USAF Documents


AIR COMBAT COMMAND

CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS

FOR

THEATER BATTLE MANAGEMENT

CORE SYSTEMS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepared By: Lt Col Nancy R. Trivett

Systems Integration Branch

Battle Mgmt Ops & Trng Division

Reviewed By: EDWARD S. MODICA, Colonel, USAF

Chief, Battle Mgmt Ops & Trng Division

Directorate of Operations

Submitted By: LEE A. DOWNER, Major General, USAF

Director of Operations

Approved By: RICHARD E. HAWLEY, General, USAF

Commander

 

30 SEPTEMBER 1996

 

OPR: HQ ACC/DOYS

Langley AFB VA 23665-2778

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

SECTION PAGE

TABLE OF CONTENTS ii

LIST OF FIGURES iv

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY v

SECTION 1 - GENERAL

1.1 Purpose 1-1

1.2 Background 1-2

1.3 General 1-2

1.4 Threat 1-3

SECTION 2 - DESCRIPTION

2.1 Mission 2-1

2.2 Physical Description 2-1

2.2.1 Host Hardware 2-2

2.2.2 Host Systems and Equipment 2-3

2.3 TBMCS Systems

2.3.1 CTAPS Description/Capabilities 2-5

2.3.2 CIS Description/Capabilities 2-8

2.3.3 WCCS Description/Capabilities 2-11

2.3.4 C2IPS Description/Capabilities 2-12

2.4 Related TBMCS Systems

2.4.1 AFMSS Description/Capabilities 2-13

2.4.2 AFATDS Description/Capabilities 2-15

2.4.3 JMCIS Description/Capabilities.............................................................. ................2-15

SECTION 3 - OPERATIONS

3.1 General 3-1

3.2 Organization 3-1

3.3 Basing 3-1

3.4 Readiness 3-1

3.5 Deployment 3-2

3.6 Employment 3-2

3.7 Mission Process 3-3

3.8 Force Structure 3-5

3.9 Manpower 3-5

3.10 Future Concepts 3-5

TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT.)

SECTION PAGE

SECTION 4 - COMMAND AND CONTROL RELATIONSHIP STRUCTURE

4.1 Command and Control................ ...................................................................................... 4-1

4.2 Organizational Structure 4-1

SECTION 5 - INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT

5.1 General 5-1

5.2 Intelligence Support 5-1

5.3 Space Support 5-1

SECTION 6 - SECURITY

6.1 General 6-1

6.2 Classification Guidance 6-1

6.3 Physical Security 6-1

6.4 Information Security 6-1

6.5 Operations Security 6-1

SECTION 7 - TRAINING

7.1 General 7-1

7.2 Formal Training 7-1

7.3 Continuation Training 7-2

7.4 Exercise Participation 7-2

SECTION 8 - LOGISTICS

8.1 General 8-1

8.2 Maintenance Environment 8-1

8.3 Program Decision Factors 8-2

8.4 Maintenance Requirements 8-2

ANNEXES

ANNEX A GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS A-1

ANNEX B FUNCTIONS OF TACS ELEMENTS B-1

ANNEX C REFERENCES C-1

ANNEX D DISTRIBUTION D-1

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

FIGURE PAGE

2-1 TBMCS Mission Support 2-1

2-2 Theater Air Control System (TACS) with Joint Interfaces 2-3

2-3 TBMCS Overview 2-5

2-4 CTAPS Interface Network 2-6

2-5 Combat Intelligence System Interface 2-8

2-6 Wing Command and Control System 2-11

2-7 C2IPS Interface 2-12

2-8 Related Systems 2-13

3-1 Notional Force Structure ...........................................................................3-1

3-2 Mission Process 3-3

3-3 Future Concept 3-6

4-1 Joint Forces Organization 4-1

7-1 TBMCS Training Types 7-1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

SECTION 1 GENERAL. This Concept of Operations (CONOPS) describes the Air Combat Command (ACC) vision of the operational employment of the Theater Battle Management Core Systems (TBMCS) as they are fielded today. TBMCS is the system "core" hardware and software application tools used by the Joint Forces Air Component Commander (JFACC) and staff to plan and execute theater air operations. TBMCS is networked through the force, operations, and unit level to provide the means to collect and process data and distribute the resulting information throughout the theater for more efficient and timely employment of air power. This integration of planning and execution ensures continuity of force management in concert with the JFACCís air campaign objectives and priority of tasks. This CONOPS, however, focuses on an operatorís overview of Theater Battle Management (TBM) system components and the relationships between mission execution and the manner in which systems support the JFACCís battle managers and warfighters at the Air Operations Center and Wing and Squadron Operations Centers.

SECTION 2 DESCRIPTION. TBMCS physical elements include workstations running the core Contingency Theater Automated Planning System (CTAPS), Combat Intelligence System (CIS), Wing Command and Control System (WCCS), and Command and Control Information Processing System (C2IPS) software applications at various nodes of the Theater Air Control System (TACS). The Air Force Mission Support System (AFMSS), Navy/Marine Joint Maritime Command and Control Information Processing System (JMCIS), Army/Marine Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS) are not considered "core" systems, but are no less important in the integrated system for command and control of joint air operations. Each element of the system exchanges information with the JFACC and the staff through automated links to TBMCS. Quick Response Packages (QRP), Limited Response Packages (LRP), and Theater Response Packages (TRP) of equipment and personnel provide scaleable TBMCS C2 capability across the spectrum of Joint air operations from peacetime/operations other than war through major regional conflicts (MRCs).

SECTION 3 OPERATIONS. At the AOC, CTAPS and CIS help the JFACC and Combat Plans with planning, coordinating, and distributing the Air Tasking Order (ATO). Combat Operations then uses CTAPS and other feeds to monitor and control "on the fly" ATO execution. CIS keeps the staff abreast of current intelligence. C2IPS provides the logistics movements information link for theater planning. At the Wing level, the WCCS component accesses CTAPS and CIS information to allocate wing resources to the ATO. WCCS is also the reporting means at the Wing to provide status information to the AOC for monitoring execution and future planning. The unit level uses the system to receive tasking and feed mission planning information from both CTAPS and CIS into the Air Force Mission Support System (AFMSS). Again, links back to higher headquarters provide the feedback loop for monitoring execution and future planning. TBMCS thereby enable adaptive, near-real time (NRT) planning and execution for air operations to include: ATO development and distribution; combat intelligence, imagery, and threat update support; status of airfields, other resources, and weather; and communications for mission coordination and combat assessment reporting. TBMCS provide the JFACC with the initial and sustaining capability to plan, execute, and reconstitute both offensive and defensive joint air operations.

SECTION 4 COMMAND AND CONTROL RELATIONSHIP STRUCTURE. Established Joint and Air Force doctrine apply in the employment of TBMCS to control air operations. This concept assumes the appointment of an Air Force JFACC by the Joint Force Commander; however, TBMCS functionality supports the C2 of joint air operations regardless of the JFACCís Service affiliation.

SECTION 5 INTELLIGENCE. Intelligence information is provided by numerous systems, including overhead assets processed outside the theater and provided via high capacity communication links. The Combat Intelligence System (CIS), as one of the TBMCS directed core capabilities, provides a single, automated, standard intelligence system that rapidly receives, correlates, stores, and disseminates intelligence data to the Force, Operational, and Unit level. Information is provided by numerous National and theater intelligence sources, in both raw and processed form, classified and accessible through CIS to appropriate user levels. This concept assumes that filtering processes and communications gateways do not impede the quality or speed of information available to the combat user.

SECTION 6 SECURITY. Multi-level Communication Security (COMSEC), Computer Security (COMPUSEC), and physical security practices safeguard classified information and the integrity of TBMCS from information warfare effects. Operating at the SECRET, system high level, TBMCS employs bulk encryption devices to ensure an unclassified network between workcenters.

SECTION 7 TRAINING. Training is the key to successful integration and employment of TBM core systems. TBMCS training plans for ACC and other Servicesí personnel encompass unit level initial qualification through distributed joint system training in-garrison and deployed.

SECTION 8 LOGISTICS. Air Combat Commandís concept is to primarily field and maintain Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) equipment both in-garrison and deployed. Information Operations, Air Force Basic Doctrine (Draft), 15 Aug 95 directs logistics policy for TBMCS under the control of ACC. Military specifications will apply only for specific needs such as special security or ruggedized systems for particularly harsh combat environments.

SECTION 1 - GENERAL

1.1 PURPOSE. This Concept of Operations (CONOPS) will provide a high level overview of the principal components and structure, intended operational environment, and primary relationships among theater battle management core systems. It also provides a basis for the development of theater-specific concepts of employment and operations planning documents. This document will also serve as the foundation for future Mission Need Statements (MNS) and Operational Requirements Documents (ORDs).

1.1.1 Concept Goal. The goal of this TBMCS CONOPS is to capture the current relationships among primary system components. It is not intended to outline the evolutionary path of the core systems or other related systems.

1.1.2 Concept Philosophy. This CONOPS is a living document, intended to evolve with the development of the various TBM core systems. The contents provided in this initial concept are to generate future planning and surface issues for further definition.

1.1.3 CONOPS Assumptions. The CONOPS incorporates the following assumptions:

1.1.3.1 Air Combat Command (ACC) will be the force provider for the major core systems.

1.1.3.2 Maximum force structure required is for a two Major Regional Conflict (MRC) scenario. TBM must support operations ranging from relief efforts, surgical one-time attacks, and projecting decisive force into a MRC to general war.

1.1.3.3 Forces required to conduct military operations overseas will come primarily from the CONUS. Fewer personnel will be available to support TBMCS in the future and these operations must be sustained for the duration of the conflict.

1.1.3.4 A contingency Area of Responsibility (AOR) may have no established Command, Control, Communications, and Computer Information (C4I) infrastructure. The theaters of operation are expected to be remote and there will be increased reliance on space-based assets and reachback communications capability to connect the deployed forces to rear theater/command headquarters.

