USAF Documents


Preface

The mission of the United States Air Force is to defend the United States through control and exploitation of air and space.

The United States Air Force provides unique capabilities to the joint force commander (JFC). These capabilities are our United States Air Force core competencies: Air and Space Superiority, Global Attack, Rapid Global Mobility, Precision Engagement, Information Superiority, and Agile Combat Support. Together, our core competencies allow land, sea, and air and space forces freedom of action. Air and space power can achieve tactical, operational, and strategic objectives with minimal risk and collateral damage. Air and space power capabilities include the responsive positioning of forces, supplies, and equipment. The USAF can quickly collect, control, exploit, and defend information while denying an adversary the ability to do the same.

The purpose of this document is to provide a structured approach for commanding and organizing Air Force forces provided to a joint force commander. Command relationships and authorities within the Air Force chain of command will be clearly established in Department of the Air Force (DAF) orders to ensure that the commander of the Air Force component, the COMAFFOR, is the single face to the customer, the joint force commander.

 

 

 

 

RICHARD E. HAWLEY JOHN G. LORBER

General, USAF General, USAF

Commander, Air Combat Command Commander, Pacific Air Forces

 

 

 

MICHAEL E. RYAN LLOYD W. NEWTON

General, USAF General, USAF

Commander, United States Air Forces in Europe Commander, Air Education &

Training Command

 

 

 

HOWELL M. ESTES, III WALTER KROSS

General, USAF General, USAF

Commander, Air Force Space Command Commander, Air Mobility Command

PRESENTATION OF USAF FORCES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER 2: FORCE PRESENTATION 7

CHAPTER 3: THE ASETF: JFC, COMAFFOR, and JFACC RESPONSIBILITIES AND ORGANIZATIONS 13

CHAPTER 4: THE AIR OPERATIONS CENTERóFUNCTIONS, ORGANIZATION, AND PROCESSES 24

APPENDICES 35

TABLE OF FIGURES

Figure 1: COMAFFOR Examples across the Continuum 5

Figure 2: The Air Expeditionary Group 9

Figure 3: The Air Expeditionary Wing 10

Figure 4: Multiple Expeditionary Wings 10

Figure 5: 9 AF Deployed as 9 ASETF 11

Figure 6: 9 ASETF SOUTHERN WATCH Committed by 9 AF 11

Figure 7: 7 AF Committed as 7 AF 12

Figure 8: Possible Components in a Joint Task Force 14

Figure 9: JTF Headquarters Staff Organization 15

Figure 10: HQ Organization with COMAFFOR Not Designated JFACC 19

Figure 11: Command Relationships for Air Mobility Forces 23

Figure 12: The Air and Space Planning and Execution Process 25

Figure 13: The AOC Organization 26

All joint forces include Service component commands because administrative and logistics support for joint forces are provided through Service component commands.

Joint Pub 0-2

Unified Action Armed Forces

(UNAAF)

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

I. Guide to Terminology

COCOM (combatant command) is the nontransferable command authority established by title 10 ("Armed Forces"), United States Code, section 164, exercised only by commanders of unified or specified combatant commands unless otherwise directed by the President or the Secretary of Defense. Combatant command cannot be delegated and is the authority of a combatant commander to perform those functions of command over assigned forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics necessary to accomplish the missions assigned to the command. Combatant command should be exercised through the commanders of subordinate organizations. Normally this authority is exercised thorough subordinate joint force commanders and Service and/or functional component commanders. Combatant command provides full authority to organize and employ commands and forces as the combatant commander considers necessary to accomplish assigned missions. Operational control is inherent in combatant command. (Joint Pub 1-02)

OPCON (operational control) is the transferable authority that may be exercised by commanders at any echelon at or below the level of combatant command. Operational control is inherent in combatant command. Operational control may be delegated and is the authority to perform those functions of command over subordinate forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction necessary to accomplish the mission. Operational control includes authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations and joint training necessary to accomplish missions assigned to the command. Operational control should be exercises thorough the commanders of subordinate organizations. Normally this authority is exercised through subordinate joint force commanders and Service and /or functional component commanders. Operational control normally provides full authority to organize commands and forces and to employ those forces as the commander in operational control considers necessary to accomplish assigned missions. Operational control does not, in and of itself, include authoritative direction for logistics or matters of administration, discipline, internal organization, or unit training. (Joint Pub 1-02)

TACON (tactical control) is the command authority over assigned or attached forces or commands, or military capability or forces made available for tasking, that is limited to the detailed and, usually, local direction and control of movements or maneuvers necessary to accomplish missions or tasks assigned. Tactical control is inherent in operational control. Tactical control may be delegated to, and exercised at any level at or below the level of combatant command. (Joint Pub 1-02)

ADCON (administrative control) is the direction or exercise of authority over subordinate or other organizations in respect to administration and support, including organization of Service forces, control of resources and equipment, personnel management, unit logistics, individual and unit training, readiness, mobilization, demobilization, discipline, and other matters not included in the operational missions of the subordinate or other organizations. (Joint Pub 1-02)

Supported Commander is the commander having primary responsibility for all aspects of a task assigned by the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan or other joint operation planning authority. In the context of joint operation planning, this term refers to the commander who prepares operation plans or operation orders in response to requirements of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. (Joint Pub 1-02)

Supporting Commander is a commander who provides augmentation forces or other support to a supported commander or who develops a supporting plan. Includes the designated combatant commands and Defense agencies as appropriate. (Joint Pub 1-02)

Coordinating Authority is a commander or individual assigned responsibility for coordinating specific functions or activities involving forces of two or more Military Departments or two or more forces of the same Service. The commander or individual has the authority to require consultation between the agencies involved, but does not have the authority to compel agreement. In the event that essential agreement cannot be obtained, the matter shall be referred to the appointing authority. Coordinating authority is a consultation relationship, not an authority through which command may be exercised. Coordinating authority is more applicable to planning and similar activities than to operations. (Joint Pub 1-02)

Air Force Component Command (Service Component Command) is a command consisting of the USAF component commander and all those USAF forces, such as individuals, units, detachments, organizations, and installations under the command, including the support forces that have been assigned to a combatant command, or further assigned to a subordinate unified command or joint task force.

(Derived from Joint Pub 1-02)

COMAFFOR (Commander of Air Force Forces) is the Air Force officer designated commander of the Air Force component command assigned to a joint force commander (JFC) at the unified, subunified, and Joint Task Force (JTF) level.

ASETF (Air and Space Expeditionary Task Force) is a deployed NAF headquarters or command echelon immediately subordinate to a NAF headquarters and assigned and attached operating forces (command element plus operating forces).

AEF (air expeditionary forces) are wings, groups, and squadrons assigned and attached to an ASETF or attached to an in-place NAF by DAF orders.

AEW (air expeditionary wing) is a wing or a wing slice assigned or attached to an ASETF or an in-place NAF by DAF orders. Normally, the ASETF/in-place NAF commander also exercises OPCON of AEWs. An AEW is composed of the wing command element and some groups.

AEG (air expeditionary group) is an independent group assigned or attached to an ASETF or an in-place NAF by DAF orders. Normally, the ASETF/in-place NAF commander also exercises OPCON of AEGs. An AEG is composed of the group command element and some squadrons.

Assign. 1. To place units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively permanent, and/or where such organization controls and administers the units or personnel for the primary function, or greater portion of the function, of the unit or personnel. 2. To detail individuals to specific duties or functions where such duties or functions are primary and/or relatively permanent. (Joint Pub 1-02)

Attach. 1. The placement of units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively temporary. 2. The detailing of individuals to specific functions where such functions are secondary or relatively temporary, e.g., attached for quarters and rations; attached for flying duty. (Joint Pub 1-02)

Squadron. The basic unit in the Air Force. A squadron may be either a mission unit, such as an operational flying squadron, or a functional unit, such as a civil engineering, security police, or transportation squadron. (AFI 38-101)

Dependent Group. A dependent group is a mission, logistics, support, medical, or large functional unit (e.g., communications). Such groups may possess small supporting staff elements. (AFI 38-101)

Independent Group. An independent group has the same functions and responsibilities as a like-type wing, but its scope and size do not warrant wing-level designation. (AFI 38-101)

Reachback is a concept for the use of Air Force forces/capabilities not located in the AOR/JOA. The COMAFFOR exercises authority over these forces/capabilities normally through a TACON or supported/supporting relationship, established through the operational or administrative chain of command.

 

 

 

II. Command and Organizational Concepts

The USAF requires an organizational structure that can support joint and combined combat operations throughout the entire spectrum of conflict. In any joint operation, a Commander of Air Force Forces (COMAFFOR) will be designated and serve as the commander of Air Force forces assigned and attached to the Air Force component command. Space forces deployed to a theater of operation normally will be a separate organization assigned directly to an ASETF/in-place NAF but could be assigned to an AEW.

