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Weapons Acquisition: Precision Guided Munitions in Inventory, Production,
and Development (Letter Report, 06/23/95, GAO/NSIAD-95-95).

Pursuant to a legislative requirement, GAO reviewed the military
services' acquisition of precision guided munitions (PGM), focusing on:
(1) the planned costs and quantities of PGM; (2) the services' rationale
for initiating PGM development programs; (3) available options to attack
surface targets with PGM; and (4) the extent of the services' joint
development and procurement of PGM.

GAO found that: (1) the services have bought or are developing over 33
types of PGM at a cost of about $58.6 billion; (2) the 19 PGM types in
inventory and production provide about 130,422 individual munitions at a
cost of about $30.4 billion and are used by the Air Force and Navy; (3)
the 14 PGM types in development have a combined estimated acquisition
cost of about $28.2 billion; (4) the services' rationale for the PGM
development programs include increasing the number of PGM, gaining
additional capability through technical improvements, and providing
interim capabilities until certain munitions are available; (5) some PGM
will use global positioning satellite technology to locate their
targets; (6) the 33 PGM types provide multiple options for countering
surface targets and some PGM can function against more than one target
class; and (7) the Navy and Air Force have participated in joint PGM
development programs, but they do not plan to buy some PGM currently
under development.

--------------------------- Indexing Terms -----------------------------

 REPORTNUM:  NSIAD-95-95
     TITLE:  Weapons Acquisition: Precision Guided Munitions in 
             Inventory, Production, and Development
      DATE:  06/23/95
   SUBJECT:  Advanced weapons systems
             Weapons research
             Research and development
             Military procurement
             Military inventories
             Missiles
             Munitions
             Warfare
             Defense capabilities
IDENTIFIER:  High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile
             Joint Direct Attack Weapon
             Multiple Launch Rocket System
             MLRS
             Army Tactical Missile System
             Brilliant Anti-Armor Submunition
             AGM-142 Missile
             HAVE NAP Missile
             Standoff Land Attack Missile
             SLAM-Expanded Response Missile
             Tri-Service Standoff Attack Missile
             Harpoon Missile
             B-52 Aircraft
             Maverick Missile
             GBU-10 Munition
             GBU-12 Munition
             GBU-24 Munition
             Joint Standoff Weapon
             JSOW/Unitary Munition
             NAVSTAR Global Positioning System
             GPS
             
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Cover
================================================================ COVER


Report to Congressional Committees

June 1995

WEAPONS ACQUISITION - PRECISION
GUIDED MUNITIONS IN INVENTORY,
PRODUCTION, AND DEVELOPMENT

GAO/NSIAD-95-95

Precision Guided Munitions


Abbreviations
=============================================================== ABBREV

  AGM - Air-to-ground Guided Missile
  APAM - Anti-personnel, anti-materiel
  ATACMS - Army Tactical Missile System
  BAT - Brilliant Anti-Armor Submunition
  CALCM - Conventional Air-Launched Cruise Missile
  EFOG-M - Enhanced Fiber Optic Guided Missile
  GAM - Global Positioning System Aided Munition
  GBU - Guided Bomb Unit
  GPS - Global Positioning System
  HARM - High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile
  INS - Inertial Navigation System
  JDAM - Joint Direct Attack Missile
  JSOW - Joint Standoff Weapon
  MLRS - Multiple Launch Rocket System
  OSD - Office of the Secretary of Defense
  P\3 I - Preplanned product improvement
  PGM - precision guided munition
  SADARM - Sense and Destroy Armor Munition
  SFW - Sensor Fuzed Weapon
  SLAM - Standoff Land Attack Missile
  SLAM-ER - SLAM-Expanded Response
  TASM - Tomahawk Anti-Ship Missile
  TBIP - Tomahawk Baseline Improvement Program
  TLAM - Tomahawk Land Attack Missile
  TSSAM - Tri-Service Standoff Attack Missile

Letter
=============================================================== LETTER


B-260458

June 23, 1995

Congressional Committees

The military services are spending billions of dollars to acquire new
and improved munitions whose technical sophistication allows guidance
corrections during their flight to the target.  These weapons are
referred to as precision guided munitions (PGM).  We reviewed Air
Force, Navy, and Army munitions programs in inventory, production,
and development that could be defined as using precision guidance to
attack surface targets.\1 Our objectives were to determine (1) the
costs and quantities planned for the PGMs, (2) the services rationale
for initiating PGM development programs, (3) options available to the
services to attack surface targets with PGMs, and (4) the extent to
which the services are jointly developing and procuring PGMs.  We
conducted this work under our basic legislative responsibilities and
plan to use this baseline report in planning future work on
Defense-wide issues affecting the acquisition and effectiveness of
PGMs.  We are addressing the report to you because we believe it will
be of interest to your committees. 