1.1.3.7 In order to operate in a Joint Service and Allied environment, TBM core systems have to integrate and interface with non-Air Force systems and Allied systems under the direction of a Joint/Combined Force Commander (J/CFC). Additionally, TBM systems must interface with national systems contributing to theater operations. This relationship will require passing data, imagery, and information among the participants in order to plan for and employ varied forces.

1.2 BACKGROUND. During Desert Storm, the Department of Defense discovered serious interoperability problems within the C2 system. The development of ATOs was time consuming and not responsive to immediate tasking and the transmission of large ATOs to subordinate units was impaired by inadequate or nonexistent communications circuits. At times, a courier was required to hand-deliver a printed copy of the ATO to geographically separated units. In September 1993, the TBMCS Program Management Directive identified: the Contingency Theater Automated Processing System (CTAPS), Wing Command and Control System (WCCS), and AMC Command and Control Information Processing System (C2IPS) as candidate migration systems. When adopted by all Service components and integrated into a single system, these systems would provide a seamless C4I environment. The Combat Intelligence System (CIS) was added as a core capability in June 1994 and other applications and systems are being migrated or developed as a way to share databases, speed information flow, and increase capabilities. TBMCS is an umbrella term for those systems which provide the core capabilities to plan, execute, and monitor theater air operations in support of the Joint Forces Commander (JFC). The program is directive in nature and instructs component forces to cease the development of unique systems and migrate designated systems to TBMCS. This non-traditional acquisition approach was used to overcome long-standing deficiencies in Command, Control, and Communication (C3) acquisitions that were plagued by requirements "creep" and technological obsolescence or resulted in a proliferation of theater-unique, stand-alone "stovepipe" C3 systems that were non-interoperable and logistically insupportable. This acquisition strategy applied a structured process by coordinating and integrating ongoing and planned development activities; identifying and applying current Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) technologies and accelerating the transition from development to fielding.

1.3 GENERAL. Since 1995, elements of the TBMCS have migrated towards commonality and interoperability. The issue of obtaining this goal was complicated by the fact that each Service component had ongoing projects to upgrade their C2 systems and was required to make operational and financial concessions in order to move these systems to a common standard. Numerous DOD agencies have been designated as leads for portions of the system. ASD/C3I is responsible for overall implementation of an information systems architecture. The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) is responsible for the migration of all systems to a Common Operating Environment (COE). The Air Force Program Executive Officer for Combat Support (AFPEO/BA) is responsible for TBMCS in the USAF, and Air Combat Command is the executive agent for TBM C2. In addition, the Navy, Marine , and Army have been directed to migrate toward TBM standards and Allied countries are using TBMCS equipment and software to increase interoperability. During the development of the TBMCS equipment and software, all user unique requirements must be considered and prioritized for inclusion. TBMCS provides the necessary support for the JFC to control his forces in a united and coordinated manner. TBMCS is absolutely necessary for aerospace forces to perform their four basic roles: aerospace control, force application, force enhancement, and force support.

1.4 THREAT. The critical C4I support provided by this system defines it as a high-profile target to potential threats. Refer to the "Threat Support Document: Worldwide Threat to Airbases, 1993-2003 ," FTC-2660F-265-94, "Information Systems Threat Assessment," PC-1750-4-93, and "Electronic Combat Threat Environment Description", DST-2660F-731-92, for details. Potential threats to the TBMCS are broad because of its mission of worldwide deployment in support of warfighters throughout the entire spectrum of conflict, These threats include conventional, space-based, electronic warfare (EW); Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) contaminants; terrorism; and information warfare. The threat of greatest concern is the technologically advanced weapons systems with increased accuracy that could be delivered against key TBM nodes. Of similar concern are those technological threats that will operate solely in the electromagnetic spectrum, necessitating the need for increased Information Warfare (IW) protection efforts. In summary, threats to TBMCS may come from low technology conventional weapons, high technology precision weapons, or systems that operate solely in the electromagnetic spectrum.

1.4.1 Airborne and ground-based Electronic Attack (EA), Electronic Warfare Support Measures (ESM), theater ballistic missiles, tactical aircraft, special operations forces, and terrorists threaten TBMCS with physical destruction or damage by conventional weapons, terrorist activities, Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) from nuclear weapons or high power weapons.

1.4.2 NBC contaminants threaten impairment or degradation of operations.

1.4.3 IW poses a significant potential threat because of information transmitted through a complex and far reaching communications infrastructure. When implemented by military elements, IW can disrupt and dominate the flow of information between combat forces and the associated decision-making command elements. Non-military applications can introduce computer viruses and allow access to unauthorized users.

SECTION 2 - DESCRIPTION

2.1 MISSION. TBMCS interface to provide the operator an automated spectrum of C2 information to support the planning and execution of a joint air campaign. The capabilities of these core systems, when networked and working with each other, provide the operator adaptive real-time planning for current operations, to include development and distribution of the ATO, combat intelligence, status of airfields and resources, point-to-point communications, and monitoring enemy offensive and defensive positions, deception postures, and combat assessment. TBMCS provide the capability to plan, execute and reconstitute both offensive and defensive operations in continually building phases.

Figure 2-1 TBMCS Mission Support

2.2 PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION. The task of the core systems is to support the JFC through the Joint Forces Air Component Commander (JFACC). TBMCS applications do not have their own inherent infrastructure and must be hosted on computer hardware, connected through networks

and long haul communications, and sheltered within fixed or deployable facilities. In addition, these core systems are designed to dramatically increase the effectiveness of existing combat systems through increased information flow and reduced information processing and transfer time.

2.2.1 HOST HARDWARE. TBMCS has developed specific minimum requirements necessary to host compliant software applications and interact with communications systems. Specific guidance as to the numbers, types, and arrangement of the following equipment can be found in the Air Combat Command Concept of Operations for Theater Deployable Communications (TDC) (Draft).

2.2.1.1 Workstation. Workstations running the TBM standard compliant operating system (currently UNIX) will provide the user access to the TBMCS applications.

2.2.1.2 Network. The system will use standard long haul tactical communications equipment (i.e., TRI-TAC and GMF facilities). The system will also have appropriate Wide Area Network (WAN) and Local Area Network (LAN) devices and cabling to allow connectivity among all elements. LANs are required to have adequate bandwidth to provide high data throughput and fast response time over distributed processing networks.

2.2.1.3 Shelter. Shelters will provide protection to personnel and equipment from environmental conditions. Shelters may be in existing facilities or, at bare base locations, may be deployed shelters.

2.2.1.4 Communications Gateway. The equipment suite will allow for expansion to incorporate additional gateway processors when necessary. These devices provide an interface with other tactical and strategic networks (voice, data, and surveillance) such as Secret Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET) and operating systems used by other nations.

2.2.1.5 Baseline Integrated Applications. To plan and manage an air campaign requires application modules tailored to the operational requirements of the Commander. Applications capabilities currently accessible through the TBMCS include:

2.2.2 HOST SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT. TBMCS are hosted by existing systems within the Air Force, Joint Forces, and Allied nations. TBMCS have been developed to improve the capability of these systems and upgrade them to provide a world-wide deployable structure in support of the JFACC. The majority of TBMCS is hosted within the USAF Theater Air Control System.

2.2.2.1 USAF Theater Air Control System (TACS). The mission of the TACS is to provide the JFACC with the systems and resources to support situational awareness, joint and combined force planning, execution of the ATO and ACO and control of air assets. TACS organic data and voice communications assets enable centralized control of air assets in the execution of directed air operations. The TACS performs key battle management, surveillance, identification, airspace management, and weapons control functions and provides a reliable, secure, and survivable C4I system for the implementation of joint strategy, control of forces, and employment of air and ground weapons. The TACS is comprised of ground elements and airborne elements (Figure 2-2). The ground elements (GTACS) are comprised of the Air Operations Center, the Control and Reporting Center, the Control and Reporting Element, the Air Support Operations Center and the Tactical Air Control Party. These elements have evolved largely as independent entities, but they function as an integrated system. The airborne elements include the Airborne Warning and Control (AWACS) aircraft, the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS) aircraft, and Airborne Command and Control Center (ABCCC) aircraft. The airborne elements will not be discussed in this CONOPS since they do not currently possess an automated connection to the TBMCS. (Additional information is contained in Annex B - Functions of TACS Elements.)

Figure 2-2 Theater Air Control System (TACS) with Joint Interfaces

2.2.2.1.1 Air Operations Center (AOC). The AOC is the senior deployable air operations element of the GTACS and functions as the JFACCís or Commander Air Force Forcesí (COMAFFOR) operations center. The AOC hosts the equipment and personnel to plan, task, and execute air power within a theater. JFACC organizations may vary based on specific AOR requirements and operations. When constituted, an AOC will consist of an AOC Director and six functional elements:

In addition, liaisons from the Joint Services and Allied nations are resident in the AOC to assist the JFACC staff.

2.2.2.1.2 Control and Reporting Center (CRC)/Control and Reporting Elements(CREs). Sensor equipped and located forward of the AOC. These facilities provide air surveillance and decentralized control of air assets within a theater. They are connected to the AOC through CTAPS.

2.2.2.1.3 The Air Support Operations Center (ASOC) is the TACS node that coordinates direct support to ground forces. The ASOC is collocated with the Army Corps Tactical Operation Center (CTOC) and exercises control over Tactical Air Control Parties. The ASOC is connected to the AOC through CTAPS.

2.2.2.2 Joint and Allied Interfaces. The TBMCS provide the JFACC with a Joint C2 structure for coordination and integration with Army, Navy, Marines, Special Operations Forces, and Allied forces. Typical Joint C2 node interfaces by Service include:

2.3 THEATER BATTLE MANAGEMENT CORE SYSTEMS. These systems provide the operations community with the resources necessary to achieve seamless planning, allocation of resources, and execution of their missions (Figure 2-3). Starting at the JFCs direction, the JFACC will direct his planning cells in the AOC to develop an ATO. Utilizing the various modules in CTAPS, the planning cells will develop the ATO and allocate missions based on the information available from WCCS and CIS. Through CTAPS, the ATO is transmitted to subordinate units which will in turn use other systems (WCCS/JMCIS) to parse the ATO to the executing units. Mission planning at the unit level is supported through Service specific applications such as AFMSS and CIS. C2IPS is utilized to track and allocate airlift and air refueling assets coming into and resident in the theater. The following paragraphs describe the core systems in more detail.