For each joint operation, the operational and administrative responsibilities and authorities of the COMAFFOR will be established through the operational and administrative chains of command respectively. The operational chain of command flows from the NCA through the combatant commander and, if established, any subordinate joint force commander(s), to the COMAFFOR. The Service administrative chain of command flows from the NCA through the SECAF, CSAF, MAJCOM, and NAF commanders. Normally the COMAFFOR will:

Each CINC is supported by a COMAFFOR, his associated USAF MAJCOM commander. For example, CINCPACís COMAFFOR is Commander, PACAF. MAJCOM commanders may delegate COMAFFOR authorities to NAF commanders. Commander, ACC has delegated some authorities to Commander, 9 AF, who acts as the COMAFFOR to CINCCENT.

When a CINC forms a JTF, the associated MAJCOM will form an ASETF or task an in-place NAF. As shown in Figure 1, the COMAFFOR may be an 0-6 to 0-8 for an ASETF that is subordinate to a NAF, or the NAF Commander will be the COMAFFOR when the NAF is tasked in-place or as the ASETF.

In addition to the authority delegated to the COMAFFOR through the operational chain of command, the MAJCOM will request the SECAF (or his/her designated representative)will publish an standing order specifying outlining when and how the Air Force transfers the administrative chain of authority to a supported combatant commanderís COMAFFOR with regard to attached Air Force forces operating within a designated AOR/JOA. and the responsibilities, authorities, and command relationships of the COMAFFOR with regard to assigned, attached, and supporting Air Force forces. The respective combatant commanderís COMAFFOR will then either publish a standing order or issue orders delegating ADCON on a case by case basis.

The responsibilities, authorities, and command relationships of the COMAFFOR with regard to Air Force forces, who are attached to the ASETF/in-place NAF but assigned to one of the functional combatant commanders (CINCTRANS, CINCSPACE, or CINCSTRAT), will be as directed by competent authority through the operational and administrative chains of command. Normally, all Air Force forces deployed to an AOR/JOA for the duration of a joint operation will be assigned or attached ADCON to the COMAFFOR.

Figure 11111: COMAFFOR Examples Across the Continuum of Operations

 

The numbered air force is the senior warfighting echelon of the USAF. A NAF conducts operations with assigned and attached forces under a command element. When participating in a joint operation, the tasked NAF will present USAF forces to the JFC within the framework of an ASETF. In the case of an in-place NAF the framework will be the same as an ASETF, but the in-place NAF will retain its NAF designation, e.g. 7 AF.

An ASETF or in-place NAF provides the JFC with air and space capabilities in a task organized, tailored package. This force can be sized depending on the level of conflict and the desired political and military objectives. The command element always includes the COMAFFOR, a staff, and a command and control function.

Anytime a joint Air Tasking Order is produced a Joint Force Air Component Commander should be designated. When the USAF provides the preponderance of air and space assets or the requisite command and control for air, space, and information systems to the joint or combined force, the COMAFFOR should be designated as the Joint Force Air Component Commander (JFACC) and a separate JFACC staff should be formed. Depending on the situation, some positions of the JFACC staff may be dual hatted with the COMAFFORís staff. Specific functions of the COMAFFOR staff are detailed in Chapters 3 and 4.

When a JFACC is designated, the JFC normally will also delegate to the JFACC responsibilities as Area Air Defense Commander, Airspace Control Authority, and, in coordination with the JTF J2, for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) planning and execution.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It [a joint committee] leads to weak and faltering decisions - or rather indecisions. Why, you may take the most gallant sailor, the most intrepid airman, or the most audacious soldier, put them at a table together - what do you get? The sum of their fears.

Winston Churchill

Airpower is indivisible. If you split it up into compartments, you merely pull it to pieces and destroy its greatest asset - its flexibility.

Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery

CHAPTER 2: FORCE PRESENTATION

The USAF core competencies: Air and Space Superiority, Global Attack, Rapid Global Mobility, Precision Engagement, Information Superiority, and Agile Combat Support are the fundamental capabilities the USAF provides for accomplishing JFC objectives. These core competencies, when combined, produce a flexibility that is the foundation for the employment of air and space power. This flexibility allows the USAF to rapidly concentrate anywhere and attack any target or set of targets. This flexibility and responsiveness allows commanders to choose a course of action or develop an air operations plan from a number of alternatives. In some instances, air and space forces will play a dominant role; in others, they will make important enabling contributions. In any case, air and space forces remain essential to the joint team. This chapter provides the framework for task organizing and presenting forces to the JFC.

Command Element

The COMAFFOR will not normally also function as commander of one of the operating forces, e.g. wing commander, group commander. The COMAFFOR will have an appropriately sized staff and adequate command and control facilities in order to direct and support the operating forces and interact with the JFC. The tasked NAF and the COMAFFOR will be designated by the tasked MAJCOM. A number of assignments have already been designated, such as 9 AF as CENTAF for USCENTCOM.

To conduct modern warfare, the commander must have one central organization from which to establish and exercise control over assigned forces. The COMAFFOR exercises command and is assisted in planning, coordinating, and directing air and space operations from his Air Operations Center (AOC). When the COMAFFOR is designated the JFACC, his AOC will be designated the Joint Air Operations Center (JAOC). The AOC will be the senior operations center and focal point for the command and control of air and space forces in joint and combined operations. The fundamental principle of this system is centralized planning and control through the AOC, with decentralized execution by subordinate organizations and elements. The AOC will be discussed in detail in Chapter 4.

USAF forces supporting a joint operation will normally be assigned or attached ADCON to the ASETF or tasked in-place NAF. However, some elements of the force used by the COMAFFOR may be provided via "reachback." Reachback allows the COMAFFOR to obtain or coordinate support from units that are not physically located with the ASETF or in-place NAF. In some cases reachback forces/capabilities arecan be assigned or attached units, but more often they are provided through a TACON or supported/supporting relationship. Where specific reachback forces/capabilities (e.g., aircraft on alert) can be dedicated to a joint operation, TACON of that force/capability to the COMAFFOR is the preferred relationship. Where specific reachback forces/capabilities cannot be dedicated to the COMAFFOR, a supported/supporting relationship normally will be established. Reachback units provide liaison teams as required; these teams normally work directly with the COMAFFOR.

The parent MAJCOM of the engaged NAF or the NAF Rear will function as the AFFOR Rear. If authorized by the supported CINC, the AFFOR Rear will coordinate with the supporting CINCs and other Air Force MAJCOMs or agencies on behalf of the COMAFFOR. For example, in Operation DESERT STORM, 9 AF was the engaged NAF, as USCENTAF, and the Tactical Air Command Battle Staff functioned as USCENTAF Rear. The command element will be discussed in greater detail in Chapters 3 and 4.

Air Expeditionary Forces (AEF)

AEF are wings, groups, or squadrons attached to an ASETF or in-place NAF. Wings, groups, and squadrons will be designated "expeditionary" from the time they are attached until no longer attached, whether deployed or in-place. Squadrons and dependent groups assigned or attached to an AEF will add "Expeditionary" to the designation of the unit; each wing committed to a joint operation will be designated as an Air Expeditionary Wing (AEW) and each independent group will be designated an Air Expeditionary Group (AEG).

The basic fighting unit of the USAF is the squadron. Squadrons are configured to deploy and employ in support of crisis action requirements. Squadrons are not designed to conduct independent operations but rather to interact with other squadrons to provide the synergy needed to conduct sustained and effective operations.

While the basic fighting unit of the Air Force is a full squadron, smaller operations may require only a contingent from a squadron that would be attached as the "expeditionary" portion of the squadron. For example, the 71st Fighter Squadron core capability might be at Langley Air Force Base, but it could have six aircraft deployed somewhere in an ASETF as the 71st Expeditionary Fighter Squadron (EFS).

Air Expeditionary Group (AEG)

AEG (air expeditionary group) is an independent group attached to an ASETF or in-place NAF by DAF orders. Normally the COMAFFOR also exercises OPCON of the AEG. An AEG is composed of a slice of the wing command element and some squadrons. Since Air Force groups are organized without significant staff support, a wing slice is needed to provide the command and control for air expeditionary forces smaller than the normal wing. Therefore, the AEG is the lowest command echelon of air expeditionary forces reporting directly to the COMAFFOR. Use of the AEG designation is also intended to provide appropriate unit heraldry credit for the parent wing.

Where possible, the AEG is formed from units of a single wing. The AEG commander, normally an O-6, will report to the ASETF/in-place NAF commander. Figure 2 depicts a notional AEG.