--------------------
\1 Surface PGM targets can be classified as either mobile, fixed, or
on the surface of the sea.  Targets may be further classified
according to whether or not they are specially protected with armor
or concrete or emit heat, light, or radar signatures. 


   BACKGROUND
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :1

PGMs employ various guidance methods to enhance the probability of
hitting the target.  These include target location information from a
human designator, global positioning system (GPS) satellites, an
inertial navigation system, a terminal seeker on the munition, or a
combination of these sources.  Since PGMs can correct errors in
flight, the services expect to need fewer rounds to achieve the same
or higher probabilities of kill as unguided weapons.  Additionally,
the services expect PGM accuracy and lethality to reduce the number
of launch platforms and soldiers required to counter specific
targets.  PGMs that can be launched outside the targets' defenses
(i.e., with a standoff capability) could enhance the survivability of
the launch platforms and personnel.  Some PGMs, such as the
High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM), are optimized for a
particular target (radar emitters); others, such as the Joint Direct
Attack Munition (JDAM), can be used against a wider variety of
targets, such as buildings and tanks. 

In selecting munitions for review, we considered only munitions that
(1) are surface-to-surface, indirect fire weapons or are
air-to-surface weapons and (2) have a nominal standoff from their
launching platform of about 5 nautical miles or more.  The munitions
selected are not the total universe of precision guided munitions but
are those that, in our judgment, represented the substantial majority
of the services' PGM investment and capability. 


   RESULTS IN BRIEF
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :2

The military services have bought or are developing for future
procurement 33 PGM types with over 300,000 individual precision
munitions to attack surface targets.  The services estimate that when
planned development and procurement are complete, the United States
will have invested about $58.6 billion (then-year dollars) in the 33
PGM types.  The 19 munition types in inventory and production provide
about 130,422 individual munitions at a cost of about $30.4 billion. 
They are carried on Air Force bombers and fighters and on Navy
fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, and ships.  The 14 munition types
in development have a combined estimated acquisition cost of about
$28.2 billion and quantities of about 174,446.  In addition to the
Air Force and Navy platforms cited above, some of these munitions are
to be launched from Army platforms, such as the Multiple Launch
Rocket System launcher.  The developmental munitions are expected to
reach first capability (i.e., when the services plan to begin
fielding them) between 1996 and 2004.  Figure 1 shows the allocation
of quantities by service in inventory, production, and development. 

   Figure 1:  Munitions Quantities
   by Service

   (See figure in printed
   edition.)

The services have initiated PGM development programs both to increase
the number of PGMs and to gain additional capability through
technical improvements, such as the addition of guidance information
from GPS satellites, autonomous target acquisition, and standoff
range.  For example, the JDAM, a joint development by the Air Force
and the Navy, is expected to provide the services with an additional
74,000 PGMs.  JDAM will incorporate GPS technology with existing
1,000 and 2,000 pound dumb bombs to allow the munitions to guide
themselves to the target area.  Similarly, the Army Tactical Missile
System (ATACMS) with the Brilliant Antiarmor Submunition (BAT) is
expected to provide Army forces with 1,806 missiles for attacking
targets in the deep battle arena.  The missile will use GPS
technology to locate the target area while the submunitions will use
acoustic, infrared and millimeter wave technology to locate specific
targets. 

The services have also acquired PGMs to provide an interim
capability.  As an illustration, Navy and Air Force officials stated
they originally planned only small procurements of AGM-142 (Have
Nap), the Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM), and the SLAM-Expanded
Response (SLAM-ER) because they were interim systems to the
Tri-Service Standoff Attack Missile (TSSAM).  When procurement and
development are complete, the Air Force and the Navy estimate they
will have spent about $1.9 billion and will have 897 munitions--130
AGM-142s, 700 SLAM-ERs, and 67 SLAMs.\2 According to a Navy official,
the SLAM and SLAM-ER could also be deployed on Air Force aircraft
that use the Harpoon missile.  The Air Force currently uses the
Harpoon on its B-52 bombers; therefore, it may be possible to
integrate SLAM and SLAM-ER on Air Force bombers.  However, the Air
Force did not buy any of the SLAM missiles nor according to Navy and
Air Force officials does it plan to purchase the SLAM-ER. 