 

Figure 2-3 TBMCS Overview

2.3.1 CONTINGENCY THEATER AUTOMATED PLANNING SYSTEM (CTAPS). The CTAPS is an "umbrella' program for modernizing the AOC, Air Support Operations Center (ASOC) and the Unit Level (UL) in support of air battle operations. CTAPS supports AOCs and JAOCs with ATO production and dissemination and execution using automated tools which, in-turn, support JFACC operations. In July 1993, JCS/J6 (DJS 301638ZJul93) identified the CTAPS ATO planning/processing software modules as the joint standard modules for JFACC. This standardized ATO feature enables the AOC/JAOC to be interoperable with other force-level systems. The CTAPS program interfaces with other Air Force and other Service systems, including other TBM core systems, the Army's Standard Theater Army Command and Control System (STACCS) and the Navyís Joint Maritime Command Information System (JMCIS) (Figure 2-4).

Figure 2-4 CTAPS Interface Network

CTAPS has adopted a development integration methodology based on a "common core" computer system. This common core system is based on COTS, open system, standard hardware and software. By utilizing an open system, CTAPS can host a variety of mission applications tailored to specific C2 functions.

2.3.1.1 The core of CTAPS contains database management systems, graphical interface code and environment tables, message processing software, map and imagery management code, applications program interfaces, system security software modules, and office automation and electronic mail software. The most commonly used applications are described below.

2.3.1.1.1 Advanced Planning System (APS). The APS is the primary tool used by the Combat Plans section for producing the Air Battle Plan. It automates the information from the integrated target list, receives inputs from tasked aircraft units and weather, receives weaponeering options from Rapid Application of Air Power (RAAP)/Joint Munitions Effectiveness Module (JMEM) and receives the Order of Battle from the Combat Intelligence System (CIS). It is also capable of generating internal requests for mission support.

2.3.1.1.2 Airspace Deconfliction System (ADS). The ADS is used by the Combat Plans section for producing the Airspace Control Order (ACO). It takes the information produced in the ATO, identifies and resolves potential airspace conflicts, and provides the planning staff situational awareness of airspace requirements.

2.3.1.1.3 Computer Aided Force Management System (CAFMS). The CAFMS provides the "forms" for producing the ATO. This application contains standard, menu driven forms that, when filled in, populate the ATO database. The CAFMS then distributes the ATO database to Combat Operations and remote users. Combat Operations uses the CAFMS to monitor execution of the ATO as remote users update the database.

2.3.1.1.4 Route Evaluation Module (REM). Combat Operations uses the REM to combine threat intelligence information, terrain data, and threat danger models to generate a representation of relative threats to an aircraft. The REM identifies potential bases for taskings, fuel predictions, and optimized routes for target interdiction.

2.3.1.1.5 Joint Interoperability Tactical Command and Control System (JINTACCS) Message Preparation and Parsing (JMPP). The JMPP is used by all sections of the AOC to send and receive message traffic. It automatically routes messages to addressees.

2.3.1.1.6 Office Automation Software (OAS). This application is based upon Aster*x, a COTS software package. It provides the user a word processor, spreadsheet and Email capability that can be used to communicate with other users in the AOC.

2.3.1.2 Several applications are under development to increase the utility of CTAPS and increase its value to the warfighter. These applications include:

2.3.1.2.1 Force-Level Execution (FLEX). The FLEX application will be the central module serving the AOC's combat operations staff. The FLEX will provide robust and easily tailorable mission and status monitoring and alarm capabilities to optimize the task of monitoring ATO execution and determining required changes to executing air battle plans. The FLEX will also provide the capability to dynamically and rapidly respond to changes in the tactical situation (such as loss of support assets, retasking of assets to participate in a Search-And-Rescue (SAR) operation, aircraft diverts due to weather or airbase attack) by performing ATO replanning and creation and dissemination of retasking communications such as Air Tasking Messages (ATM) and system message alerts. Fed by the ATO and unit status updates, the module will be able to account for the extensive linkages and interdependencies of all resources participating in the air campaign.

2.3.1.2.2 Battlefield Situation Display (BSD). The BSD will provide a map-based display of the air, land, and surface situation. Implicit in the concept of a "view" of the battlefield are the attributes of selectability and tailorability of the view, common identification of targets and other objects in the view, and access through the view to underlying data. The CTAPS BSD project will gradually acquire, field, and support these attributes as CTAPS capability evolves and incorporates NRT data feeds from TADIL-A, TADIL-B, TADIL-J, Forward Tell, JOTS, OTH-G, NATO Link-1 and Link-21, and other information sources.

2.3.1.2.3 JFACC Planning Tool (JPT). The JPT will provide the JFACC and his staff the ability to simultaneously develop and evaluate several air campaigns based upon military and political objectives and to assess the effectiveness of those campaigns. After the selection of a plan, the JPT will provide the force application segment of the Master Air Attack Plan (MAAP).

2.3.2 COMBAT INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM (CIS). As one of the TBM C4I core systems, CIS provides a single, automated, standard Air Force intelligence system that rapidly receives, correlates, stores, and disseminates intelligence data from a large number of multi-disciplined sources in support of combat decision making, battle planning, and mission execution processes at both the component and unit levels. At the component level, CIS is an integrated element of the AOC and also provides automated intelligence support to the ASOC and wing and unit command centers. At the unit level, CIS provides timely intelligence information to support decision making and combat mission planning and execution in Control and Reporting Centers (CRC), Control and Reporting Elements (CRE), and combat units (Figure 2-5).

Figure 2-5 Combat Intelligence System Interface

2.3.2.1 The CIS is the core capability for automating the receipt, correlation, and dissemination of intelligence information to operations systems directly supporting combat planning and execution of air operations throughout all phases of combat operations. It will support specific mission-oriented intelligence functions through various levels of CIS core applications. Core applications include office automation; communications; message/data processing (message handling); database management; imagery receipt, transmission, storage, and manipulation; targeting and weaponeering; and correlation. These applications are based on the CIS major software segments.

2.3.2.1.1 Office automation. The office automation capability provides the user with a number of tools to produce intelligence briefings and other forms of processed intelligence. These tools consist of a number of commercial packages which provide the following integrated capabilities: word processing, graphic drawing tools, spreadsheet, briefing/slide presentation tools, and electronic mail. These applications are integrated with other applications on the system to allow cutting and pasting data (text, graphics and imagery) from one application into another. At a minimum, these applications are used to prepare, print, and present (on both large screen and monitor displays) multi-media (e.g. text, graphics, imagery) presentations in black-and-white, color, and gray scale.

2.3.2.1.2 Communications. The CIS communications interfaces provide connectivity and protocols required to exchange data between CIS workstations and other intelligence and operations systems locally and worldwide. The interfaces provide the flexibility to communicate over available in-garrison and deployed communications systems.

2.3.2.1.3 Message/Data Processing. Message handling functions include receipt, input and output filtering, logging, parsing, correction, and routing. CIS will handle the following categories of messages:

CIS will receive messages through supported communications links. Messages/Data received from the communication function are separated into data, contact reports, track management reports, chatter, formal USMTF, or electronic mail. Alert and messages awaiting review/edit are output to the display/user interface function.

2.3.2.1.4 Database Management. The CIS database management function will build, partition, load, update, index, link, query, backup, restore, and output data from the Integrated Database (IDB), imagery, targets and target products, DMA product, and reference materials databases. The CIS databases are the heart of the system, providing the user with the tools required to easily retrieve all associated information in support of building the battlefield air and ground picture. The CIS database is partitioned so that each level can maintain the higher organizational element's database and a local version.

2.3.2.1.5 Imagery. CIS provides the capability to manage, manipulate, and disseminate imagery to support operations and planning functions. Imagery is received from planned processing and dissemination systems to support targeting and mission effectiveness analysis. Additionally, the CIS has the ability to receive and display large area, multi-spectral imagery from commercial sources such as LANDSAT and SPOT. CIS contains a digital imagery storage capability. It can provide indexing and annotation and will respond to requirements through an automatic profiling capability. The CIS also exports images from the imagery application in a variety of formats (e.g., TIFF, EPS, PCX) for use in other applications and systems.

2.3.2.1.6 Targeting and Weaponeering. Target support functions maintain a database of target materials and provide the user with the capability to develop, store, access, and edit a Target Nomination List (TNL) and electronically transfer the nominations to targeting functions in the AOC combat operations and combat plans. This support includes targeting for both strategic and tactical air power responses to predicted enemy courses of action. Target support functions push target information electronically to CTAPS and AFMSS, automatically update data in a TNL as they are received, and generate strike requests. The weaponeering functions include models for calculating guided and unguided weapon trajectories and the effectiveness of unguided and guided weapons against a variety of targets such as currently provided by the Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual/Air-to-Surface (JMEM/AS) Open-Ended Methods Computer Programs.

2.3.2.1.7 Correlation. The CIS correlation function performs the automatic correlation of multi-source and multi-intelligence air, land based, and naval information to create and maintain a current tactical picture. The results of the correlation processing are maintained in the form of tracks and sites.

2.3.2.1.8 Displays. The display function presents the user with a graphical representation of the air and ground battlefield situation as depicted on map, chart, and imagery products in support of intelligence planning, target support, and mission planning and execution activities. Intelligence, operations, and analytical information (both alpha-numeric and graphical), as derived from user tools available as separate functions on the system, will be created as separate, non-destructive overlays. The following are available for layered viewing: threat analysis (Individual Many -on-Many (IMOM)-type capability), enemy C4I information, mission support information, escape and evasion data, broadcast information (tracks, sites, ellipses, threat rings, direction of movement, TIBS messages, and graphic depiction of imagery.

2.3.2.2 CIS Support Applications. These applications support analyst tasks such as Situation Assessment and Threat Evaluation, Mission Support, Collection Management, Mission Planning, and post-mission analysis. The applications are closely linked with central applications. For example, the situation assessment and threat evaluation applications aid intelligence personnel in notifying unit aircrews and the component staff of actual and potential enemy activity/threat within the AOR. It provides intelligence personnel with timely display of correlated information about reported enemy forces and to assess their impact on friendly operations. Mission planning applications support route assessment and provide the tools necessary to extract and integrate complete and accurate mission-specific route, target, and threat data for transfer to mission planning systems.