AEGs will carry the numerical designation of the wing providing the command element. Assigned/attached squadrons will retain their numerical designation and acquire the "Expeditionary" designation.

Figure 2: The Air Expeditionary Group

Air Expeditionary Wing (AEW)

AEW (air expeditionary wing) is a wing or a wing slice attached to an ASETF or in-place NAF by DAF orders. Normally the ASETF/in-place NAF commander exercises OPCON of the AEW. An AEW normally is composed of the wing command element and several groups. Use of the AEW designation is also intended to provide appropriate unit heraldry credit.

Where possible, the AEW is formed from units of a single wing. The AEW commander, normally an O-7, will report to the ASETF/in-place NAF commander. Figure 3 depicts a notional AEW.

Figure 3: The Air Expeditionary Wing

Multiple AEW Employment

The ASETF may grow to encompass several wings at geographically separate locations and encompass the full range of air and space power. This includes organic sustainment and the capability to plan and execute any operation across the continuum of conflict from Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW) to a Major Regional Conflict (MRC). The ASETF commander is the COMAFFOR.

Figure 4: Multiple Air Expeditionary Wings

Designation of ASETF

To preserve unit heritage, the ASETF will reflect the numerical designation of the tasked NAF. When attached to a joint force, a NAF, which is required to deploy to execute its commitment, will be designated the XX ASETF using its NAF numerical designation. For example, Figure 5 shows 9 AF deployed as the 9 ASETF, with ten air expeditionary wings as its operating forces to support a major regional conflict.

Figure 5: 9 AF Deployed as 9 ASETF

When an ASETF is established as a command echelon subordinate to a NAF, that ASETF will be designated using the number of the engaged NAF, then ASETF, followed by the name of the operation. For example, an ASETF subordinate to 16 AF for OPERATION DENY FLIGHT would be designated the 16 ASETF DENY FLIGHT.

Figure 6 is an example of the 9 ASETF SOUTHERN WATCH deployed to SWA: the 4 AEW (deployed from Seymour-Johnson AFB to an in-theater location), the 4404 CW (P) (already in theater and should be redesignated an AEW), and the 2 AEW (which is TACON to the Commander, 9 ASETF SOUTHERN WATCH and operating from its CONUS location at Barksdale AFB). The 4404 CW (P) receives the deploying 9 EFS to add to its units already in theater. The 4 AEW has added the C-130s of the 39 EAS from Dyess to their two F-15E squadrons at an in-theater location. The 9 ASETF SOUTHERN WATCH Commander (CENTCOMís JTF SWA) would exercise OPCON and ADCON of the forces assigned to his command; he would be under the OPCON of the JFC appointed by CINCCENT, and he would be under the ADCON of 9 AF/CC.

Figure 6: 9 ASETF SOUTHERN WATCH Tasked by 9 AF

When an in-place NAF is assigned/attached to a joint operation as the Air Force component, it will use its NAF numerical designation. For example, 7 AF in Korea remains 7AF. Figure 7 is an example of 7 AF with four AEWs (two in-place and two deployed). The diagram shows the 51 WG at Osan AB receiving the additional support of the deploying 44 EFS from Kadena AB. The 4 AEW, a mixed force from Seymour-Johnson AFB and Dyess AFB, deploys into the theater as does the 354 AEW from Eielson AFB. The 8 FW stands up in-place at Kunsan AB.

Figure 7: 7 AF With Expeditionary Forces Attached

 

Conclusion

This chapter has outlined the framework of how air and space forces are presented for joint operations. The ASETF/in-place NAF can employ these forces in pursuit of NCA objectives throughout the continuum of conflict.

 

 

 

 

The Admiral and General appointed to command the hastily organized "conjunct expedition" to Norway in April 1940 were given no clear indication of what the governmentís purposes were, and did not even know which of them was in supreme command. It is not surprising that the undertaking ended in fiasco.

S. W. Roskill

 

We want commanders - not committees - to send our troops into battle.

W. G. Wyman

 

CHAPTER 3: THE ASETF: JFC, COMAFFOR, and JFACC RESPONSIBILITIES AND ORGANIZATIONS

The ASETF is created during the Deliberate or Crisis Action Planning (CAP) process. The NCA will task a CINC with a mission. The CINC can act as the JFC for this mission or may delegate this authority to a subordinate. The JFC, as the senior commander for the joint force, relies heavily on his Service components throughout the deliberate planning and CAP process.

Early in the CAP process, the tasked NAF commander, or a subordinate commander designated by the NAF commander, is provided to the JFC as the COMAFFOR. The Battle Staff or Crisis Action Team (CAT) assists the COMAFFOR/JFACC in developing Courses of Action (COA). The COMAFFOR/JFACC develops COAs and advises the JFC on the best employment of air and space power. The JFC ultimately translates CINCís guidance and theater strategy into clearly defined and attainable objectives. This chapter details the relationships and outlines typical staff organizations for each command element.

Joint Force Commander (JFC)

The JFC is the commander of a unified command, subunified command, or JTF authorized to exercise operational authority over a joint force to accomplish an assigned mission. The JFC determines appropriate military objectives and sets priorities for the entire joint force. The JFCís major responsibilities include

    1. determine a concept of operations and military objectives for the joint force that will accomplish strategic goals.
    2. organize forces, define operational/joint areas, and allocate resources to accomplish the mission based on his vision and concept of operations.
    3. assign missions, establish priorities, and direct coordination among subordinate commanders.
    4. develop a theater campaign plan that assures unity of effort and determines the priority of effort to include space forces.
    5. assess risks, make appropriate adjustments, and redirect efforts of subordinate commanders.

The JFC is always supported with Service component commands and designates functional component commanders, such as a JFACC, as needed. When established, functional component commanders derive their operational command authority from the JFC. The JFC should not normally serve as a functional or Service component commander. For example, an Air Force JFC should not also be the COMAFFOR and/or the JFACC. Figure 8 depicts a typical JFC organization including both Service and functional components.

Figure 8: Possible Components in a Joint Task Force

The JFC organizes a joint staff to carry out assigned duties and responsibilities. The composition, location, facilities, and personnel manning of the JTF headquarters are critical as they affect what the JFC and his staff can accomplish (e.g., an afloat JTF headquarters may have limitations of space and equipment on certain flag ships, which could affect manning levels and equipment capabilities). The JFC normally creates his staff around a core Service staff element and usually requires staff augmentation from all Services. The tasked NAF or parent MAJCOM normally will augment a JTF staff with Air Force personnel specifically designated and trained as JTF augmentees. Augmentation requirements which can not be filled by the engaged NAF or parent MAJCOM will be provided from throughout the USAF using normal personnel channels. Figure 9 depicts a typical JTF headquarters staff organization and is based on a JTF structure.

In addition to staff augmentation, joint operations have shown that qualified liaison officers (LNOs) from each component contribute significantly to mission success. COMAFFOR/JFACC should always provide a liaison team to the JFC. COMAFFOR/JFACC LNOs are the direct representative of the COMAFFOR/JFACC and maintain close contact with the JFC staff to ensure information cross-flow between JFC and COMAFFOR/JFACC staffs.

Figure 9: JTF Headquarters Staff Organization

Commander, Air Force Forces (COMAFFOR)

Unity of command, one of the most widely recognized principles of war, is maintained by the COMAFFOR. Although the JFC has great latitude in determining command relationships, the COMAFFOR normally exercises OPCON over all USAF forces. However, some USAF forces and capabilities must maintain a global focus, thus preventing the transfer of OPCON to the JFC and COMAFFOR. Where appropriate, the JFC and COMAFFOR should be given tactical control (TACON) over these assets to integrate the additional capabilities they provide to the joint force. Where neither OPCON nor TACON of such Air Force forces is appropriate, the JFC (and in turn the COMAFFOR) will receive support capabilities specified by the supported/supporting command relationship.

The tasked NAF is responsible for providing the COMAFFOR and the core of the headquarters staff.

In theaters like Korea, the COMAFFOR staff and AOC may operate effectively from permanent, in-garrison facilities. In most cases, however, the COMAFFOR will deploy to a forward operating location. In either case, the tasked NAF or the parent MAJCOM functions as the AFFOR Rear for 24-hour support of the operation.

 

 

 

Responsibilities of a COMAFFOR.