The 33 PGM types provide the services with multiple options for
countering targets in the five air-to-surface and surface-to-surface
target classes, as shown in table 1.  The total for all target
classes exceeds 33 because 26 of the 33 PGM types have capabilities
in more than one target class. 



                                     Table 1
                     
                      Number of PGM Options by Target Class
                     for Munitions in Inventory, Production,
                                 and Development


                   Examples of                                Developmen
Target class       targets             Inventory  Production           t   Total
-----------------  -----------------  ----------  ----------  ----------  ======
Mobile hard        Tanks, artillery,           6           1           8      15
                    armored
                    personnel
                    carriers
Mobile soft        Trucks, vans,               2           3           8      13
                    mobile missile
                    launchers,
                    unprotected
                    personnel,
                    motorized
                    transport
                    vehicles
Fixed hard         Bridges, port               7           5           6      18
                    facilities,
                    hardened
                    aircraft
                    shelters,
                    underground
                    command posts,
                    bunkers
Fixed soft         Factories and               9           4           9      22
                    manufacturing
                    sites, general
                    purpose
                    buildings,
                    roads, rail
                    yards
Maritime surface   Ships at sea                5           2           5      12
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Navy and the Air Force have jointly procured PGMs and are
currently participating in joint development programs.  For example,
the Navy and the Air Force have bought variants of the Air
Force-developed Maverick and the Guided Bomb Units (GBU) 10, 12, and
24.  The Air Force bought both the Navy-developed HARM and Harpoon
missile.  We note that the Air Force and the Navy are participating
in two congressionally directed joint developments--JDAM and the
Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW).  We also observe, however, that even
though JDAM and JSOW are joint programs, the Navy does not plan to
buy the JDAM product improvement nor does the Air Force plan to buy
the JSOW/Unitary variant.  Office of the Secretary of Defense and
military service officials informed us that current budgetary
constraints have encouraged them to more fully consider joint
development and procurement. 

Appendix I provides details of acquisition cost, production unit
cost, and quantities for the 33 PGM types; the PGM types planned for
various platforms; and the specific munition options for countering
targets in the five surface target classes.  Appendix II provides a
brief description of the 33 munitions and program data. 


--------------------
\2 The quantities for these or other PGMs may increase because the
TSSAM program is being terminated due to significant development
difficulties and growth in its expected unit cost. 


   AGENCY COMMENTS AND OUR
   EVALUATION
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :3

In commenting on a draft of this report, the Department of Defense
stated that because the report does not contain findings,
conclusions, or recommendations, it was not taking a position on the
report but did note the report's contribution to the overall
database.  The Department commented that the scope of the report was
broad, it addresses weapons programs from the Vietnam War into the
21st century, and during this period budgets, priorities, missions,
and threats all have seen change.  Therefore, any conclusions drawn
by comparison of various programs, to be valid, would have to be done
carefully to reflect changing conditions. 

We agree that the development and production of the 33 PGM types
extend over a long period of time and changes have occurred since
some of the munitions in inventory were initially acquired.  However,
all of the PGM types in inventory that we reviewed are still in the
active inventory.  The first capability dates are included in the
program data in appendix II.  The Department's comments are included
in appendix IV. 


---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :3.1

Appendix III sets forth the scope and methodology of our work.  We
are sending copies of this report to the Secretaries of Defense, the
Army, the Navy, and the Air Force; and the Director, Office of
Management and Budget.  We will also make copies available to others
upon request. 

Please contact me at (202) 512-4841 if you or your staff have any
questions concerning this report.  Major contributors to this report
are listed in appendix V. 