2.3.3 WING COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEM (WCCS). The WCCS is a database management system used to control and monitor wing operations during war, contingencies, and exercises which can be used on a daily basis to support training requirements. The accuracy and timeliness of this C2 information is key to successful mission accomplishment. For this reason, WCCS provides Commanders an improved operational capability through flexible, secure and NRT C2 information that provides the capability to transition quickly and effectively from peacetime to crisis/wartime operations. Information managed within WCCS is generated at the unit level by updating such items as runway condition, casualty reports, munitions expended, and aircraft maintenance status on remote terminals. This information can then be accessed by Commanders, battle staff members, and higher headquarters to make critical command decisions (Figure 2-6).

Figure 2-6 Wing Command and Control System

2.3.3.1 WCCS enhances sortie generation by providing the capability to identify all required resources in a timely manner and apply these resources as needed to fulfill tasking. It automatically receives and distributes higher headquarters mission tasking and changes to selected units. WCCS automatically produces a unit flying schedule, in minutes, using current data. This schedule is widely available to all WCCS users. Using an interface to the force level system CTAPS, WCCS will parse tasking orders based on subordinate unit assignments and then sort and display tasking by selected data elements. Resource availability to satisfy tasking, including air crews, aircraft, munitions, fuel, special instructions, general instructions and mission data will be widely available at any time to all WCCS users.

2.3.3.2 WCCS provides mission monitoring capabilities from tasking, receipt, planning, and allocation of resources through mission recovery to ensure maximum sortie rates are accomplished. All required unit functions provides NRT data to assist the decision making process. Preparation and distribution of detailed mission and mobility schedules throughout the wing provides subordinate units the ability to see changes as they occur and react to them in a timely manner.

2.3.3.3 The WCCS provides the capability to generate wing unique reports and briefing slides for all levels of reporting requirements. A future capability in WCCS will provide the identification and display of resource shortfalls and limiting factors, including the ability to generate and transmit adjustment requests to higher headquarters.

2.3.4 COMMAND AND CONTROL INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEM (C2IPS). The C2IPS provides automated data and message handling and decision support aids to improve Air Mobility Commandís C2 capability. The system is integrated command-wide and tailored for the specific C2 needs of the entire command structure from the Director of Mobility Forces to the Tanker Airlift Control Element (Figure 2-7). The C2IPS supports both fixed and deployed sites.

Figure 2-7 C2IPS Interface

2.3.4.1 The C2IPS tasks performed at each echelon are basically the same; varying in scope and intensity depending upon the level of conflict and the specific mission segment being supported.

2.3.4.2 The C2IPS provides an interface with the senior in-theater airlift C2 element, generally collocated with the AOC, for a two way exchange of operations related information. This information will include airlift tasking, cargo/passenger management, aeromedical evacuation, and logistics.

2.4 RELATED SYSTEMS. Although they are not under the official umbrella of the TBMCS program, the following equipment systems and software applications, play an integral part in planning, directing, and executing the air mission (Figure 2-8).

Figure 2-8 Related Systems

2.4.1 AIR FORCE MISSION SUPPORT SYSTEM (AFMSS). The AFMSS consists of computer-based tools to help aircrews conduct effective and timely pre-mission planning, mission updates, and post-mission debriefing. Hosted on a UNIX based system at the unit level, these tools are configured to support a broad range of mission needs and operational environments. This basic concept enables an aircrew to plan a basic mission and produce a Form 70 or its equivalent flight plan.

2.4.1.1 The AFMSS supports planning of air combat, air refueling, electronic combat, special operations, and airlift missions. It also supports a spectrum of missions ranging from simple day-to-day training and proficiency flying to peace-time operational/exercise sorties to complex operations supporting conventional or unconventional armed conflict.

2.4.1.2 The AFMSS performs mission planning for the Combat Air Forces (CAF), Air Mobility Command (AMC), and Special Operations Forces (SOF) aviation aircraft and weapons systems. Units will have various configurations and numbers of mission planners as determined by their aircraft type. AFMSS is aircraft specific for detailed mission planning and will not support diverted or off-station aircraft.

2.4.1.3 The AFMSS pre-mission functions are directed toward completion of the mission plan. AFMSS will produce a Major Command (MAJCOM)-tailored Combat Mission Folder (CMF), which is a set of printed maps, images, radar predictions, scene perspectives, and forms used by the aircrew for mission execution, and the transfer of aircraft/weapon initialization Data-to-data Transfer Device (DTD).

2.4.1.4 The mission update function supports a unique AMC and SOF aircraft capability to interface directly with the aircraft. This function uses inherent AFMSS capabilities to update the mission plan (e.g., re-optimize a route) based on changing threat scenarios or other operational considerations.

2.4.1.5 The AFMSS post-mission debriefing function will support extraction of aircraft maintenance and operational/intelligence data recorded in flight. Where desired, maintenance personnel will have the capability to recall and print various data lists from the aircraft avionics system via DTD and the AFMSS. Dedicated mission planning systems for maintenance data download functions are not envisioned, but rather maintenance personnel will use existing systems on a non-interference basis.

2.4.1.6 The AFMSS comprises two subsystems; the Mission Planning Subsystem (MPS) and the Portable Mission Planning Subsystem (PMPS). The exact hardware configuration may differ between different aircraft (i.e., different printers, different CPUs, different PMPS configurations).

2.4.1.6.1 The MPS is a multi-user system providing a broad range of mission planning capabilities for planners. It is used primarily at the unit level (wing and squadron) and will support in-garrison and deployed operations. A MPS typically consists of one to four planning stations (growth for six) with one text printer, one color printer for every two planning stations, removable secondary memory devices, one 3-1/2" floppy disk drive, one 5-1/4" floppy disk drive, and four loader/reader devices for DTD media. A single user configuration includes one planning station with the same peripherals (including one color printer) as the multi-user system. The loader/reader devices are interchangeable at the organizational level. The deployable MPS is packaged in rugged transit cases for mobility and rapid setup. The non-deployable MPS is transported via best commercial practices, when required.

2.4.1.6.2 The PMPS is a single user system providing a subset of mission planning capabilities. AMC and SOF crews will rely primarily on the PMPS to plan missions and input/update mission data to the aircraft directly. CAF will use the PMPS for initial deployment operations until the MPS arrives or when minimum planning tasks are required. It will consist of a "lap-top" style keyboard and screen, text and graphics printer, and loader/reader device (if required) and be capable of interfacing with the MPS.

For AMC, this system will interface directly to the aircraft MIL-STD-1553B bus. For the CAF, it will interface to the appropriate aircraft DTD. For SOF, this system will interface directly to the MIL-STD-1553B bus and to the appropriate aircraft DTD.

2.4.2 ADVANCED FIELD ARTILLERY TACTICAL DATA SYSTEM (AFATDS). The AFATDS is an Army/Marine developed system that provides the means for all echelons of command, from the field unit to corps level, to communicate with the AOC. The AFATDS provides the operator the capability to create, edit, or delete a Tactical Air Request List for each ATO planning phase and for the current situation. The AFATDS populates the Tactical Air Request List with AOC generated, operator selectable, target information on the plan-phase target list or the current situation target list. Field units will then be able to enter data into the Tactical Air Request List as necessary to update or change preplanned air requests. The AFATDS performs a duplication check of target entries on situation, as appropriate, when initiated by the operator. In order to support the JAOCís ATO mission priorities, the AFATDS provides "rationale for target" information in the target description. Targets specified in immediate air requests received through AFATDS will be automatically added to the plan-phase or current situation Tactical Air Request List as appropriate (i.e., if the request was submitted in the context of a plan-phase, the Tactical Air Request List for that plan phase would be updated.) The AFATDS operator will be able to receive, display, print, store, and sort the approved Joint Planned Integrated Target List (JPITL). The JPITL is internal to CTAPS and is used to correlate targets from all sources which will be used to formulate the ATO. The AFATDS has the capability to receive/display the ATO and ACO and generate appropriate updates to the ARFOR. This capability allows AFATDS to receive changes to the ATO and ACO in a timely manner.

2.4.2.1 When AFATDS searches for targets, the search area includes the area encompassed by an air corridor (if one is associated with the air mission) and a search distance (based on target type-distance pairings) from the perimeter of the air corridor.

2.4.2.2 If no air corridor has been established, the search area is based on target type-distance pairings from the flight route for the selected air mission.

2.4.3 JOINT MARITIME COMMAND INFORMATION SYSTEM (JMCIS). The JMCIS is the software development strategy program developed by the Navy to support rapid changes in user mission and operational requirements. It provides the necessary structure to support a JFACC afloat or ashore in a limited conflict or crisis situation in which planning for no more than 300 daily sorties is required. The program is structured to encourage technical interchange between the Navy and Air Force, sharing of applications tools and Government Off-The-Shelf (GOTS) products, and exploitation of commonality for training, logistics support, and system sustainment.

2.4.3.1 As with CTAPS, JMCIS is based on a COTS, open architecture, UNIX based operating environment that can host applications for a variety of customers. By using a COE based on an open architecture, the Navy has been able to share core JMCIS software among a wide range of users including the Air Force. The primary difference lies in the choice of equipment used to host the common software (Hewlett Packard versus Sun SPARC) and the applications tools used by the Navy.

2.4.3.2 JMCIS significantly enhances interoperability through the automatic parsing of the ATO and the ability to electronically pass information to the AOC.

SECTION 3 - OPERATIONS

3.1 GENERAL. In operations, the purpose of TBMCS is to simplify the planning process by decreasing the time required and increasing effectiveness. To the force commander, AOC planner, intermediate headquarters, or mission pilot this simplification means quicker access to meaningful intelligence information, more automation of the planning process through shared data bases and applications tools, and dependable communications to link them together. The concept of TBMCS is that when the individual systems are linked they will provide a seamless system that will accomplish this regardless of whether forces are Air Force only, US only, multi-national, in garrison or deployed.

