CWPC Contingency Wartime Planning Course
IP - 4140
INSTRUCTOR: MSgt Ricky Carter
DESCRIPTION: This period presents an overview of Joint and Air Force systems, organizations and processes that allow planners to project, establish and control support requirements.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this instructional period are for each student to understand the relationship between unit and non-unit-related supplies and personnel. To know the JOPES programs and files used in evaluating TPFDD taskings for support requirements. Know the common joint logistics centers, offices, and boards that may be established by the CINCS or subordinate joint force commanders to coordinate the logistics/support planning effort. And understand the Air Force War Reserve Material (WRM) structure.
SAMPLES OF BEHAVIOR: Each student will:
- Define support planning and how it relates to force planning.
2. Describe the difference between unit-related and non-unit-related supplies.
3. Identify the JOPES software programs used in support planning.
4. Identify common joint logistics centers, offices, and boards that coordinate logistics efforts.
5. Describe how supply build-up and pre-positioned assets support contingency planning.
6. Describe the commodity categories of WRM.
- Scan AFSC Pub 1 (Purple Book), section 630 "JOPES ADP for Support Planning"
- Review the CWPC Desktop Reference for definitions of the following:
- Combatant commander
INTRODUCTION: The aim of any military organization is to produce the greatest possible combat power with the resources available. Each campaign or operation demands its own analysis of the proper balance between supported and supporting forces; supported forces versus combat forces, and supporting forces versus logistic force ratios are ways of assessing requirements and capabilities.
Combatant commanders exercise combatant command (COCOM) over assigned forces, including directive authority for logistics, giving the CINC the ability to shift logistic resources within the theater. However, the CINCís authority is generally confined to the theater, while logistic support beyond the theater is usually a Serviceís responsibility. This authority underscores the need for accurate, and well coordinated, prior logistic planning between CINCs, Services, supporting agencies, and allies
This lesson will discuss the joint and Air Force systems; organizations and processes that allow planners to project, establish and control support requirements.
- Support planning is the multi-level process of identifying, sourcing, planning for stockage and movement of the resources (both personnel and equipment) necessary to promote the combat effectiveness of our forces.
- Proper support planning will reduce the need for emergency measures and improvisations, which are usually expensive and often have an adverse effect on subordinate and adjacent commands. When through support planning is done, theater commanders have the ability to generate and sustain combat power.
- The relationship between force planning and support planning can more easily be seen when viewed as unit-related and non-unit-related support.
- Unit-related supplies and personnel are those that are contained in a deployable units force package, commonly referred to as a Unit Type Code (UTC), and/or designated as accompanying supplies by the supported command during the planning process.
- Non-unit-related supplies and personnel are those that require transportation to an area of operations, other than those assigned to a specific unit (e.g., resupply, military support for allies, and support for nonmilitary programs, such as civil relief). For personnel, casualty replacements, filler personnel, civilians, medical evacuees and retrograde personnel are examples of non-unit-related personnel.
The chart above shows the typical relationship between unit and non-unit-related supply.
Under the heading "Unit-related", items are either:
- Contained in a unitís UTC, therefore indicated in the Type Unit Characteristics file
- Directed to accompany the deploying units by the supported CINC.
- Under the heading "Non-Unit-Related", we have three levels of support.
- Pre-positioned War Reserve Stocks are designed to provide support until resupply is established. Examples include munitions, POL, high use general supplies etc.
- Sustaining supplies are materials required to support a unit after arrival in-theater from time accompanying supply and PWRMS are anticipated to run out until regular resupply begins. Movement of these items is usually provided by strategic air.
- Continuous resupply is not accomplished until strategic sealift begins arriving in the theater and supply build-up has reached the level specified by the CINC.
- Supply build-up is necessary to insure that critical and high demand assets are stocked at a level that will allow for uninterrupted operations. Failure to achieve the levels specified by the CINCís planners may require the reallocation of strategic and/or tactical airlift to fill the holes or in some instances, may impede mission accomplishment.
- JOPES automated data processing (ADP) software programs used in support planning.
Logistics Sustainability Analysis Feasibility Estimator (LOGSAFE). LOGSAFE is the baseline GCCS ADP tool used in support planning. This application calculates the gross non-unit related equipment and supplies needed to support the OPLAN. The gross determinations for supplies are translated into weights and volumes and added to the TPFDD as movement requirements.