Commanders of Air Force components have responsibilities that derive from their roles in fulfilling the Service's administrative and support, ADCON, function. The JFC will normally conduct operations through the COMAFFOR by delegating OPCON to him of the Air Force component forces. Whether the COMAFFOR is delegated OPCON of the Air Force component forces or not, the COMAFFOR has the following ADCON responsibilities:

    1. Make recommendations to the JFC on the proper employment of the forces of the Air Force component.
    2. Accomplish assigned tasks.
    3. Nominate specific units of the Air Force for assignment to theater forces.
    4. Organize, train, equip, and sustain subordinate Air Force forces for assigned missions.
    5. Maintain reachback to AFFOR rear and supporting Air Force units.
    6. Support operational and exercise plans as requested.
    7. Inform the JFC (and the combatant commander, if affected) of planning for changes in logistic support that would significantly affect operational capability or sustainability sufficiently early in the planning process for the JFC to evaluate the proposals prior to final decision or implementation.
    8. * Develop program and budget requests that comply with combatant commander guidance on warfighting requirements and priorities.*
    9. * Inform the combatant commander (and any intermediate JFCs) of program and budget decisions that may affect joint operation planning.*
    10. Provide lateral interface with Army, Navy, Marines, SOF, and coalition partners.

*Normally retained by combatant command-level service component commander.

The JFC will normally conduct operations through the COMAFFOR by delegating OPCON to him of the Air Force component forces. When the COMAFFOR is delegated OPCON of the Air Force component forces, and there is no JFACC, he has the following OPCON responsibilities:

    1. Prepare an Air and Space Estimate of the Situation to support the JFCís Estimate.
    2. Develop and recommend courses of action to the JFC.
    3. Develop an air strategy and air operations plan that state how he plans to exploit air and space capabilities to support the JFCís objectives.
    4. Make air apportionment recommendations to the JFC.
    5. Task, plan, coordinate, and allocate the daily air and space effort.
    6. Function as the supported commander for counterair operations, strategic attack, the overall air interdiction effort, and theater airborne reconnaissance and surveillance.
    7. Function as the supporting commander, as directed by the JFC, for operations such as close air support, air interdiction within the land and naval component AOs, and maritime support.
    8. Act as Airspace Control Authority (ACA), if so designated.
    9. Act as Area Air Defense Commander (AADC), if so designated.
    10. Coordinate Combat Search and Rescue.
    11. Direct theater air mobility operations and coordinate them with intertheater air mobility operations.
    12. Conduct joint training, including the training, as directed, of components of other Services in joint operations for which the COMAFFOR has or may be assigned primary responsibility, or for which the Air Force component's facilities and capabilities are suitable.

Director of Mobility Forces (DIRMOBFOR)

The COMAFFOR exercises ADCON over the DIRMOBFOR. The DIRMOBFOR is the COMAFFORís or JFACCís (USAF) designated Coordinating Authority for air mobility with all commands/agencies both internal and external to the JTF. The DIRMOBFOR provides direction to the Air Mobility Division in the AOC and will normally be a senior officer familiar with the AOR. When USTRANSCOM (USTC) intertheater air mobility forces are employed in support of a JFC, the DIRMOBFOR should have experience in intertheater air mobility operations. The DIRMOBFOR may be sourced by the theater Air Force component commander or nominated by Commander AMC. Specific authorities and responsibilities include:

1. Direct the integration of strategic air mobility support provided by AMC

assigned mobility forces.

2. Direct the tasking of AMC strategic air mobility forces (air and ground)

attached (TACON) to the JFC.

3. Direct the tasking of theater air mobility forces (air and ground) attached

(either OPCON or TACON) to the JFC.

4. Coordinate with the AOC director to ensure all air mobility operations

supporting the JFC are fully integrated with the ATO cycle and

deconflicted with all other air operations

5. Coordinate with the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) all strategic air

mobility missions to ensure the most effective use of these resources in

accomplishing the JFC, theater, and USTC missions.

COMAFFOR as the JFACC

The JFC will normally designate a JFACC to exploit the capabilities of joint air and space operations through a cohesive Joint Air and Space Operations Plan (JASOP) and a responsive and integrated control system. The JFACC recommends the proper employment of air and space forces from multiple components. He also plans, coordinates, allocates, tasks, and executes air and space operations to accomplish assigned operational missions.

The JFACC is normally the component commander with the preponderance of air and space forces and the best capability to control and direct joint air operations. The JFC gives the JFACC the authority necessary to accomplish assigned missions and tasks. When the COMAFFOR is designated as the JFACC, he normally maintains OPCON of assigned and attached USAF forces and normally receives TACON of forces from other components as directed by the JFC. The JFACC staff normally will be established as a separate organization. Components providing forces to the JFACC will augment the staff to reflect the composition of the joint force.

The COMAFFOR must be prepared to assume the following responsibilities, as assigned by the JFC, when designated as the JFACC.

    1. Organize a JFACC staff manned with personnel from each component to reflect the composition of air capabilities/forces controlled by the JFACC.
    2. Develop a joint air and space strategy and JASOP.
    3. Task, plan, coordinate, and allocate the joint air capabilities/forces made available to the JFACC by direction of the JFC.
    4. Control execution of current joint air operations to include:

a. Counterair, to include Theater Missile Defense (TMD).

b. Strategic attack.

c. Interdiction.

d. Close Air Support (CAS).

e. Maritime support.

f. Theater Air Mobility.

5. Coordinate:

a. Combat Search and Rescue.

    1. USTC Air Mobility Support.
    1. Perform combat assessment of joint air and space operations at the operational and tactical levels.
    2. Airspace Control Authority (ACA).
    3. Area Air Defense Commander (AADC).
    4. Function as the supported commander for counterair operations, strategic attack, the overall air interdiction effort, and theater airborne reconnaissance and surveillance.
    5. Function as the supporting commander, as directed by the JFC, for operations such as close air support, air interdiction within the land and naval component AOs, and maritime support.
    6. Provide integrated Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) for JFC.

a. Identifie JFACC requirements.

b. Integrate and synchronize use of air and space assets.

c. Task theater ISR assets to satisfy JFC requirements.

If another Service provides the JFACC, the COMAFFOR will normally relinquish TACON to the JFACC as directed by the JFC. In addition, COMAFFOR coordinates with the JFACC through an LNO team and fills designated billets within the JFACC staff and JAOC. However, the COMAFFOR maintains his own staff and a command and control function to perform Service specific functions.

COMAFFOR/JFACC Headquarters Organization

The COMAFFOR headquarters should always be comprised of normal staff directorates, A-1 through A-6, as well as a special staff. The Director of Mobility Forces (DIRMOBFOR), if appointed, reports directly to the COMAFFOR. Figure 10 shows the organization of a COMAFFOR headquarters when the JFC is operating solely through Service components and has not designated a JFACC, or when the JFACC is designated from another component. In these cases, the AOC will be tailored to the limited mission of the COMAFFOR, and the position of AOC Director may be filled by the A-3/5. In some cases, the Chief of Staff, an AOC, and Senior Component Liaison elements may not be needed.

Figure 10: Headquarters Organization with COMAFFOR Not Designated JFACC

The organization for a COMAFFOR who is dual-hatted as the JFACC is the largest, most robust capability required and will include a full staff, an AOC, an AOC Director, and DIRMOBFOR. The COMAFFOR staff will support the COMAFFOR when he is dual-hatted, and the JFACC will normally have an independent staff that reflects the joint makeup of the assigned air forces. In some cases the JFACC staff may be members of the COMAFFOR staff who are dual-hatted.

 

The COMAFFOR/JFACC staff advises the commander and coordinates with the rest of the joint community. It establishes reachback with the AFFOR Rear and supporting units. Additionally, it recommends the AFFORís theater architecture for logistics, communications, and intelligence.

The COMAFFOR/JFACC normally has a Special Staff, Senior Component Liaisons, and a Chief of Staff. The staff includes divisions for Personnel, Intelligence, Operations and Plans, Logistics, and Communications and Computers. A brief discussion of the duties and responsibilities of each staff position follows. The JFACC staff mirrors the COMAFFOR staff and the responsibilities are similar.

Special Staff - Handles day-to-day administrative functions of the HQ organization. Also included are Staff Judge Advocate, Public Affairs Officers, Protocol, Civil Military Affairs, and others as required.

Senior Component Liaisons - The senior liaison officer from each component represents his or her respective commander and reports directly to the COMAFFOR/JFACC. Subordinate LNOs from each component perform duties throughout the COMAFFOR/ JFACC staff as required. LNOs must be knowledgeable of the capabilities and limitations of their units and Service.

Chief of Staff - When required, the Chief of Staff coordinates and directs the work of the staff divisions. Responsibilities may include

    1. represent the commander when authorized.
    2. approve actions, orders, and plans when authorized by COMAFFOR/JFACC/JFACC; otherwise, obtain COMAFFOR/JFACC/JFACC approval.
    3. ensure that COMAFFOR/JFACC/JFACC decisions and concepts are implemented by directing and assigning staff responsibilities when necessary.
    4. direct the staff, formulating staff policies and reviewing staff actions to ensure that they are adequate and coordinated.
    5. ensure required liaison is established with supporting agencies and commands, host nations, the JFC, and other components providing forces for JFACC tasking.