3.2 ORGANIZATION. TBMCS are provided by a variety of Services and MAJCOMs. Forces assigned/augmenting the JFC will operate according to existing unified command structures or as otherwise directed by theater CINCs. Force planners can tailor AOC and supporting forces composition to meet each specific scenario by utilizing Quick Response Packages (QRP), , Limited Response Packages (LRP), and Theater Response Packages (TRP). The reachback requirements are primarily the same for all these packages, but the amount of deployed equipment and manpower will vary as required to meet the threat. During the five phases of meeting a MRC, readiness, deployment, employment, sustainment and redeployment, the capability and interoperability of the various core system will vary. Subsequent paragraphs will discuss these phases in more detail.

Figure 3-1 Notional Force Structure

3.3 BASING. The mobility and various configurations of TBMCS components will allow flexibility in selection of operating locations and employment. This capability will enhance the systemís utilization, survivability, and readiness. Specific beddown decisions will be made by theater commanders within their current infrastructures.

3.4 READINESS. TBMCS will be maintained in a state of readiness that will ensure that they are capable of responding in crisis situations. This readiness will be maintained through planning, training, and exercising forces under realistic conditions and equipping forces to meet the needs of theater commanders. Execution of the air mission requires rapid deployment, survivability, and sustainability. Readiness will be exercised through large scale missions such as Roving Sands and Blue Flag as well as smaller MAJCOM, NAF, and National Guard sponsored activities that will provide force and component level training and provide needed experience.

3.5 DEPLOYMENT. During the deployment phase, the AOC, ground forces, and flying units deploy forward; aircraft position for global and theater operations; and carrier battle groups or amphibious readiness groups sail to the AOR. If necessary, a bomber force from the CONUS may execute an initial attack in the AOR, followed by composite wing operations or carrier operations. The JFACC can expect to initially conduct operations from an existing base outside the AOR from an afloat location, or at a bare base location in the AOR. Until the AOC and advance support units (intelligence, weather, liaisons) arrive, the JFACC must direct and plan operations with information from reachback sources or threat information deployed on portable mission planning systems. JFACC planners require access to enroute and in-theater threats, i.e., enemy capabilities to disrupt movement and beddown and targeting information to guide the planning and deployment of operational forces to the AOR. Air Force composite wings and naval carrier air assets could be tasked to execute the ATO during the deployment of other operational forces to the AOR. If an established ground C2 system is not in place, initial attacks may be directed by airborne assets such as ABCCC or AWACS.

3.6 EMPLOYMENT. At the JFCís direction, the JFACC employs TBMCS to develop a campaign plan. During the initial, build-up, and sustainment phases of employment, employment concepts and C4I systems must be flexible enough to handle multiple and/or expanding contingency operations. Augmenting forces coming into the theater create an increased demand for mobility assets. Depending on the level of conflict and the phase of readiness in the theater, the ATO may be generated in theater or at a designated CONUS support location. Due to the heavy demands for information, C4I systems must possess the capacity to transmit, receive, and manipulate high volumes of data and information without saturation. Saturation would cause long delays in communication transmission and mission degradation. This capability must be possible in Joint operations, as the JFACC may be in another Service and using non-Air Force equipment

3.6.1 Initial Phase. During the initial phase, the primary concern will be to establish surveillance in the AOR in order to provide air superiority forces information needed for their missions. A C2 system capable of providing information from the force to the unit level must be set up. These systems may include existing in-theater assets and assets of other Services. A Quick Response Package will be deployed along with WCCS, AFMSS, and C2IPS equipment capable of creating an ATO for up to 300 sorties per day. In addition, theater deployable communications (communications hubs, long haul communications and reachback circuits) must be deployed. Approximately 500 persons will be required to man the TBMCS and approximately ten (10) C-141 equivalents will be required to deploy the initial package (not including support personnel and equipment).

3.6.2 Build-Up Phase. During this phase, the AOC will become the hub of TBMCS in the theater. Additional amounts of the core systemsí equipment will be deployed in order to provide the capability of producing an ATO for up to 1,000 sorties per day. Personnel requirements and communications requirements will double in order to support the additional surveillance requirements, reconnaissance missions, increased air superiority missions, and increased intelligence data flowing into the theater.

3.6.3 Sustainment Phase. Based on mission needs, the AOC may expand equipment and manpower in order to produce an ATO for up to 2,000 sorties per day. This would require nearly 1,500 persons dedicated to the TBMCS and at least 12 communications hubs and 3 long haul circuits. In addition, increased interoperability will be necessary as the Army Battlefield Coordination Detachment (using AFATDS), the Navy, and Marines become more active in the theater.

3.7 MISSION PROCESS. The goal of TBMCS is to provide a seamless C4I system to accomplish the various elements of the air mission. The JFACC team is working on various stages of three ATOs at one time with the goal to provide flying units an executable ATO 12 hours prior to the first takeoff. The following scenario describes a generic mission during the sustainment phase concentrating on the development and distribution of the ATO.

3.7.1 Initially, air objectives are developed from national guidance that define the campaign goals and the general priorities for developing target lists. Theater guidance is provided by the JFC and acted on by the Service components.

3.7.2 The ATO planning process begins with the Joint Guidance, Apportionment, and Targeting meeting chaired by the JFACC. After review of current JFC guidance, each component presents a prioritized target list and, after discussion, a draft Joint strategy, including targeting and apportionment of resources, is developed. The resulting Joint targeting list will be worked and finally approved by the JFC.

3.7.3 While TBMCS are instrumental in the development of the targeting list (i.e., intelligence, weather, resource availability information), they become vital at this point in the ATO cycle. Weapons systems experts and intelligence personnel in the AOC utilize CTAPS applications (Rapid Application of Airpower and Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual) to create target points and weapons loads.

3.7.4 The next step in the ATO cycle is the development of the Master Air Attack Plan (MAAP). The MAAP planners review all current JFC/JFACC guidance and the Joint targeting list. Using the application Rapid Application of Air Power (RAAP), the MAAP planners can plot and group targets to create attack packages and mission sequencing (i.e., electronic support, offensive counterair). Specific missions are also developed and the need for support missions such as intelligence collection and air refueling are identified and incorporated in the MAAP. The attack planners also compare apportionment to requirements and evaluate the type of aircraft slated against the missions and make adjustments as necessary to fulfill the targeting list requirements. In parallel with the attack planners, airspace planners are developing the ACO, and communications planners are developing a plan for ground/air/ground communications.

3.7.5 After the MAAP, DCA, ACO, and communications plans are finalized, the JFACC is briefed and the plan is approved with changes as necessary. After approval, MAAP worksheets are handed off to the ATO production team for input into the APS.

3.7.6 As the ATO production team inputs information into APS, they are also checking apportionment and allocation of missions to insure JFACC guidance is followed. They also address potentially confusing information in the Special Instructions (SPINS) that will be attached to the ATO. Finally, after approval, the ATO and ACO are transmitted to the units. Once the ATO is transmitted, it is no longer the responsibility of the ATO team.

3.7.7 Wings receive the ATO/ACO via CTAPS at the Wing Operations Center (WOC). The WOC mission planning element breaks out the applicable portions of the ATO and performs an analysis of the tasking with regard to unit capability. The WOC then parses the information to executing units via CTAPS remotes and, if necessary, prepares external requests identifying shortfalls in mission capability.

3.7.8 Flying units plan missions using aircraft specific modules in AFMSS by importing mission information such as contact points, target coordinates, controlling agencies and radio frequencies from the ATO. Even at this level, the planners have access to CIS information, current weather, weapons status, etc., to assist them in planning missions. At the same time, the maintenance element, intelligence element, logistics element, support element, and the duty officer element at the WOC are monitoring events and forwarding mission requirements to their subordinate units.

3.7.9 Mission results are updated in WCCS, which makes this information available at the AOC through CTAPS. This information is then passed to

JTL planners, who may need to add or delete targets in the next dayís MAAP.

3.7.10 C2 units are also preparing for missions by reviewing the ACO and ATO and executing the decentralized C2 of the air operations. In the AOC, Combat Operations receives the ATO and is responsible for coordinating

changes to the missions and working immediate requests for support.

Figure 3-2

Mission Process

3.8 FORCE STRUCTURE. The multiple elements of TBMCS may be used in a variety of configurations depending on the level of conflict and resources already in theater. USAF TBMCS will most likely be deployed in one of three configurations; quick response, limited response, or theater response. The size of the AOC required in an operation depends largely on the size, makeup, and distribution of the forces (surface, sea, and air) involved. QRP and LRP are deployed to support limited regional conflicts requiring planning and execution of from 300 to 1,000 sorties per day, respectively. TRP are deployed to support MRCs. Major equipment in an AOC includes 4 to 6 AN/TSQ-165 Modular Air Operations Centers (MAOCs), one AN/TYQ-23 Modular Control Equipment (MCE) Operations Module (OM), telephone and message switches, Super High Frequency (SHF) Ground Mobile Force Satellite Communications (GMFSATCOM) terminals, CTAPS workstations, and Ultra High Frequency/Very High Frequency/High Frequency (UHF/VHF/HF) radios, trucks, mobilizers and generators.

3.9 MANPOWER TBMCS manpower estimates are highly dependent on the level of deployment, the support provided in deployed locations, and CONUS support. For AOC response packages, manpower will vary in direct proportion to the operations and does not include support personnel such as food services. The force supporting a deployment for a single, integrated theater operation for a full AOC is approximately 1,500 personnel.

3.10 Future Concepts. In the future, information management will be the key to managing the battle space and forces. Multi-spectrum sensor and intelligence data will be collected and processed to provide knowledge to the warfighter, who in turn will apply that information to effectively execute their mission. The process will use open architecture COTS technologies that are secure and redundant to allow for continual improvement and interoperability. Commanders will be able to tailor this process to support the unique requirements of land, sea, and air forces by pulling information from the common database into unique applications

(Figure 3-3).

