Additive to Case 1 forces, they include the Active component and that portion of the Reserve component necessary to move and sustain a major force from CONUS. These Case 2 forces support the early stages of the second response option, "Deploy Decisive Force."
(3) Case 3 Forces (Deploy Decisive Force): Additive to Cases 1 & 2, Case 3 forces are apportioned based on unambiguous warning in which the enemy may not have completed preparation for war. These forces include the Presidential Selected Reserve Call-up (PSRC) and Partial Mobilization reinforcements, and are the forces available for the CINC to focus OPlan development on. These forces further support the second response option: "Deploy Decisive Force."
(4) Case 4 Forces (Counterattack/Decisive Force): Again, additive to the previous Cases, Case 4 forces comprise additional Active units and Reserve forces required and made available under Partial Mobilization. These forces are phased into the OPLAN to support the concept of "Deploy Decisive Force" needed to quickly end a conflict on terms agreeable to the US.
d. Regional Apportionment: Those forces apportioned to a theater CINC for planning. As described above, the forces are apportioned by Cases.