To execute LOGSAFE, users need a minimum of information:
- The period of planning for the OPLAN (expected duration)
- The increments in which resupply will be delivered
- The supply class/subclass consumption factors for each UTC in the plan
- The weight-to-volume multipliers for converting short tons to measurement tons
- Specification of the objective area for determining theater-specific multipliers
- Combat intensity rate for periods of planning
- Joint Engineer Planning and Execution System (JEPES). The GCCS software package that generates facility requirement data, which is analyzed to determine the adequacy of engineering, support for an OPLAN. This analysis allows planners to review actual facility asset data, anticipate new facility requirements, project war damage, recognize actual and projected civil engineering forces, determine required civil engineering materials, and acknowledge available support from the host nation. The formal document, called a Civil Engineering Support Plan (CESP), includes analysis of facility support requirements and any other sustainment engineering requirements associated with execution of the OPLAN.
- Medical Planning and Execution System (MEPES). MEPES is a baseline GCCS application that supports both deliberate and crisis planning. The process considers the population at risk, length of stay in hospital facilities, and Service-developed frequency data for injury and death. The result is a planning tool to determine patient load, requirements for patient evacuations, and both Service and component medical planning requirements. MEPES resource forecasts include the following:
- Health service support requirements across the battlefield
- Planning parameters for developing medical force structure
- Projections of medical evacuation airlift requirements
- Planning parameters for processing patients at varying levels of conflict
- Planning parameters for consumption rates
- Flow patterns for medical supplies
- Individual Manpower Requirements and Availability System (IMRAS). IMRAS functions as personnel planning system to assist in individual manpower mobilization planning and execution. It supports manpower and personnel planners during mobilization, deployment, employment, and sustainment activities for both deliberate and crisis action planning. IMRAS supports development of the personnel estimate of the situation and personnel appendices to plans.
- Force Augmentation Planning and Execution System (FAPES). FAPES is a decision support tool that enables the mobilization staff officer at the supported command, Joint Staff, Services, and supporting commands to support mobilization planning, monitoring, and execution requirements. FAPES also facilitates apportionment and allocation of the mobilized reserve capability across competing Service demands.
- The effective organization of a combatant commandís logistics staff (J-4) can greatly aid the planning and control of critical assets. The following are examples of joint logistic centers, offices, and boards that may be established by CINCs or subordinate joint force commanders to coordinate the logistic effort. The degree of application of the implications drawn from the information provided here will vary considerably among combatant commands
- Joint Transportation Board (JTB). The JTB will establish priorities and allocate common-user transportation resources within the theater. The JTB will process all requests for reapportionment or adjustment of established allocations from the component commanders.
- Joint Movement Center (JMC). The JMC is established under the supervision of the joint force commanderís J-4 to implement the tasking and priorities provided by the joint force commander (JFC).
- The JMC coordinates the employment of all means of transportation (including that provided by allies or host nations (HNs)) to support the concept of operations. This coordination is accomplished through the establishment of strategic or theater transportation policies within the assigned theater, consistent with relative urgency of need, port and terminal capabilities, transportation asset availability, and priorities set by the CINCs.
- Joint Petroleum Office (JPO) Normally, the JPO for the unified command will provide wholesale bulk petroleum management support. The primary duties of the logistic staff officer for petroleum are as follows:
- Coordinate POL planning and mission execution matters
- Coordinate the supply of common bulk petroleum products to joint force components
- Coordinate with Service components in determining requirements for bulk petroleum and ensure stockage through the Defense Fuel Supply Center (DFSC) sources.
- Recommend necessary re-allocation and apportionment of petroleum products and facilities to CINCs.
- Oversee quality surveillance programs.
- Subarea Petroleum Office (SAPO). When tactical operations warrant extensive management of wholesale bulk petroleum in the theater, the JPO may establish a SAPO. Staff augmentation may be provided by Service components. The primary function of the SAPO is to discharge the staff petroleum logistic responsibilities of a joint force. Key duties of the SAPO are as follows:
- Review and consolidate area resupply requirements through the JPO to the DFSC.
- Release or reallocate pre-positioned war reserve materiel stocks.
- Assist the DFSC in executing applicable support responsibilities in the AOR.
- Take continuous action to identify and submit requirements to host nations (HNs) for petroleum logistic support
- Joint Civil-Military Engineering Board (JCMEB)
- The JCMEB establishes policies, procedures, priorities, and overall direction for civil-military construction and engineering requirements in the theater.
- The JCMEB is a temporary board, activated by the geographic combatant commander and staffed by personnel from the components and agencies or activities in support of the geographic combatant commander.
- The JCMEB arbitrates all issues referred to it by the Joint Facilities Utilization Board (JFUB) and, if appropriate, assumes responsibility for the preparation of the Civil Engineering Support Plan.
- The JCMEB will coordinate its activities with the regional or theater wartime construction managers having responsibility for the assigned AOR. Construction and engineering requirements that the JCMEB cannot satisfy from within joint force resources will be elevated to the regional or theater wartime construction managers for support.