Personnel (A-1) - The Director of Personnel is the principal staff assistant to the COMAFFOR/JFACC on manpower management. The A-1 is responsible for formulating personnel policies and supervising the administrative requirement for personnel. Because component commanders normally receive personnel support from their Service headquarters, the A-1 role is primarily an AFFOR function. Specific responsibilities include

    1. ensure that subordinate USAF units are kept informed of personnel actions that affect them.
    2. monitor AF unit strengths by means of daily personnel status reports.
    3. advise the commander and staff on matters concerning unit replacement plans and status of all components.
    4. provide control and standardization of personnel procedures.
    5. maintain records to support recommendations for unit and DOD awards and decorations.
    6. oversee the administration of the headquarters for pay and finance, postal services, administration of augmentees, coordination of morale, welfare and recreation activities, and preparation of evaluation, efficiency, and fitness reports.

Intelligence (A-2) - The Director of Intelligence is the principal staff assistant to the COMAFFOR/JFACC for ensuring the availability of intelligence on enemy locations, activities, and capabilities. The A-2 ensures adequate intelligence support to forces within the assigned area of operations. Specific responsibilities of the A-2 include

    1. coordinate Essential Elements of Information with A-3.
    2. provide the intelligence staff and supporting intelligence organizations with a clear understanding of JFC and JFACC/COMAFFOR objectives, intent, and plans.
    3. prioritize intelligence requirements.
    4. coordinate intelligence support from JFC fusion centers, MAJCOM intelligence staffs, theater intelligence agencies, national intelligence agencies, and coalition intelligence sources.
    5. ensure intelligence information and supplies are disseminated.
    6. apprise the commander of the intelligence capabilities and limitations of all components and the potential effects on operations.
    7. exchange liaison officers as appropriate with JFC and lateral components intelligence staffs.
    8. validate intelligence information requirements of subordinate units.
    9. prescribe security and releasibility requirements for intelligence information.
    10. advise JAOC on development of inputs to the JASOP.

Operations (A-3/5) - The Director of Operations and Plans is the principal staff assistant to the COMAFFOR/ JFACC in the direction and control of air and space operations and staff support for operational issues and planning. The A-3/5 may be dual-hatted as the AOC Director. Specific responsibilities of the A-3/5 include

1. organize the operational aspects of the headquarters staff.

2. coordinate operational issues with the JFC and component staffs. Typical

issues would include

a. rules of engagement for air and space forces.

b. unit beddown requirements for JFACC forces.

c. frequency and call word deconfliction requirements.

d. ATO dissemination requirements.

e. requirements for additional forces/capabilities.

3. identify Essential Elements of Information with A-2.

4. identify service specific training requirements and coordinating joint

training with other components.

5. advise COMAFFOR/JFACC on concepts of employment, force planning,

and management of air and space resources for which he has OPCON/TACON

or has established supported/supporting relationships.

Logistics (A-4) - The Director of Logistics is the principal staff assistant to the COMAFFOR/JFACC for formulation of logistic plans and the coordination and supervision of supply, maintenance, repair, evacuation, construction, and related logistics activities. In general, the A-4 formulates and implements policies and guidance to ensure effective logistic support to all USAF forces. Most of the challenges confronting this division will be AFFOR unique. Specific responsibilities of the A-4 include

    1. coordinate the overall logistic functions and requirements of the COMAFFOR and maintaining liaison with logistics functions of other components and the JTF J-4.
    2. advise commander concerning logistics matters that affect the accomplishment of COMAFFOR/JFACC missions.
    3. formulate COMAFFOR logistics policies.
    4. advise JAOC on development of logistics support in the JASOP.
    5. coordinate common item supply support that is a COMAFFOR responsibility.
    6. monitor the ammunition and fuel support capability of all JFACC forces.
    7. identify and monitor transportation movement requirements.
    8. arrange for and coordinate COMAFFOR host-nation support requirements with the JTF J-4.
    9. coordinate agreements for inter-Service supply and support with components and JTF J-4.
    10. exercise staff supervision or cognizance over applicable engineering, maintenance, recovery, and salvage operations.
    11. monitor and coordinate theater aerial ports.

Communications and Computers (A-6) - The Director of Communications and Computers is the principle staff assistant to the COMAFFOR/JFACC for communications-electronics and automated information systems. This includes establishing the theater communications and automated systems architecture to support operational and command requirements. Specific responsibilities of the A-6 include

    1. coordinate frequency allocation and assignments with the A-3 and JTF J-6 and deconflict internal frequency requirements and allocations.
    2. plan, coordinate, and monitor COMSEC procedures and assets.
    3. coordinate C2 Protect requirements and procedures with the AOC Information Warfare (IW) Team
    4. advise AOC on development of communications inputs to the JASOP.
    5. coordinate plans with JTF J-6.
    6. maintain liaison with the JTF J-6, Joint Communications Control Center, Joint Communications Support Element, and DISA area communications operations center as required.
    7. ensure communications interface requirements are satisfied.
    8. extend required communications connectivity to subordinate USAF units (to include reachback units) and other components.

 

Air Mobility Integration

 

Because of the global nature of air mobility, special attention must be given to balance these resources with national requirements and priorities. At the same time, the air mobility system performing theater and strategic missions must function in close coordination with one another to provide seamless mobility to the supported combatant commander with responsive and integrated aerial movement. Command relationships must be established to allow an interlocking arrangement to manage intratheater and intertheater air mobility operations. Normally, theater air mobility forces will be attached to the JFC with OPCON or TACON delegated to the COMAFFOR/JFACC.

A JTF mission will often require USTC-assigned air mobility augmentation. Air mobility ground elements attached to the JTF and in the AOR/JOA will normally be TACON to the JFC, delegated to the JFACC, and exercised through the DIRMOBFOR. In special circumstances, transfer of a very limited number of USTC-assigned aircraft may be transferred on a per sortie basis supporting the JFC through TACON to the JFACC and executed through the DIRMOBFOR. These relationships are depicted in Figure 11.

 

Figure 11: Command Relationships for Air Mobility Forces

Unity of action develops from fullness of information. In combat, all ranks have to know what is being done, and why it is being done, if confusion is to be kept to a minimum. This holds true in all types of operation, whatever the Service. However, a surfeit of information clouds the mind and may sometimes depress the spirit.

S. L. A. Marshall

CHAPTER 4: THE AIR OPERATIONS CENTERóFUNCTIONS, ORGANIZATION, AND PROCESSES

The AOC is the air and space operations planning and execution focal point for the JTF and is where centralized planning, direction, control, and coordination of air and space operations occurs for which the COMAFFOR/JFACC has OPCON/TACON. AOC personnel are responsible for planning, executing, and assessing air and space operations and directing changes as the situation dictates.

This chapter broadly describes the AOCís functions and standard organization, as well as the fundamental air tasking process that the AOC supports. This chapter describes a fully functional AOC that can be tailored and scaled to a specific or changing mission, and to the associated task force that the USAF presents to the JFC. Thus, the USAF would not necessarily provide all of the elements described in the following sections if the situation does not warrant them.

PRIMARY AOC FUNCTIONS:

    1. Develop air operations strategy and planning documents which integrate air, space, and information warfare to meet JFACC objectives and guidance.
    2. Task and execute day-to-day air operations; provide rapid reaction, positive control, and coordinated and deconflicted weapons employment, as well as integrate the total air effort.
    3. Receive, assemble, analyze, filter, and disseminat all-source intelligence and weather information to support air operations planning, execution, and assessment.
    4. Issue airspace control procedures and coordinate airspace control activities for the Airspace Control Authority (ACA) when the JFACC is designated the ACA.
    5. Provide overall direction of air defense, including TMD, for the Area Air Defense Commander (AADC) when the JFACC is designated the AADC.
    6. Plan, task, and execute theater ISR mission.
    7. Conduct operational level assessment to determine mission and overall air operations effectiveness as required by the JFC to support the theater combat assessment effort.
    8. Produce and disseminate an ATO and changes.
    9. Provide for the integration and support of all air mobility missions.

Air and Space Planning and Execution Process

Fundamental to the AOC is the integrated team concept. These integrated teams are formed by individuals from various areas of expertise. This concept breaks down the information barriers between traditional AOC cells by placing various experts in integrated teams to accomplish strategy development, operational level assessment, detailed planning, ATO production, and execution functions. Figure 12 shows the Air and Space Planning and Execution Process. A key advantage of the integrated team concept is that a single leader has oversight over the outputs and processes of each step in the Air and Space Planning and Execution Process. AOC personnel should be assigned to teams and not isolated cells.