Louis J.  Rodrigues
Director, Systems Development
 and Production Issues

List of Committees

The Honorable Strom Thurmond
Chairman
The Honorable Sam Nunn
Ranking Minority Member
Committee on Armed Services
United States Senate

The Honorable Ted Stevens
Chairman
The Honorable Daniel K.  Inouye
Ranking Minority Member
Subcommittee on Defense
Committee on Appropriations
United States Senate

The Honorable Floyd D.  Spence
Chairman
The Honorable Ronald V.  Dellums
Ranking Minority Member
Committee on National Security
House of Representatives

The Honorable C.W.  Bill Young
Chairman
The Honorable John P.  Murtha
Ranking Minority Member
Subcommittee on National Security
Committee on Appropriations
House of Representatives


PRECISION GUIDED MUNITIONS
ACQUISITION
=========================================================== Appendix I

The services have bought or plan to develop and buy over 300,000
individual munitions to defeat surface targets.  The 33 precision
guided munition (PGM) types we reviewed provide the services with
multiple options for defeating targets in each of five target
classes--mobile hard, mobile soft, fixed hard, fixed soft, and
maritime surface.  The services have initiated PGM development
programs, both to increase the number of PGMs and to gain additional
capability through technological improvements. 


   PGM QUANTITIES AND COST
--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix I:1

According to Department of Defense estimates, the 33 PGM types
included in our review represent an investment of about $58.6 billion
in then-year dollars.  Table I.1 provides acquisition cost,
production unit cost, and quantities for the munitions programs in
our evaluation and table I.2 provides platform information. 



                                    Table I.1
                     
                     Precision Guided Munitions: Acquisition
                         Cost, Production Unit Cost, and
                                    Quantities

                               (Then-year dollars)

                                                    Acquisit
                                                    ion cost
                                                    (dollars
                                                          in  Producti
                                                    millions   on unit
Systems                               Service              )      cost  Quantity
------------------------------------  ------------  --------  --------  --------
Systems in inventory
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Conventional Air-Launched Cruise      Air Force           \a        \a        \a
 Missile (CALCM)
Guided Bomb Unit-10 (GBU-10)          Air Force     $271.34\   $23,700    11,329
                                       and Navy            b
Guided Bomb Unit-12 (GBU-12)          Air Force     620.23\b    19,000    32,636
                                       and Navy
Guided Bomb Unit-15 (GBU-15)          Air Force       774.50   207,651     2,823
Guided Bomb Unit-24 (GBU-24)          Air Force     729.14\b    55,600    13,114
                                       and Navy
Guided Bomb Unit-27 (GBU-27)          Air Force     176.72\b    55,000     3,213
Harpoon                               Navy and Air  3,203.00   474,609     6,073
                                       Force
High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile     Navy and Air  6,212.60   283,985    19,607
 (HARM)                                Force
Maverick D/G                          Air Force     3,063.50   122,230    23,689
Maverick E/F                          Navy            653.00   152,491     4,115
Penguin                               Navy            241.70  1,566,00       101
                                                                     0
Tomahawk Anti-Ship Missile (TASM)     Navy          1,860.80  2,553,00       593
                                                                     0
Walleye                               Navy            372.00    92,188     3,200
================================================================================
Subtotal                                            18,178.5             120,493
                                                           3

Systems in production
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Air-to-Ground Guided Missile-130      Air Force       635.96   884,279       502
 (AGM-130)
Air-to Ground Guided Missile-142      Air Force       200.70  1,020,00       130
 (AGM-142, Have Nap)                                                 0
Guided Bomb Unit-28 (GBU-28)          Air Force        18.20   145,600       125
Sensor Fuzed Weapon (SFW)             Air Force     1,827.10   319,880     5,000
Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM)   Navy          1,138.80  1,378,00       767
                                                                     0
Tomahawk Land Attack Missile C/D      Navy          8,426.80  2,115,00     3,405
 (TLAM)                                                              0
================================================================================
Subtotal                              1             2,247.56         9      ,929