- Joint Facilities Utilization Board (JFUB)
- The JFUB evaluates and reconciles component requests for real estate, use of existing facilities, inter-Service support, and construction to ensure compliance with JCMEB priorities.
- The JFUB is activated on order of a geographic combatant or subordinate joint force commander and chaired by a geographic combatant or subordinate joint force J-4, with members from components and any required special activities (e.g., legal and civil affairs).
- The JFUB also provides administrative support and functions as the executive agency for the taskings of the JCMEB.
- CINC Logistic Procurement Support Board (CLPSB) Geographic combatant commanders coordinate contracting operations within their commands. This requirement may be met through the CLPSB, which is a temporary board designed to achieve a properly coordinated acquisition program. The CLPSB is chaired by a J-4 representative and includes representatives from each of the component commands. CLPSB functions include:
- Coordinates with US Embassies and host countries for acquisition of supplies and services and for operations by contractors performing under US contracts.
- Eliminates duplication by arranging for single-Service contracting assignments for specified supplies and services, when appropriate.
- Provides an exchange of information among contracting activities covering such matters as sources of supply, prices, and contractor performance.
- Provides guidance on the consolidation of purchases.
- Establishes procedures to coordinate procurement with the supply operations of the commander and area.
- Prescribes payment procedures consistent with currency-control requirements and international agreements.
- Promulgates, as necessary, joint classification and compensation guides governing wages, living allowances, and other benefits for Third World country national and indigenous employees, in coordination with appropriate agencies.
- Theater Patient Movement Requirements Center (TPMRC). The TPMRC is under the control of the joint force surgeon and coordinates and controls, in terms of identifying bed space requirements, the movement of patients within and out of the assigned AOR. TPMRCs generate theater plans and schedules, and then modify (as needed) and execute Global Patient Movements Requirements Center (GPMRC) delivered schedules, ultimately delivering the patient to the Medical Treatment Facility (MTF). The TPMRC should be task-organized to maintain flexibility in response to the tactical situation and mission of the CINC.
- Joint Blood Program Office (JBPO) The JBPO, within the office of the joint force surgeon, is task-organized to meet operational requirements and is staffed by Service representatives who are knowledgeable in blood bank techniques.
- The JBPO plans, coordinates, and directs the handling, storage, and distribution of blood and blood components within the assigned AOR. The JBPO consolidates and forwards requirements for resupply to the Armed Services Blood Program Office (ASBPO).
- Area JBPO will be activated on the order of a CINC if the situation dictates.
- Joint Mortuary Affairs Office (JMAO) The Army component commander is routinely designated executive agent for the theater mortuary affairs program, which includes the establishment and operation of the JMAO under the staff supervision of a joint force commander J-4.
- The JMAO plans and executes all mortuary affairs programs. The JMAO will provide guidance to facilitate the conduct of all mortuary programs and to maintain data (as required) pertaining to recovery, identification, and disposition of all US dead and missing in the assigned theater. The JMAO will serve as the central clearing point for all mortuary affairs and casualty information, and will monitor the deceased and missing personal effects program.
- Joint Materiel Priorities and Allocation Board (JMPAB). The JMPAB:
- Modifies and recommends priorities for allocations of materiel assets for the fulfillment of logistic requirements of the theater (both US and allied forces).
- Reviews, acts on or forwards request for modifications in force and activity designators to the Joint Staff.
- Reviews, acts on, or forwards requests to establish or change the priorities in the master urgency list to the Joint Staff.
- Prepares recommendations to the Joint Staff on modifications to priorities and allocations of resources assigned to other combatant commanders.
- War Reserve Materiel
a. WRM Definition: WRM is materiel required, in addition to mobility equipment
and primary operating stock, to support wartime activities reflected in the USAF WMP until the industrial base can meet wartime demands. If prepositioned, this equipment and supplies saves valuable strategic lift as well as making the required quantities of consumables readily available to the planned users. To be considered for the WRM program, an item of materiel must be mission essential.
b. Items NOT included as WRM:
Comfort and morale items
Items readily available commercially
Subsistence items other than operational rations (example: fresh produce)
Items with a limited shelf life unless offset by rotational procedures
Items that are out of date, such as surplus parts from obsolete weapon systems
c. Commodity Categories:
(1). Spares and Repair Parts:
a Readiness Spares Packages (RSP) - Bare Base Systems and Fuels Mobility Support Equipment (FMSE) only.
b Contents dependent upon end-item consumption rates
a War consumables are expendable items directly related and necessary to a weapon system or combat support activity. Examples are: auxiliary fuel tanks, racks, adapters, and pylons (TRAP), petroleum, oil, lubricants, chaff, flares, aircraft guns and gun barrels, munitions, film.