 

Figure 3-3 Future Concept

3.10.1 Transition. Migration from current capabilities necessitates a transition from stove-piped information systems to a joint and coalition common operating environment. Multiple non-interoperable data links must evolve into a joint data link system. Moreover, the decision making and mission execution process must be compressed by performing more functions in parallel rather than sequentially. By changing the information systems and redefining the processes, the Air Force will be able to overcome delays in providing shooters with near real time targets and the simultaneous authorization to engage those targets. The Air Force must transition from mostly non-fused sensor information to a completely fused and correlated sensor to C2 to shooter environment and from costly to less expensive and more robust systems. Sensors will provide battlespace data from sub-surface/sub-strata up to space. As old sensors are upgraded and new sensors acquired, attention must be paid to insure that they are fully compliant with the operating standards and evaluated for survivability, sensor effectiveness (coverage and fidelity), and life-cycle outlays as compared to the costs of alternative programs.

3.10.2 Fused System. Fusion will occur with reliable, credible information in seamless virtual databases. Information from all sensors will be fused, correlated and tailored for users on demand. Systems will be integrated and interoperable; information will be accurate, consistent, and shared between forces. A network of advanced air, space, and information systems will provide a comprehensive battlespace picture with precise location information in real time to planners, controllers, and shooters. This will allow enroute retasking, weapons assignment, targeting, and guidance. Collection will be enhanced as more information is shared--essentially making every system a sensor. Air, space, and information collection systems will be used to advance the detection and analysis of weapons of mass destruction--including chemical, biological, nuclear, and information warfare weapons. Remote sensors and distributed computer systems will be able to provide high volumes of fused and correlated information that is tailored for the decision-maker.

3.10.3 Command and Control. TBMCS, in its evolved format, will link the various organizational levels of command and control and execution as they relate to air operations. The fusion of stovepipe systems will enhance the execution of planning, intelligence, and operational functions in support of the JFACC through automated decision support tools and faster delivery of sensor information. The host equipment will be modular to build up or scale down capabilities by adding or deleting information sources, operating units, weapons available, participating services and allies, and dispersal requirements. As a result the personnel and C2 requirements in theater are likely to be significantly reduced as compared to the present.

3.10.4 Equipment. In order to equip future forces the Air Force must adopt certain strategies. Initially, changing the acquisition process to accommodate rapid changes in, acquisition of, and periodic refreshment of technology will ensure superiority in the battle management arena. At the same time, ensuring interoperability through technical standards, common operating environments, and agreements in principle among Services and allied nations will increase effectiveness and reduce systems costs. Since COTS equipment will set the standard for new capabilities, the government must be careful not to develop unique standards unless there is a specific mission need (e.g. security) to dictate that requirement. This will reduce cost and time in research and development efforts and the acquisition cycle. However, backwards-capability will be required as existing systems are improved or replaced to minimize the time to retrain specialists.

3.10.5 Risks. In the future, the Department of Defense will be even more vulnerable in many areas of battle management. Due to its dependence on electronic processing and transfer of information it may be particularly susceptible to information attack techniques, physical attacks against information systems, high energy and electro-magnetic pulse interference, and high-power microwave effects. Privatization, outsourcing, and the purchase of COTS equipment may introduce security vulnerabilities that have not yet been addressed. COTS equipment, in particular, may provide adversaries with the same capabilities as US forces and may enable them to access even secure sites.

SECTION 4 - COMMAND AND CONTROL RELATIONSHIP STRUCTURE

4.1 COMMAND AND CONTROL RELATIONSHIPS. Command and control relationships within the joint force structure depend on the situation and status of forces within the theater of operation. Regardless of whether it is war or peacetime, forces assigned/augmenting theater JFCs operate according to existing unified command structures. Elements of TBMCS are capable of deploying with the necessary infrastructure for C2 operations or integrating into an existing structure to provide the JFC the ability to conduct aerospace control, force application, force enhancement, and force support.

 

Figure 4-1 Joint Forces Organization

4.1.1 Peacetime. During peacetime, elements train, operate, and report to their component higher headquarters, as applicable. Elements augmenting military operations other than war (MOOTW) ( counternarcotics, humanitarian relief, etc.) operate under the deployed command structure.

4.1.2 Wartime. During wartime, the JFC designates commanders for specific areas. As the individual responsible for prosecuting the air campaign, the JFACC consolidates the efforts of all theater air forces and exercises Operational Control (OPCON) of assigned Service forces and Tactical Control (TACON) through Service component and coalition commanders of Joint/combined forces available for tasking. The TBMCS provide the JFACC with functional experts, communications, data transfer, and information management capabilities to create, distribute, and execute Operations Orders (OPORDS), ATOs, ACOs, and other applicable taskings. At each level of the command structure, personnel training, joint procedures and equipment capabilities allow for these actions to occur in any theater and support Joint and combined force structure. The AOC is the senior element of the JFACCís headquarters. The size and number of subordinate elements is dependent on the stage of build-up to wartime readiness and the number and type of units being deployed into the theater of operations.

4.2 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE The organizational structure can be comprised of numerous arrangements of TBMCS elements. In specific theaters, these elements may use different titles and perform many combinations of tasks as directed by the JFACC. As the situation evolves and transitions to wartime Rules of Engagement (ROE), the JFACC may delegate some aspects of C2 execution to lower, more time-responsive levels.

4.2.1 The JFC will normally designate subordinate commanders for land, sea, and air forces. The JFACC will consolidate the effort of all theater air resources in support of the JFCís objectives. Normally, the JFACC will be assigned to the Service component senior commander possessing the preponderance of air assets and the infrastructure necessary to prosecute the air war (i.e., ATO/ACO creation and dissemination capability).

SECTION 5 - INTELLIGENCE/SPACE SUPPORT

5.1 GENERAL. Initial intelligence information will be provided by overhead assets, processed outside the theater, and provided to the JFC via communications links. The CIS, as one of the TBM C4I core systems, provides a single, automated, standard Air Force intelligence system that rapidly receives, correlates, stores, and disseminates intelligence data from a large number of multi-disciplined sources in support of combat decision making, battle planning, and mission execution processes at both the component and unit levels. At the component level, CIS provides automated intelligence support to the AOC, ASOC, CRC, CRE and wing and unit command centers. At the unit level, CIS provides timely intelligence information to support decision making and combat mission planning and execution.

5.2 INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT.

5.2.1 TBMCS elements require intelligence support for all aspects of their missions. The systems residing primarily in the AOC require continuous intelligence data in support of the ATO planning and execution process performed by CTAPS applications. Intelligence information is also required by other AOC component representatives, such as the Armyís BCD, for support of Joint and combined operations. The system also requires intelligence reports for generation of threat warnings and electronic interference.

5.2.2 TBMCS elements receive intelligence products collected by a variety of sources; transmitted to common databases; analyzed, catalogued, and made available for downloading to users via available data links, SATCOM, and voice production nets. Real-time intelligence on air/ground/sea tracks may also be provided by other external sources, fused, and automatically distributed via data link.

5.2.3 Imagery support in the AOR is provided primarily by U-2 aircraft and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) through the Contingency Airborne Reconnaissance System (CARS) deployable ground station. CARS is a deployable system designed to receive, exploit, and disseminate intelligence data. The U-2/CARS link is a unique asset that provides day/night, all weather, NRT correlated reports and imagery to theater- and force-level commanders. The system consists of processing computers, communications systems, and various interfaces housed in air mobile, road-transportable vans. The system integrates multi-level security/multi-intelligence sources correlated processing and dissemination capability, Secondary Imagery Dissemination System (SIDS) interfaces, AOC interfaces through CTAPS and communications interfaces to worldwide intelligence consumers via point-to-point links and secure voice.

5.3 SPACE COMMAND SUPPORT. TBMCS require space assets to provide communications and intelligence gathering capabilities. US commercial satellites and Allied space capabilities will be required to augment primary DoD capabilities or replace them if DOD capabilities are lost or degraded. Space capabilities are a force multiplier, but at times these capabilities may be constrained by electromagnetic or environmental interference that the operator may not be able to overcome. The following functions are enhanced or provided in their entirety by space based assets.

5.3.1 Communications satellites provide a worldwide capability to communicate with all higher headquarters and subordinate forces, both US and Allied. This connectivity includes both voice and data transmission and is generally not susceptible to interference or interception in the send mode. Communications can be encrypted and contain the flexibility to operate among numerous frequency bands and systems. Limitations include orbital constraints, terminal and antenna size, solar activity and atmospheric irregularities.

5.3.2 Environmental Monitoring. Space systems, specifically the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), are one of the primary sources for near real time weather information.

5.3.3 Mapping, Charting and Geodesy (MC&G). This function provides supplemental information to forces on port conditions, rivet stages, and vegetation or other terrestrial and oceanographic features.

5.4.4 Indications and Warning. Detection and warning of enemy ballistic missile launches is essential information for commanders to appropriately plan and conduct passive missile defense, attack operations, active missile defense, and C4I actions.

SECTION 6 - SECURITY

6.1 GENERAL. TBMCS will be implemented and operated as a Secret high system and will be protected IAW the provisions of DOD 5200.1-R. Information and equipment will be protected at the level necessary to process and transmit data at the Secret classification through the continuous employment of safeguards. These safeguards consist of administrative, procedural, physical, operational, and/or environmental, personnel, communications security; emanations security; and computer security (i.e., hardware, firmware, network, and software), as required. The Designated Approving Authority (DAA) will be responsible for the overall security of the system .

6.2 CLASSIFICATION GUIDANCE. The elements of the TBMCS will operate in a variety of environments; in garrison and deployed overseas. The TBMCS will process data classified in the range of UNCLASSIFIED to SECRET, Special Category (SPECAT), NATO/NON-NATO, and Special Access Required (SAR) once the appropriate site accreditation is obtained. Security mechanisms are provided to prevent unauthorized disclosure of data and to minimize the risk of unauthorized modification or origination of data. When the system processes classified data such as threat locations, route of flight, and target information, the system is classified to the same level as the source data and will be handled IAW DOD 5200.1-R/AFR 205-1.