Systems in development
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Air-to-Ground Guided Missile-130C     Air Force      11.50\c        \c        \c
 (AGM-130C)
Army Tactical Missile System Block    Army            828.30   915,000       800
 IA (ATACMS Block IA)
Army Tactical Missile System Block    Army          3,979.30  2,200,00     1,206
 II/Brilliant Anti-armor Submunition                                 0
 (ATACMS Block II/BAT/BAT P\3I)
Army Tactical Missile System Block    Army          1,312.36  1,478,96       600
 IIA/Brilliant Anti-armor                                            7
 Submunition Preplanned Product
 Improvement (ATACMS
 Block IIA/BAT P\3I)
Enhanced Fiber Optic Guided-Missile   Army          289.70\c        \c     300\c
 (EFOG-M)
Global Positioning System Aided       Air Force        29.60   231,250       128
 Munition (GAM)
Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)   Air Force     4,650.60    56,141    74,000
                                       and Navy
Joint Direct Attack Munition Product  Air Force      76.50\d        \d   5,000\d
 Improvement Program
 (JDAM PIP)
Joint Standoff Weapon/Baseline        Navy and Air  3,327.60   246,585    11,800
 (JSOW)                                Force
Joint Standoff Weapon/BLU-108 (JSOW/  Navy and Air  2,033.50   429,929     4,200
 BLU-108)                              Force
Joint Standoff Weapon /Unitary        Navy          5,608.30   661,013     7,800
 (JSOW/Unitary)
Sense and Destroy Armor Munition      Army          2,937.40    35,063    73,612
 (SADARM)
Standoff Land Attack Missile-         Navy            550.30   511,428     700\e
 Expanded Response
 (SLAM-ER)
Tomahawk Baseline Improvement         Navy          2,578.60  1,552,00   1,181\e
 Program (TBIP)                                                      0
================================================================================
Subtotal                                            28,213.5             174,446
                                                           6
================================================================================
Total                                               $58,639.             304,868
                                                          65
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\a Cost information and quantity are classified. 

\b Cost includes only production; development cost was not available. 

\c Acquisition cost information for AGM-130C and EFOG-M includes
developmental cost only.  The Air Force does not plan to procure the
AGM-130C and the 300 EFOG-Ms the Army plans to acquire are part of an
advanced concept technology demonstration. 

\d The Air Force did not provide complete cost for the JDAM product
improvement because the seeker technology has not been decided. 
However the Air Force has programmed $76.5 million through fiscal
year 2001 for the program.  Also, quantities for the product
improvement are not included in the total because 5,000 of the
baseline JDAMs will be equipped with the terminal seeker. 

\e Quantities for SLAM-ER and TBIP are not included in the total
because these munitions are improvements and remanufacture of
existing SLAMs and Tomahawks. 



                                    Table I.2
                     
                          Platforms and Their PGM Types

Platform            PGM types
------------------  ------------------------------------------------------------
Air Force aircraft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
B-52                AGM-142, CALCM, GBU-10, GBU-12, Harpoon, JDAM, JDAM-PIP, SFW

B-1                 JDAM, JDAM-PIP, JSOW/Baseline, JSOW/BLU-108, SFW

B-2                 GAM, JDAM, JDAM-PIP, SFW

F-4                 HARM, Maverick

F-15                AGM-130, GBU-10, GBU-12, GBU-15, GBU-24, GBU-28, JDAM, JDAM-
                    PIP, JSOW/Baseline, JSOW/BLU-108, Maverick, SFW

F-16                GBU-10, GBU-12, GBU-24, HARM, JDAM, JDAM-PIP, JSOW/
                    Baseline, JSOW/BLU-108, Maverick, SFW

F-22                JDAM

F-111               AGM-130, GBU-10, GBU-12, GBU-15, GBU-28, SFW

F-117               GBU-10, GBU-12, GBU-27, JDAM, JDAM-PIP

A-10                GBU-10, GBU-12, GBU-24, Maverick, SFW


Navy aircraft
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
F/A-18              GBU-10, GBU-12, GBU-24, HARM, Harpoon, JDAM, JSOW/Baseline,
                    JSOW/BLU-108, JSOW/Unitary, Maverick, SLAM, SLAM-ER, Walleye

F-14                JDAM, GBU-10, GBU-12, GBU-24

AV-8                JDAM, JSOW/Baseline, JSOW/BLU-108, JSOW/Unitary, Maverick

A-6                 GBU-10, GBU-12, GBU-24, HARM, Harpoon, Maverick, SLAM, SLAM-
                    ER, Walleye

A-7                 GBU-10, GBU-12, Maverick

P-3                 Harpoon, JDAM, JSOW/Baseline, JSOW/BLU-108, JSOW/Unitary,
                    Maverick

S-3                 Harpoon, JDAM, JSOW/Baseline, JSOW/BLU-108, JSOW/Unitary

SH-60               Penguin

Navy ships          Harpoon, TASM, TLAM/C/D, TBIP

Navy submarines     TASM, TLAM/C/D, TBIP


Army weapons/vehicles
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
155-mm Howitzer     SADARM

MLRS                ATACMS Block IA, ATACMS Block II/BAT/BAT P\3I, ATACMS Block
                    IIA/BAT P\3I

HMMWV               EFOG-M
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


   PGM TARGET OPTIONS
--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix I:2

The services have multiple options for countering targets in the five
target classes.  In addition to having different munitions to attack
the same target classes, many munitions have capabilities against
more than one target class. 