Figure 12: The Air and Space Planning and Execution Process

AOC Organization

Normally an AOC is led by an AOC Director and has four divisions with ten core teams, and numerous specialty and support teams. Normally the COMAFFOR/JFACC staff directors, the A-1 through A-6, support the AOC Director (in his planning and execution of the COMAFFOR/JFACCís operational tasks) and fulfill their responsibilities by supervising their personnel on the AOC teams. The AOC team concept represents a wide range of systems and capabilities. These teams are organized and integrated within the AOC to support the COMAFFOR/JFACC. The teams should be flexible, with an emphasis on integration of capabilities and the avoidance of stovepipes. The basic structure of an AOC is illustrated in Figure 13. Specialty and Support Team members will move into the Core Teams as required.

 

Figure 13: AOC Organization with Representative Specialty and Support Teams

AOC DIRECTOR

The AOC Director is charged with the effectiveness of joint air and space operations and focuses on planning, coordinating, allocating, tasking, executing, and assessing air power operations in the AOR/JOA based on JFACC guidance and DIRMOBFOR coordination. It is the directorís responsibility to ensure AOC functions necessary to complete the air and space planning and execution process are executed in a timely, efficient manner.

CORE TEAMS

The Strategy, Combat Plans, and Combat Operations Divisions each have two core teams. The teams in the Strategy Division are the Strategy Plans Team and the Operational Assessment Team. Combat Plans Division has the Master Air Attack Plan Team and the ATO/ACO Production Team. Combat Operations Division has the Offensive Operations Team and the Defensive Operations Team. The Air Mobility Division has four core teams. These are the Air Mobility Control Team (AMCT), Airlift Control Team (ALCT), Aerial Refueling Control Team (ARCT), and Air Mobility Element (AME). The Core Teams drive the planning and execution process.

These core teams have functional experts under the direction of a single team leader. A core team operates with a common purpose to achieve unity of effort.

The core teams are composed of permanent, principal, and temporary members. Permanent members have no other responsibilities in the AOC, are experienced in their position, and usually have specific training. Principal members are experts within their functional area, who are required for the core teamís mission and stay with the team, but have other AOC responsibilities. Temporary members contribute special expertise as the need arises.

It is important to understand that the central AOC process is the Air and Space Planning and Execution Process. The core teams are the owner of this process, and everyone in the AOC supports it. The goal of the team approach is to create a cooperative, barrier-free environment focused on mission accomplishment.

 

 

There was no line of cleavage between strategic and tactical air forces. It was over-all effort, uniting all types of aircraft, coordinated for maximum impact.

Gen Carl "Tooey" Spaatz

Strategy Division

Although located in the AOC and reporting to the AOC Director in order to maintain continuity with AOC processes, the Strategy Division has a special relationship with the COMAFFOR/JFACC. By its very nature the Strategy Division will form a strong, direct bond with the COMAFFOR/JFACC. The Strategy Division is comprised of the Strategy Plans Team and the Operational Assessment Team. This division develops, refines, disseminates, and assesses the progress of the JFACCís air and space strategy. This division concentrates on the long-range planning of air and space operations for theater activities. They should not become mired in the detailed, day-to-day ATO production or execution. Representatives from a range of functional areas, such as operations, intelligence, communications, logistics, and space, are full-time members of the division. The Strategy Division is responsible to:

    1. Develop the JFACC Air and Space Estimate of the Situation. The division will normally use the JFCís Strategic Appreciation to develop the estimate.
    2. Serve as the JFACCís focal point for overall development and coordination of the Joint Air and Space Operations Plan (JASOP) in support of the JFCís theater campaign.
    3. Develop the joint air and space strategy and assess its support of the theater campaign.
    4. Serve as the primary liaison with the JFC planners.
    5. Monitor and assess the progress of the air phases, and provide overall operational level combat assessment with respect to the air and space objectives.
    6. Develop alternative contingency plans and courses of action.
    7. Develop the prioritized air objectives, air tasks, and measures of merit.
    8. Provide input to the development of an ISR plan for the JTF.

The Strategy Division is normally comprised of two teams: the Strategy Plans Team and the Operational Assessment Team.

Strategy Plans Team. Prior to the start of operations, this team develops a proposed air and space strategy, air and space courses of action, and the JASOP. After the start of operations, they modify the JASOP and provide guidance to the Combat Plans Division and other AOC elements as necessary. In some cases there will not be a requirement for daily guidance from the Strategy Division. Rather, the dissemination of guidance is event driven and would probably occur as the end of a planned phase approaches, with a change in JFACC or JFC guidance, or with a significant shift in the combat situation.

Operational Assessment Team. This team assesses the progress of air and space operations at the operational or campaign level. They assess the progress of each phase toward accomplishment of the JFACCís objectives and tasks based on the approved measures of merit for each task and objective. The information this team provides allows the JFACC and the Strategy Plans Team to address the air and space strategy. Operational assessment addresses the overall achievement of the desired air and space objectives; it is not limited to battle damage assessment (BDA).

Combat Plans Division

The Combat Plans Division is responsible for the near-term air and space operations planning function of the AOC. This division develops detailed plans for the application of air and space resources based on JFACC approved guidance received from the Strategy Division. These plans include the near-term guidance, allocation/apportionment, and tasking instructions for assigned and attached forces. This is accomplished within the Air and Space Planning and Execution Process through the preparation of ATOs. Combat Plans transmits the ATO to Combat Operations for execution. Generally, Combat Plans works the two ATO periods beyond the current ATO. The Combat Plans Division has the following responsibilities:

    1. Develop combat assessment methods tied to ISR, command and control plans, and ATOs to achieve JFACC objectives.
    2. Determine the optimal combination of target, platform, weapon, and timing for missions included in the ATO.
    3. Ensure air and space tasking supports the overall JTF campaign.
    4. Produce and disseminate an operationally and tactically sound ATO.
    5. Generate special instructions (SPINS) and the daily airspace control order (ACO) or ACO updates.

The Combat Plans Division is normally comprised of two teams: Master Air Attack Plan Team and ATO/ACO Production Team.

Master Air Attack Plan (MAAP) Team The MAAP Team blends daily Commandersí Guidance, the authorized target list, optimal weapons selections, and asset availability to produce a timed-phased roadmap for operations. The MAAP Team uses the JFC/JFACCís daily guidance and other inputs to construct the MAAP. The MAAP Team works closely with each component liaison and Combat Operations Division to ensure component concerns are addressed and operational objectives are efficiently achieved. The MAAP Team has these responsibilities:

    1. Build and maintain the Joint Integrated Prioritized Target List (jiptl).
    2. Construct the MAAP and brief the developed MAAP to the JFACC for approval.
    3. Receive, prioritize, and deconflict user requests for airspace pertaining to the ATOs in planning and construct the daily ACO.
    4. Develop the air defense procedures for command and control of an integrated air defense system.
    5. Develop the ATO shell for the Theater Battle Management Core Systems (TBMCS).

ATO/ACO Production Team. This team receives the ATO shell (a detailed list of missions, forces, and timing) from the MAAP Team and along with air mobility mission input from the Air Mobility Division and refines the ATO in TBMCS. In addition, they integrate the ACO developed by the MAAP Team with the ATO. The ATO/ACO Production Team has these responsibilities:

    1. Build mission packages that achieve air and space superiority, conducts force application, and provide force enhancement.
    2. Integrate other componentsí direct support sorties into the ATO.
    3. Transmit the ATO/ACO to all required users once they are completed.
    4. Transfer responsibilities for the completed ATO/ACO to the Combat Operations Division.

Combat Operations Division

This division executes the ATO. Combat Ops will analyze, prioritize and, if necessary, make recommendations to the JFACC (or designated representative) to redirect assets. ACA and AADC representatives along with component LNO staffs should be part of this decision-making process. Combat Ops has these responsibilities:

    1. Execute the current ATO through constant monitoring of air missions under control of the Theater Air Control System (TACS).
    2. Evaluate ISR feedback.
    3. Adjust the ATO as necessary in response to battlespace dynamics (e.g., assigned targets are no longer valid, high priority targets are detected, enemy action threatens friendly forces).
    4. Coordinate emergency/immediate air support requests.
    5. Monitor and recommend changes to defensive operations.
    6. Publish changes to the ACO.
    7. Provide feedback on status of the current ATO.

The Combat Operations Division is normally comprised of two teams: Offensive Operations Team and Defensive Operations Team.

Offensive Operations Team. This team is responsible for execution of the ATO in accordance with Commandersí Guidance and in reaction to the current battlespace situation for all offensive missions. The offensive operations team monitors the battlespace and recommends changes to the ATO based on unforeseen opportunities and challenges.

Defensive Operations Team. This team is responsible for execution of the ATO in accordance with Commandersí Guidance and in reaction to the current battlespace situation for all defensive missions. The defensive operations team monitors the battlespace and recommends changes to the ATO based on unforeseen opportunities and challenges.