6.3 PHYSICAL SECURITY. The components of TBMCS are deployed to a variety of operational environments, ranging from secure vaults in CONUS to overseas bare base locations, and connected by a range of communications systems. Security for the system will depend on physical, administrative, personnel, and procedural controls. Systems will only be operated in areas where physical access can be controlled and visual access limited. When operating in areas that are not approved for secure open storage, approved storage containers must be available to protect classified information and equipment from tampering.

6.4 INFORMATION SECURITY. At a minimum, any DoD classified information will be protected according to the requirements contained in DoD 5200.1-R, Information Security Program Regulation and AFI 31-401, Managing the Information Security Program.

6.5 OPERATIONS SECURITY. At a minimum, core systems will comply with the requirements contained in AFPD 10-11, Operational Security (OPSEC), and AFI 10-1101, Operational Security Instruction. Also, through the program protection planning process (DoD Instruction 5000.2; Defense Acquisition Management Policies and Procedures, AFPD 31-7, Acquisition Security, and AFI 31-701, Program Protection Planning) operations security requirements will be identified. This process identifies a systemís critical elements, threats, and vulnerabilities and also details how the Air Force will protect the system throughout its life cycle. TBMCS will initially be made up of separately-accredited and networks. The Computer Systems Security Officer (CSR) is responsible for ensuring that all local and MAJCOM directives are met.

SECTION 7 - TRAINING

7.1 GENERAL. Training is the key to successful integration of TBMCS into Joint operations. TBMCS is involved in missions across the spectrum of conventional, nuclear, special operation roles, and operations other than war. The primary TBM core systems CTAPS and CIS (force and unit level systems), WCCS and C2IPS are essential for full exploitation of our capabilities to support the JFACC. Both the USAF and USMC use CTAPS and force level CIS. The Navy uses CTAPS without CIS (substituting Navy intelligence systems). The USA is currently a remote user of CTAPS (receiving the ATO and reporting information back to the host CTAPS user). Training at the force and unit levels is a complex task requiring mastery of task-specific functions and understanding of system interfaces.

New Site Start-up - Training provided in conjunction with the delivery of hardware and/or software to a new TBMCS installation.

Version/Software Release - Training which accompanies new versions or releases of the system. Also called difference or delta training. Provides experienced operators training in new capabilities or changes.

Basic - Training given to users during initial formal training. This training centers on how to use the TBMCS applications to perform the duties and responsibilities of their respective job specialties.

Familiarization - General orientation, an overview of the academic materials and software applications pertinent to AOC functions of operations, plans, intelligence, and system support.

Unit Upgrade - Initial Qualification Training (IQT) (Phase I) and Mission Qualification Training (MQT) (Phase II) conducted at the unit as directed by pertinent command regulations.

Unit Continuation/Sustainment - Continuation Training (CT) (Phase III) to maintain or raise the job proficiency level of operators as directed by pertinent command regulations.

Advanced - This training presents advanced concepts or the system of systems expertise stressing how the individual components interact with each other and support other systems.

Application Specific - This training is specific to a software application. It is intended to provide details on how to fully use the application.

Figure 7-1 TBMCS Training Types

7.2 FORMAL TRAINING. The fielding and operation of TBMCS will present a number of training challenges for the Air Forceís operations/training community. Each supporting Service and command will determine operational training requirements and provide the necessary training through formal courses or unit training. The large number of diverse personnel required to operate and maintain the core systems will require standardized, specialized training. Users of TBMCS encompass seven training audiences: schoolhouse instructors, operators, an experienced cadre, system support, augmentees (broad spectrum of backgrounds and experiences), senior officers and maintainers.

7.2.1 The seven training audiences will receive all or part of the following training, as applicable:

This training is provided in a formal setting with either certified instructors or highly trained unit personnel.

7.2.1.1 The TBMCS System Program Office (SPO), as part of the acquisition process, provides new site startup training, version/software release training, and application specific instruction.

7.2.1.2 AETC provides formal CIS training for all entry level Intelligence field personnel, as well as an upgrade CIS course for those Intelligence personnel not previously trained.

7.2.1.3 Augmentation Training. During large scale contingencies and major exercises, additional persons with specific job specialties may be required. These persons, while maintaining proficiency in their jobs, may need training in TBMCS such as CTAPS applications. This training may be provided by formal courses (USAF Air Ground Operations School) or by Computer Based Training (CBT) if only a rudimentary understanding is required.

7.3 CONTINUATION TRAINING. Experienced unit training personnel will provide system familiarization and task-specific follow-on training as necessary for personnel to maintain proficiency on TBMCS.

7.4 EXERCISE PARTICIPATION. Exercise training should be as realistic as possible. Large scale exercises such as Blue Flag should incorporate as many elements, either real or simulated, of TBMCS as possible to ensure that the scenarios task the system not only procedurally, but also in terms of time constraints, system errors, information flow rates and time delays inherent in an operational environment. Basic, unit upgrade, unit continuation and advanced training demand practical exercises to provide the best instruction possible.

SECTION 8 - LOGISTICS

8.1 GENERAL. TBMCS equipment is primarily supported by a two level maintenance concept. The equipment is designed for organizational level maintenance by Air Force personnel, contract civilian support, or manufacturer representatives, with no peculiar support equipment required. In lieu of depot level maintenance, equipment will be maintained by factory personnel in accordance with a COTS acquisition approach.

8.2 MAINTENANCE ENVIRONMENT.8.2.1 Basing. The TBMCS and associated support equipment must be capable of use worldwide and be fully qualified for mobility. The various elements of the system will operate from forward operating locations worldwide. Responsible Services and MAJCOMs will maintain the capability to deploy worldwide with complete sets of support equipment and appropriate personnel.

8.2.2 Electrical Power and Environmental Control. Typically, TBMCS components use electrical power and environmental control equipment provided to the facility in which it is employed. Backup uninterruptable power supplies should be used on critical components to insure that database information is not lost.

8.2.3 Weather. The TBMCS equipment may be utilized in climatic extremes ranging from high temperatures in arid regions, through frigid temperatures with associated ice and snow, to tropical climates with high relative humidity and excessive rainfall. Allowances will be built into the systems and support equipment to accommodate climatic extremes and prevent immediate and long-term degradation of the equipment (condensation, excessive heating, etc.). Due to the nature of the equipment, it is susceptible to lightning strikes, and personnel will require a mechanism to provide warnings of lightning in the local area.

8.2.4 Transportation. TBMCS are designed to make use of air mobility missions (i.e., primary mode of transportation from in-garrison to deployed locations via air). Vehicles are allocated for operational deployment of TBMCS components. Transportation for training or operational deployment from storage locations to embarkation cargo terminals and from debarkation cargo terminals to employment locations must be addressed in mobility plans in coordination with host and theater transportation activities. Transit case components may be transported by appropriate cargo vehicles.

8.2.5 Storage/Shelter. TBMCS components are packaged to provide environmental protection while in transit. When not in use, assets should be sheltered to prevent continuous exposure to the elements in a manner that allows for periodic inventory and testing of contents. When in use, components should be protected from excessive vibration, extreme temperatures, standing or dripping water, and condensation.

8.3 MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION. The TBMCS will be supported using organic maintenance. Each unit will be capable of deploying the necessary organizational structure to produce an appropriate in-commission rate in order to meet operational needs.

8.4 MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS. The TBMCS, equipment and subsystems, will be maintained using existing normal Service specialty codes. Specialized equipment may require contract maintenance or manufacturersí support.

ANNEX A

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

AADC Area Air Defense Commander

ABCCC Airborne Command and Control Center

ABCS Army Battlefield Command System

ABIT Airborne Imagery Technology

ACA Airspace Control Authority

ACC Air Combat Command

ACP Air Control Plan

ACO Airspace Control Order

AFATDS Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data Systems

AFB Air Force Base

AFSC Air Force Specialty Code

AFMSS Air Force Mission Support System

AGL Above Ground Level

AIG Air Intelligence Group

AMC Air Mobility Command

AOC Air Operations Center

AOR Area of Responsibility

ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency

AFSPACECOM Air Force Space Command

ART Armed Response Team

ASOC Air Support Operations Center

AT Advanced Technology

ATACCS Advanced Tactical /Air C2 System (Marine )

ATO Air Tasking Order

AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System

AWDS Automated Weather Distribution System

BCD Battlefield Coordination Detachment (Army)

BCR Baseline Change Request

BDA Battle Damage Assessment

BIT Built-In-Test

BNCC Base Network Control Center

BOS Base Operating Support

C2 Command and Control

C2IPS Command and Control Information Processing System

C4I Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence

CARS Contingency Airborne Reconnaissance System

CAT Crisis Action Team

CDL Common Data Link

CIC Combat Intelligence Center

CIS Combat Information System

CINC Commander-in-Chief

CLS Contractor Logistics Support

COCOM Combatant Command

COMAFFOR Commander, Air Force Forces

COMAFSPACE Commander, Air Force Space

COMARFOR Commander, Army Forces

COMJSOTF Commander, Joint Special Operations Task Force

COMMARFOR Commander, Marine Forces

COMNAVFOR Commander, Navy Forces

CONOPS Concept of Operations

CONUS Continental United States

COTS Commercial Off-the-Shelf

CRC Control and Reporting Center

CRE Control and Reporting Element

CSP Communication Support Processor

CT Continuation Training

CTAPS Contingency Theater Automated Planning System

CTOC Corps Tactical Operating Center

CW Composite Wing

CWOC Composite Wing Operations Center

DIA Defense Intelligence Agency

DISN Defense Information System Network

DO Deputy of Operations

DOD Department of Defense

DPG Defense Planning Guidance

DSNET3 Defense Secure Network 3

DSSCS Defense Special Security Communications System

EEI Essential Elements of Information

ELINT Electronics Intelligence

EMP Electromagnetic Pulse

EO Electro-Optical

EP Electronic Protection

ESC Electronic Systems Center

FAA Federal Aviation Administration

FACP Forward Air Control Post

FLEETSATCOM Fleet Satellite Communication

FLEX Force Levels Execution Support System

GCCS Global Command and Control System

GCE Ground Communications Element

GCS Ground Control Station

GMTI Ground Moving Target Indicator

GOTS Government-Off-The-Shelf

GPS Global Positioning System

GTACS Ground Theater Air Control System

HF High Frequency (3-30 MHz)