To illustrate the services' options, the Air Force could use either
the Maverick missile or guided bomb units (GBU) 10, 12, 24, or
27--already in inventory--to attack targets in the mobile hard target
class.  In addition, the Air Force is now producing the Sensor Fuzed
Weapon, which is also used to attack armored vehicles.  The Navy
could use either the Maverick missile or Walleye bomb in its
inventory to attack mobile armor targets.  For additional capability
to counter targets in this class, the Air Force is developing the
JDAM and its improvement and an interim munition for the B-2, the
Global Positioning System Aided Munition; the Navy is developing the
JSOW with an antiarmor submunition (BLU-108); the Army is developing
the Army Tactical Missile (ATACMS) with the Brilliant Antiarmor
Submunition (BAT) and improvements to ATACMS and BAT, the Sense and
Destroy Armor Munition (SADARM) and the Enhanced Fiber Optic Guided
Missile (EFOG-M).  Table I.3 provides a summary of the services'
options by target class. 



                                    Table I.3
                     
                        Munition Options by Target Classes

Target
class        Inventory           Production          Development
-------  --  ------------------  ------------------  ---------------------------
Mobile       Maverick            SFW                 ATACMS Block II/BAT/BAT
hard         GBU-10                                  P\3I
             GBU-12                                  ATACMS Block IIA/BAT P\3I
             GBU-24                                  EFOG-M
             GBU-27                                  GAM
             Walleye                                 JDAM
                                                     JDAM Product Improvement
                                                     JSOW/BLU-108
                                                     SADARM

Mobile       Maverick            AGM-142             ATACMS Block IA/APAM
soft         GBU-15              SFW                 ATACMS Block II/BAT/BAT
                                 TLAM                P\3I
                                                     ATACMS Block IIA/BAT PI
                                                     GAM
                                                     JDAM
                                                     JDAM Product Improvement
                                                     JSOW/Baseline
                                                     JSOW/BLU-108

Fixed        Maverick            AGM-130             GAM
hard         GBU-10              AGM-142             JDAM
             GBU-12              GBU-28              JDAM Product Improvement
             GBU-15              TLAM                JSOW/Unitary
             GBU-24              SLAM                SLAM-ER
             GBU-27                                  TBIP
             Walleye

Fixed        Maverick            AGM-130             ATACMS Block IA/APAM
soft         CALCM               AGM-142             ATACMS Block IIA/BAT P\3I
             GBU-10              TLAM                GAM
             GBU-12              SLAM                JDAM
             GBU-15                                  JDAM Product Improvement
             GBU-24                                  JSOW/Baseline
             GBU-27                                  JSOW/Unitary
             HARM                                    SLAM-ER
             Walleye                                 TBIP

Maritim      Maverick            AGM-142             GAM
e            Harpoon             SLAM                JDAM
surface      Penguin                                 JSOW/Unitary
             TASM                                    SLAM-ER
             Walleye                                 TBIP
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PRECISION GUIDED MUNITIONS FACT
SHEETS
========================================================== Appendix II

The fact sheets provide information about the munitions we reviewed. 
They are arranged in alphabetical order.  An introductory paragraph
briefly describes the munition and specific program information is
provided in a summary format.  Several munitions have multiple
configurations that we combined under their common name.  For
example, the three Tomahawk configurations--the Tomahawk Anti-Ship
Missile, the Tomahawk Land Attack Missile, and the Tomahawk Baseline
Improvement Program--are all found in the section entitled
"Tomahawk."

Rather than listing specific targets for each munition, we have
listed generic targets described in the Conventional Munitions Master
Plan.  Mobile hard targets include tanks, artillery, and armored
personnel carriers; mobile soft targets include trucks, vans, mobile
missile launchers, unprotected personnel, and motorized transport
vehicles.  Fixed hard targets include bridges, port facilities,
hardened aircraft shelters, underground command posts, and bunkers;
fixed soft targets include factories and manufacturing sites, general
purpose buildings, roads, and rail yards.  Maritime surface targets
are ships at sea. 