Air Mobility Division

 

The DIRMOBFOR is responsible for integrating the total air mobility effort for the JFACC. The DIRMOBFOR provides direction to the Air Mobility Division to execute the air mobility mission. The Air Mobility Division will plan, coordinate, task, and execute the air mobility mission. The Air Mobility Division is located in the AOC. The AOC Director ensures the Air Mobility Division works as an effective division of the AOC in the Air and Space Planning and Execution Process. The Air Mobility Division is comprised of four elements: Air Mobility Control Team (AMCT); Airlift Control Team (ALCT), Aerial Refueling Control Team (ARCT), and the Air Mobility Element (AME). The Air Mobility Division coordinates with the JFCís movement requirements and control authority, the theater Air Mobility Operations Control Center (AMOCC), if established, and the AMC Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) as required to derive apportionment guidance, compute allocation, and to collect requirements. As directed by the DIRMOBFOR, the Air Mobility Division will task attached theater air mobility forces through wing and unit command posts when those forces operate from permanent home bases or wing operations centers (WOC) if forward deployed. Under the direction of the DIRMOBFOR, the Air Mobility Division has the following responsibilities:

    1. Integrate and direct the execution of theater and USTC-assigned mobility forces operating in the AOR/JOA and in support of the JFCís requirements/objectives.
    2. Maintain the flow of theater and USTC-assigned air mobility assets in support of JFC objectives.
    3. Coordinate air mobility support for mobility requirements identified and validated by the JFC requirements and movement authority as appropriate.
    4. Participate in the Air and Space Planning and Execution Process and coordinate with the AOC Director to ensure the air mobility mission is incorporated in the ATO.
    5. Identify ISR requirements in support of the air mobility mission.
    6. Ensure air mobility missions are visible in the AMC standard command and control system and reflected in the ATO/ACO.

 

The Air Mobility Control Team (AMCT). The AMCT serves as the DIRMOBFORís centralized source of air mobility command, control, and communications during mission execution. The DIRMOBFOR uses the AMCT to direct, or redirect as required, air mobility forces in concert with other air and space forces to respond to requirement changes, higher priorities, or immediate execution limitations. The AMCT deconflicts all air mobility operations into, out of, and within the area of operations. The AMCT maintains execution process and communications connectivity for tasking, coordination, and flight following with the AOC Combat Operations Division, subordinate air mobility units, and mission forces.

The Airlift Control Team (ALCT). The ALCT is the source of theater expertise within the Air Mobility Division. The ALCT brings theater airlift functional expertise from the theater organizations to plan, coordinate, manage, and execute theater airlift operations in the AOR/JOA for the JFACC. USTC/AMC may augment the ALCT with theater airlift expertise. These two sources of airlift expertise integrate into a single ALCT within the Air Mobility Division.

Aerial Refueling Control Team (ARCT). The Air Mobility Division may have an ARCT to coordinate aerial refueling planning, tasking, and scheduling to support combat air operations or to support a strategic airbridge within the AOR/JOA.

Air Mobility Element (AME). The AME deploys to the theater as an extension of the AMC TACC. The AME is requested when a DIRMOBFOR is established and USTC-assigned air mobility aircraft are employed in support of a contingency. It becomes an element of the Air Mobility Division. The DIRMOBFOR is responsible for integrating the expertise of the theater air mobility planners with the expertise of the AME, to fulfill the JFACCís guidance to meet the JFCís objectives. The AME provides air mobility integration and coordination of USTC-assigned air mobility forces. The AME receives direction from the DIRMOBFOR and is the primary team for providing coordination with the TACC. Direct delivery strategic air mobility missions, if required, will be coordinated through the Air Mobility Division and tasked by the AMC TACC. The TACC commander maintains OPCON of direct delivery missions during execution. The AME ensures the integration of strategic air mobility missions with theater air and space operations planning.

SPECIALTY TEAMS

The specialty teams provide an AOC with diverse capabilities to help orchestrate theater air power. Many of these capabilities are provided to the AOC from agencies external to the AOC organization. It is crucial to the success of the AOC that these capabilities be interwoven into the Air and Space Planning and Execution Process.

The AOC incorporates certain functional leaders to help ensure the best use of like assets. An Information Warfare Support Team, for instance, spreads its personnel throughout the AOC under the direction of Core Team leaders. The Specialty Team Leader ensures team members are used efficiently and effectively throughout the AOC.

The following are examples of specialty teams:

Component Liaisons. These liaisons work for their respective component commanders and work with the JFACC and staff. Each component normally provides liaison elements (BCD, SOLE, NALE, MARLO, etc.) that work within the AOC. These liaison elements consist of experienced warfare specialists who provide component planning and tasking expertise and coordination capabilities. They help integrate and coordinate their componentís participation in joint air operations (Joint Pub 3-56.1).

Intelligence. Normally the Intelligence Team will be distributed to the core teams in order to provide insight into the capabilities of intelligence support, assist the core teams in articulating intelligence requirements, and expedite the delivery of intelligence products.

Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR). The ISR Team is the single point for the integration, planning, tasking, and execution of ISR requirements and assets. Establishing this team recognizes that the COMAFFOR/JFACC is the single manager for all ISR air and space assets and the AOC is the vehicle for coordinating, tasking, and dynamically retasking the JFCís ISR requirements and executing the ISR air and space missions. Based on JFC guidance, the JFACC will establish collection priorities and integrate the componentsí requirements in the process. The JFACC integrates the recognized air, ground, and maritime pictures and disseminates this common operational picture (COP) for theater-wide use.

Area Air Defense (AAD). Normally the JFACC is designated the Area Air Defense Commander (AADC). The AAD Team will conduct air defense operations integrating operation of all defense systems. This includes all aspects of TMD, from counterair operations to point defense and integrates all combat operations against the continuum of aircraft, cruise missiles, and ballistic missiles.

Information Warfare. The Information Warfare (IW) Team is charged with coordinating the offensive and defensive aspects of IW to include special programs and integrating IW efforts with the JASOP. The IW Team will also act as the JFACCís focal point for the integration of JFACC capabilities with the IW portion of the JFCís campaign plan.

Airspace Management. This team coordinates and integrates use of the airspace control area. They help develop broad policies and procedures for airspace control and for coordination among units within the AOR/JOA. They are key to the development and promulgation of an Airspace Control Plan and the daily Airspace Control Order. They must also provide the flexibility needed within the airspace control system to meet contingency situations that necessitate rapid employment of forces.

Weather. The Weather Team provides climatological data for long-term planning and reports significant weather with emphasis on target weather affecting ATO execution.

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUPPORT TEAMS

Support teams provide direct support to the AOC and to operational echelons above and below the AOC (HHQ and tactical units). Support teams are led by team chiefs who report to the appropriate level within the AOC. They perform their tasks allowing the core and specialty teams to focus on the Air and Space Planning and Execution Process. Examples of support teams are Intelligence Unit Support, Systems Administration, Combat Reports, Information Management, Communications Center, and Supply.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There are those who like to say we have four Air Forces in America Ė they are absolutely wrong. This nation has one Air Force. There are other services with air arms, and they are magnificent air arms, who focus on certain things in support of our national capabilities. But it is your Air Force that is charged with the full spectrum of capabilities. We are asked to provide for the nation air and space power, starting with science and technology; research and development; testing and evaluating; fielding, employing and sustaining air and space forces. We have no other tasks. That is our only job. It is not a diversion for us. We do it full time Ė all the time.

General Ronald R. Fogleman

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX 1: SAMPLE DAF DIRECTIVE

Copy No 001

Department of the Air Force

The Pentagon, Washington D.C.

28 February 1998

Subject: SECAF COMMAND DIRECTIVE 98-03: COMMAND AND ORGANIZATION OF AIR FORCE FORCES SUPPORTING JTF OPERATION SOUTHERN WATCH (SW), 28 February 1998

1. OPERATIONAL COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS.

a. The SECDEF has designated CINCCENT the supported commander for Operation Southern Watch. CINCACOM, CINCEUR, CINCTRANS, CINCSOC and CINCSPACE are supporting commanders; DIA, CIA, NSA, DISA, DLA, and the Military Departments are supporting agencies.

b. CINCCENT has established JTF SWA for Operation Southern Watch, with headquarters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, to plan and conduct joint operations in support of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.

2. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL AND SUPPORT (ADCON) RELATIONSHIPS.

a. Commander, Ninth Air Force, as Commander of the Air Force component command of CENTCOM, has ADCON of Air Force forces assigned or attached to USCENTAF. The Secretary of the Air Force fulfills her responsibility for ADCON of Air Force forces assigned or attached to Commander, Ninth Air Force through the Chief of Staff of the Air Force (CSAF) and Commander, Air Combat Command (COMACC).

b. COMACC is hereby designated the supported Air Force MAJCOM for providing administrative control and support to CENTAF. Other Air Force MAJCOMs and Agencies will support CENTAF through ACC as directed by CSAF supplements to this directive. AIA, AFMC, and HQ USAF/XO will be prepared to support CENTAF with planning in their areas of expertise; ACC will establish requirements through HQ USAF/XO.

c. This directive authorizes COMACC to establish an ASETF and organize subordinate air expeditionary forces to ensure effective administrative control and support of Air Force forces consistent with the operational directives of the NCA, combatant commander, and any subordinate joint force commander.

 

 

 

 

SAMPLE DAF DIRECTIVE

d. COMACC will ensure that supplements to this directive detail changes

to the Task Organization of Air Force forces committed to this joint operation and such other organizational instructions as he determines are necessary. COMACC may delegate to subordinate Air Force component commanders the authority to organize their assigned and attached air expeditionary forces consistent with operational directives. An information copy of such organizational directives will be forwarded to HQ AF/XO within 24 hours after it is approved by the appropriate commander.

By order of SECAF

 

 

APPENDIX 2: SAMPLE MAJCOM SUPPLEMENT

Copy No 001

HQ Air Combat Command

Langley Air Force Base, VA

5 March 1998

Subject: COMACC Supplement 1 to SECAF COMMAND DIRECTIVE 98-03: COMMAND AND ORGANIZATION OF AIR FORCE FORCES SUPPORTING JTF OPERATION SOUTHERN WATCH (SW), 28 February 1998

1. OPERATIONAL COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS.

a. The SECDEF has designated CINCCENT the supported commander for Operation Southern Watch. CINCACOM, CINCEUR, CINCTRANS, CINCSOC and CINCSPACE are supporting commanders; DIA, CIA, NSA, DISA, DLA, and the Military Departments are supporting agencies.

b. CINCCENT has established JTF SWA for Operation Southern Watch, with headquarters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, to plan and conduct joint operations in support of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.

2. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL AND SUPPORT (ADCON) RELATIONSHIPS.

a. Commander, Ninth Air Force (9 AF/CC) is confirmed as Commander of the Air Force component command of CENTCOM (designated CENTAF) and has ADCON of Air Force forces assigned or attached to CENTAF. The Secretary of the Air Force fulfills her responsibility for ADCON of Air Force forces assigned or attached to 9 AF/CC through the Chief of Staff of the Air Force (CSAF) and Commander, Air Combat Command (COMACC).

b. ACC has been designated by SECAF the supported Air Force MAJCOM for providing administrative control and support to 9 AF for Operation Southern Watch. Other Air Force MAJCOMs and Agencies will support 9 AF through ACC as directed by CSAF. AIA, AFMC, and HQ USAF/XO will be prepared to support 9 AF with planning in their areas of expertise; ACC will establish requirements through HQ USAF/XO.

c. This supplemental directive authorizes 9 AF/CC to establish the 9 ASETF-SW as a subordinate command echelon. Operational subordination of the 9 ASETF-SW as the Air Force component command of JTF SWA and the attachment of Air Force air expeditionary forces to 9 ASETF-SW will be as directed through the operational chain of command. COMACC will fulfill SECAF responsibilities for administrative control and support of the 9 ASETF-SW through 9 AF/CC. Within ACC, 9 AF/CC is designated the supported NAF for Operation Southern Watch; other ACC commands and agencies will support 9 ASETF-SW through 9 AF.

SAMPLE MAJCOM SUPPLEMENT

    1. The 9 AF/CC will supplement this directive by publishing changes to the

Task Organization of Air Force forces committed to this joint operation and such other organizational instructions as he determines are necessary. 9 AF/CC may delegate to 9 ASETF-SW/CC the authority to organize his attached air expeditionary forces consistent with operational directives. An information copy of 9 AF and 9 ASETF-SW organizational directives will be forwarded to HQ AF/XO and HQ ACC/XP within 24 hours after approval by the appropriate commander.

By order of COMACC

 

APPENDIX 3: SAMPLE NAF SUPPLEMENT

Copy No 001

HQ Ninth Air Force

Shaw Air Force Base, SC

6 March 1998

Subject: Commander, Ninth Air Force Supplement 1 to SECAF COMMAND DIRECTIVE 98-03: COMMAND AND ORGANIZATION OF AIR FORCE FORCES SUPPORTING JTF OPERATION SOUTHERN WATCH (SW), 28 February 1998

Reference: COMACC Supplement 1 to SECAF COMMAND DIRECTIVE 98-03, 5 Mar 98

1. OPERATIONAL COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS.

a. The SECDEF has designated CINCCENT the supported commander for Operation Southern Watch. CINCACOM, CINCEUR, CINCTRANS, CINCSOC and CINCSPACE are supporting commanders; DIA, CIA, NSA, DISA, DLA, and the Military Departments are supporting agencies.

b. CINCCENT has established JTF SWA for Operation Southern Watch, with headquarters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, to plan and conduct joint operations in support of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. CINCCENT has tasked 9 AF/CC, as COMCENTAF, to provide an Air Force component command to the Commander JTF SWA.

c. Commander, Ninth Air Force hereby establishes 9 Air and Space Expeditionary Task Force (ASETF) SOUTHERN WATCH (SW) and provides 9 ASETF-SW to CINCCENT for operational subordination as the Air Force component command of JTF SWA. The 9 ASETF-SW Commander will have operational control of such Air Force operating forces as directed through the operational chain of command.

2. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL AND SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS.

a. This supplemental directive establishes the 9 ASETF-SW as a subordinate command echelon of 9 AF. The 9 ASETF-SW will be activated immediately and assigned as the Air Force component command under the operational control of Commander, JTF SWA for Operation Southern Watch. The 9 ASETF-SW will be composed of a commander, as designated on G-Series orders, a staff provided through 9 AF, and Air Force operating forces attached through the operational chain of command. The 9 ASETF-SW/CC is the COMAFFOR for the Air Force component command of JTF SWA and will exercise ADCON of all Air Force forces assigned or attached to that AF component command.

 

SAMPLE NAF SUPPLEMENT

b. The Secretary of the Air Force fulfills her responsibility for ADCON of Air Force forces assigned or attached to 9 ASETF-SW through the Chief of Staff of the Air Force (CSAF), Commander, Air Combat Command (COMACC), and Commander, Ninth Air Force (9AF/CC). 9 ASETF-SW/CC will forward support requirements to 9 AF/CC, info 9AF/DO.

c. Annex A, Task Organization, of this document contains the current task organization of forces assigned or attached to the 9 ASETF-SW. 9 AF/CC will publish updates to the 9 ASETF-SW Task Organization as changes are made.

d. 9 ASETF-SW/CC is authorized to supplement this directive and to organize assigned and attached air expeditionary forces as he deems most effective, consistent with operational directives. An information copy of 9 ASETF-SW organizational directives will be forwarded to HQ AF/XO, HQ ACC/XP, and HQ 9AF/DO within 24 hours after approval by 9 ASETF-SW/CC.

By order of 9 AF/CC

 

APPENDIX 4: SAMPLE TASK ORGANIZATION

HQ Ninth Air Force

Shaw Air Force Base, SC

6 March 1998

Annex A to 9 AF/CC Supplement 1 to SECAF COMMAND DIRECTIVE 98-03

Task Organization

9 AF ORGANIZATION COMMANDER

9 AF HEADQUARTERS 9 AF/CC

9 ASETF SOUTHERN WATCH HEADQUARTERS 9 ASETF-SW/CC

4 AIR EXPEDITIONARY WING

4 EOG (from Seymour)

335 EFS (from Seymour)

79 EFS (from Shaw)

169 EFS (from McIntyre)

522 EFS (from Cannon)

4 EMS (from Seymour)

4 ELS (from Seymour)

4 ESS (from Seymour)

7 EOG (at Dyess)

9 EBS (at Dyess)

2 EOG (at Barksdale)

20 EBS (at Barksdale)

5 EOG (at Minot)

23 EBS (at Minot)

4404 AIR EXPEDITIONARY WING (Formerly 4404 COMPOSITE WING (P))

(As currently assigned)

SUPPORTING ORGANIZATIONS

Department of the Air Force SECAF

Air Force Material Command COMAFMC

Air Force Intelligence Agency COMAIA

Air Mobility Command COMAMC

Air Force Space Command AFSPC/CC

Air Combat Command COMACC

Eighth Air Force 8 AF/CC

Twelfth Air Force 12 AF/CC

Fourteenth Air Force 14 AF/CC (COMAFSPACE)