HUMINT Human Intelligence

IAW In Accordance WithICAO International Civil Aviation Organization

IFF Identification Friend or Foe

INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium

IPB Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield

IR Infrared

J2 Intelligence Directorate (Joint)

J3 Operations Directorate (Joint)

JAC Joint Analysis Center

JCMT Joint Collection Management Tool

JCS Joint Chief of Staff

JDISS Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System

JFACC Joint Force Air Component Commander

JFC Joint Force Commander

JFLCC Joint Force Land Component Commander

JFMCC Joint Force Maritime Component Commander

JIC Joint Intelligence Center

JMCIS Joint Maritime Command Information System

JPO Joint Program Office

JPT JFACC Planning Tool

JROC Joint Requirements Oversight Council

JSIPS Joint Service Imagery Processing System

JSTARS Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System

JTF Joint Task Force

JWICS Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communication System

LG Logistics Group

LIC Low Intensity Conflict

LOCE Linked Ops/Intel Centers Europe

LRE Launch and Recovery Element

LRP Limited Response Package

LRU Line Replaceable Unit

LSA Logistic Support Analysis

LSP Logistics Support Plan

MAAP Master Air Attack Plan

MAGTF Marine Air Ground Task Force

MASINT Measurement and Signals Intelligence

MB/S Megabyte/Second

MCE Modular Control Equipment

MILSATCOM Military SATCOM

MISSI Multi-Level Information Systems Security Initiative

MNS Mission Need Statement

MOB Main Operating Base

MOC Maintenance Operations Center

MOOTW Military Operations Other Than War

MPC Mission Planning Center

MRC Major Regional Conflict

MS Maintenance Squadron

MSS Mission Support System

NCA National Command Authority

NM Nautical Mile

NMJIC National Military Joint Intelligence Center

NRT Near Real Time

NSA National Security Agency

NSC National Security Council

OG Operations Group

OOTW Operations Other Than War

OPCON Operational Control

ORD Operational Requirements Document

OTH Over-the-Horizon

PMEL Precision Measurement Equipment Lab

QRP Quick Response Package

SPIN Special Instruction

SATCOM Satellite Communications

SE Support Element or Support Equipment

SHF Super High Frequency

SIGINT Signals Intelligence

SIOP Single Integrated Operational Plan

SRD Standard Reporting Designator

SRO Sensitive Reconnaissance Operations

SSM Surface-to-Surface Missile

STACCS Standard Theater Air C2 System (Army)

SysAd Systems Administration

TACS Tactical Air Control System

TADIX-B Tactical Data Information Exchange System

TBD To Be Determined

TBM Theater Battle Management

TBMCS Theater Battle Management Core Systems

TCTO Time Compliance Technical Order

TDC Theater Deployable Communications

TIBS Tactical Information Broadcast System

TMD Theater Missile Defense

TRAP Tactical Receive Equipment and Related Application Programs

TRP Theater Response Package

UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

UHF Ultra High Frequency (300 MHz - 3 GHz)

UPS Uninterrupted Power Supply

US United States

USACOM United States Atlantic Command

USTRANSCOM United States Transportation Command

VHF Very High Frequency (30-300 MHz)

VIMS Vehicle Information Management System

WCCS Wing Command and Control System

WG Wing

WICP Wing Initial Communications Center

WOC Wing Operations Center

WWMCCS World-Wide Military Command and Control System

ANNEX B

FUNCTIONS OF TACS ELEMENTS

Annex B is a summary of the functions of the individual elements of the TACS. The functions of the TACS elements directly support the JFACCís ability to plan, coordinate, and execute the air campaign.

TACS Element

Function

Centralized planning and control

  • JFACCís senior element within the theater for planning, tasking, and executing air power. Two main components:
  • Combat Plans plans operations over 24-72 hours and prepares next dayís ATO.
  • Combat Operations - monitors execution of the force and makes necessary adjustments to ongoing operations.
  • No organic sensors. Situation displays from remote sensors and information sources are being developed.
  • Interface with AWACS and ground-based CRC and is primary AF receiving point for Joint STARS data.
  • Establishes airspace management plan.
  • Coordinates across Joint and Allied lines with representatives from all Services and appropriate Allies.
  • Battlefield Coordination Detachment (BCD) provides direct Army liaison from Echelons Above Corps (EAC).*
  • Being modernized through the CTAPS (Contingency Theater Automated Planning System) Program.
  • *The BCD is formalized within the AOC, however, liaison elements of the Navy, Special Operation Forces, and Allied forces will be present as well.

    Air support planning and control

  • AF planning and tasking center provides offensive air power (Close Air Support: CAS) employment guidance to the Army Corps with which it is collocated.
  • Principal interface is the Corps G-2/G-3, particularly Corps G-3 Fire Support Element (FSE).
  • Primary mission is coordinating agency for employment of air power in support of the Corps.
  • May support Counterair by coordinating attacks on known or suspected missile sites within the Fire Support Coordination Line (FSCL).
  • Currently a manual facility, limited to no automation. Activities underway to automate the ASOC with CTAPS functionality.
  • Ground-based surveillance, command and control

  • Primary radar control and surveillance facility directly subordinate to the AOC.
  • Detects, tracks, identifies, and assigns weapons against aircraft and TMs as part of normal air defense activities.
  • A function with responsibilities to support both offensive and defensive air operations. Executed from the AN/TYQ-23 Modular Control System (MCS).
  • Provides surveillance, air traffic identification, and management of air defense activities within its Area of Interest (AOI).
  • Supports Joint STARS mission in support of land force maneuver objectives and Attack Operations role in Counterair.
  • Ground-based surveillance and control

    · Mobile radar control facility subordinate to a CRC.

    · Physically similar to the CRC (MCS).

    · Deployed into forward areas to provide aircraft control and surveillance or gap-filler radar coverage.

    · Extends the sensor/radar coverage of the CRC.

    Airborne command and control

    · Functions as an extension of ground based C2 authorities or as a "mini ASOC," receiving target nominations from Tactical Air Control Parties (TACPs), SOF elements, and other sources.

    · Facilitates execution of the ATO as directed by the AOC.

    · Deconflicts aircraft through procedural control.

    · Relays guidance and threat information to friendly aircraft.

    Airborne air surveillance and command and control

    · Provides real-time, all-weather surveillance, battle management, and weapons control.

    · Surveys from the earthís surface to altitudes above 100,000 feet at a range of over 200 miles.

    · Performs surveillance, control, battle management, and communications functions, including tracking by datalinks and communications relay via SATCOM (Satellite Communications). May function as an airborne CRC.

    · In the Counterair arena, the E-3 sensor and BM/C4I capabilities are being upgraded to better handle the TCT threat.

    Airborne ground surveillance and command and control

    · Joint Army/Air Force program to detect, locate, track, classify, and provide attack support against stationary and moving targets in the deep battlespace area.

    · Aids the Counterair mission by detecting and tracking TELs and associated vehicles en route to firing areas.

    · May be used to track TELs to reload sites, thus facilitating attacks on resupply locations.

    Unit level planning and execution.

    · Operations center for each flying unitís headquarters.

    · Translates the ATO (received via CTAPS) into specific missions/sorties executed by selected resources.

    · Performs mission planning for assigned missions.

    · Forwards mission results to force-level planners in the AOC to support future battle planning.

    ANNEX C

    REFERENCES

     

    Air Force Operational Security, AFPD 10-11.

    Information Security Program Regulation, DoD 5200.1-R.

    Information Operations, Air Force Basic Doctrine (DRAFT) 15 August 1995

    Managing the Information Security Program, AFI 31-401.

    Operational Security Instruction, AFI 10-1101.

    Air Force CONOPS for the Air Force Mission Support System (DRAFT) 1 March 1996

    C4I for the Warrior Concept June 1992

    Air Combat Command CONOPS for the Wing Command and Control System (DRAFT) 1 August 1996

    Air Combat Command CONOPS for Theater Deployable Comunications (DRAFT) 30 July 1996

    Air Combat Command Theater Battle Management Mission Area Plan 15 November 1995

    CTAPS Operator Technician Course Materials March 1996

    JMCIS Segment Description January 1996

    ANNEX D

    DISTRIBUTION

    HQ ACC HQ USAF HQ AMC

    CE (1) INX (1) DP (1)

    CG (1) XOO (1) IN (1)

    CR (1) XOX (1) DO (1)

    DO (2) RE (1) SC (1)

    DP (1) SG (1)

    DR (2) XO (1)

    FM (1) XP (1)

    HO (2) USTRANSCOM XR (1)

    IG (1) J-3 (1)

    IN (2) HQ AFSOC

    LG (2) USACOM DO (1)

    SC (2) J-3 (1) SC (1)

    SE (1)

    SG (1) USCENTCOM HQ PACAF

    SP (1) J-3 (1) DO (1)

    SV (1) IN (1)

    XP (6) USSOUTHCOM LG (1)

    J-3 (1) SC (1)

    XP (1)

    HQ 8 AF USEUCOM

    CC (2) J-3 (1)

    A1 (2 [1 to MO]) HQ USAFE

    A2 (1) USPACOM IN (1)

    A3/5 (4) J-3 (1) LG (1)

    A4 (1) SC (1)

    A6 (1) USSPACECOM XO (1)

    3 ASOG/CC (1) J-3 (1)

    HQ 9 AF AFSPACECOM

    CC (2) DO (1)

    A1 (2 [1 to MO])

    A2 (1) HQ AFRES

    A3/5 (4) CV (1)

    A4 (1) DO (1)

    A6 (1) FORSCOM

    18 ASOG/CC (1) 5 CCG/CC (1) J-3 (1)

    HQ 12 AF 23 CCG/CC (1) I CORPS

    CC (2) G-3 (1)

    A1 (2 [1 to MO]) 54 CCG/CC (1)

    A2 (1) III CORPS

    A3/5 (4) G-3 (1)

    A4 (1)

    A6 (1) XVIII ABN CORPS

    1 ASOG/CC (1) G-3 (1)