c The required numbers of consumables, by category (e.g., gallons of fuel, numbers of tanks, etc.), are determined using the aircraft type, sortie, and employment role information reflected in the Wartime Aircraft Activity Report (WMP-4).
d An Expenditure Per Sortie Factor (EPSF) representing either an average item usage or usage by specific aircraft or aircraft role is established for each consumable item. The automated process of multiplying EPSFs by the numbers of sorties reflected in the WMP-4 quantifies consumable requirements. These requirements are then identified
in the War Consumables Distribution Objective (WCDO).
e The WCDO is a classified authorization document for consumables to be prepositioned, by planned operating base (POB), to support possible contingency operations. Divided into munitions and non-munitions portions, the WCDO correlates consumables to WMP-4 activity for each geographical location that supports wartime aircraft beddown or operations.
Associated Requirements Documents:
Nonnuclear Consumables Annual Analysis (NCAA): Identifies the
Air Force's near-year and out-year requirements for conventional air munitions and TRAP.
Tactical Air Missile Program (TAMP): Portrays air-to-air missile
requirements and allocations to support WRM requirements.
a AFMC develops estimates of wartime conditions (foreign object damage, repair rates, and shipping time) and factors (failure patterns) and coordinates these factors with using commands.
b The wartime engine requirement is calculated by AFMC on expected wartime conditions and approved factors. WRM authorizations are published through the AFMC DO42C system.
(4). WRM Equipment:
a WRM equipment is an end item of materiel that is stored and used to support wartime activity at a planned operating base or enroute location. These assets are above a unit's normal day-to-day support and mobility requirements. Examples are: weapons system support, bare base support equipment, 463L materiel handling equipment, vehicles, aircraft support equipment, ground communication/computer/electronics meteorological equipment, chemical warfare shelter equipment, packing and crating equipment, and equipment used for reconnaissance photo processing.
Associated Requirements Documents
War Plans Additive Requirements Report (WPARR): For non-vehicle
equipment items, the WPARR, Part Two is the source document for the Chief of Supply
to establish base-level WRM authorization records.
Vehicle Authorization Listing (VAL): MAJCOM generated source
document for vehicle authorizations.
(5) WRM Individual Clothing and Equipment:
a WRM individual clothing and equipment are mission essential items that are
required in addition to, not a duplication of, peacetime issue. Items include: the field duty
uniform, combat boots, field jackets, deployment bags (general purpose/cold weather,
chemical warfare defense equipment (CWDE), security police deployment bags (fighting/existence/theater requirements), and associated items essential for
individuals subject to deployment for combat. It also includes individual clothing and
equipment assets required for rapid wartime expansion of basic military training, war
critical technical training, mobilization of inactive reservists or retirees, and combat
casualties returned to duty.
b Pre-stocked individual clothing and equipment items are stored in the wholesale
logistics system by the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). Quantities are specified in the AF
War and Mobilization Plan (WMP-1, Annex E).
(6). Individual Weapons and Ammunition:
a WRM individual weapons and ammunition support additive requirements for
familiarization and qualification training of non-prior service trainees and mobilized inactive
reservists or retirees. WRM stocks also support additive wartime requirements for individuals
who must deploy with a weapon or ammunition as well as central stocks for security police
active and reserve augmentees.
b Quantities are specified in the AF War and Mobilization Plan (WMP-1, Annex E).
a WRM subsistence consists of operational rations that are over and above those evaluated as available primary operating stock. Examples include B-rations, T-rations, Meal Ready to Eat (MRE), and Rations cold weather (RCW). At MAJCOM level, the Services function is responsible for overall functional management of the WRM subsistence program, including their subordinate units at base level. The host base MWRS officer manages the program with the assistance of the base commissary officer.
c The wartime subsistence requirement is defined as the amount of subsistence needed to feed the approved Air Force forces, using TPFDDs supporting either JSCP theater scenarios or the most demanding regional scenarios for other theaters. Supported MAJCOMs, in conjunction with supporting MAJCOM morale, welfare, recreation and services staffs will review each TPFDD and tasked OPLANs to calculate requirements.
d The pre-positioning objective, or number of days requirement to have on hand, is as listed in the AF War and Mobilization Plan (WMP-1, Annex E).
a The Air Force Medical Service is responsible for acquiring, storing and maintaining WRM needed to support the missions of approved forces. The Surgeon General, USAF acts as US Air Force OPR for the medical WRM program, develops medical WRM pre-positioning objectives and information published in the WMP-1, Annex F, and develops and provides policy and procedures related to Medical WRM management. The Annual Medical Resource Letter lists approved WRM programs for each medical unit.
b Medical WRM is accounted for on the Medical Logistics System at base level and reported through the Air Force Medical Logistics Office, by means of the WRM Medical Stock Status Report.