All development, production and total acquisition costs are in
then-year dollars.  Acquisition and production unit costs are
averages of the totals reported. 


   AIR-TO-GROUND GUIDED
   MISSILE-130
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:1

The Air-to-Ground Guided Missile-130 (AGM-130) is a powered version
of the Guided Bomb Unit-15 munition.  The munition allows the
aircraft to remain at a distance from the target and uses
man-in-the-loop guidance with either a television or infrared seeker
and a 2,000-pound general purpose warhead.  A further improvement,
AGM-130C, developed, but not produced by the Air Force, adapts the
munition to a 2,000-pound penetrating warhead. 


      PROGRAM DATA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:1.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force

Program status      Production

Mission             Offensive counter air, close air
                    support/interdiction, suppression of
                    enemy air defenses, naval anti-surface
                    warfare

Targets             Fixed hard, fixed soft

Platforms           F-15E, F-111

First capability    1994

Guidance method     TV and infrared

Range               Greater than 15 nautical miles

Quantity\a          502

Development cost\b  $192.048 million

Production cost     $443.908 million

Total acquisition   $647.47 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $1.27 million
cost

Production unit     $884,279
cost\a
------------------------------------------------------------
\a The Air Force had planned to buy about 4,048 kits.  However, that
number was reduced to about 2,300 units and for fiscal year 1995 was
further reduced to 502.  The Air Force never awarded a full-rate
production contract and the production unit cost of the munition rose
from an estimated $261,500 to $884,279. 

\b The cost is for the AGM-130 only.  Air Force reports development
cost for the AGM-130C at $11.513 million.  We did not provide a
separate fact sheet for the improvement because the Air Force did not
indicate plans to extend development or procure hardware. 


   AIR-TO-GROUND GUIDED
   MISSILE-142
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:2

The Air-to-Ground Guided Missile-142 (AGM-142), also known as Have
Nap, provides the Air Force with a precision man-in-the-loop
capability for the B-52H to attack high value, fixed targets from
standoff ranges.  The munition's data link provides for single
aircraft operation or the munition's guidance may be turned over to a
second aircraft allowing the first aircraft to leave the area.  The
Israeli-developed AGM-142 can be configured with a 750-pound blast
fragmentation or a 770-pound penetration warhead.  The munition uses
either a television or imaging infrared seeker. 


      PROGRAM DATA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:2.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force

Program status      Production

Missions            Offensive counterair, interdiction,
                    suppression enemy air defense, naval
                    anti-surface warfare

Targets             Mobile soft, fixed hard, fixed soft,
                    maritime surface

Platforms           B-52H

First capability    1992

Guidance method     Television and imaging infrared (man-
                    in-the-loop)

Range               Greater than 15 nautical miles

Quantity            130

Development cost    $67.6 million

Production cost     $133.1 million

Total acquisition   $200.7 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $1.54 million
cost

Production unit     $1.02 million
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


   ARMY TACTICAL MISSILE SYSTEM
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:3

The Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) is the Army's deep fire
system to provide a nearly all-weather, day or night, precision
strike capability.  The Army is developing three ATACMS variants that
use the Global Positioning System (GPS).  Another variant is already
in production but does not have GPS guidance.  Each variant in
development will deploy submunitions.  ATACMS is launched from the
Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) M270 launcher. 


      ATACMS BLOCK IA/
      ANTI-PERSONNEL,
      ANTI-MATERIEL
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:3.1

This version of the ATACMS system provides an extended range
capability by reducing the number of anti-personnel/anti-materiel
submunitions from approximately 900 to approximately 275 and
incorporating GPS components to aid the Inertial Navigation System
(INS). 


      PROGRAM DATA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:3.2

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force

Program status      Development

Mission             Interdiction

Targets             Mobile soft, fixed soft

Platform            MLRS M270 launcher

First capability    1998

Guidance method     GPS/INS

Range               Greater than 15 nautical miles

Quantity            800

Development cost    $96.3 million

Production cost     $732.0 million

Total acquisition   $828.3 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $1.04 million
cost

Production unit     $915,000
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


      ATACMS BLOCK II/BRILLIANT
      ANTIARMOR SUBMUNITION
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:3.3

This version of the ATACMS provides an anti-armor capability for the
missile by integrating 13 Brilliant Antiarmor submunitions (BAT) into
the missile warhead.  BAT is a brilliant, self-guided, anti-armor,
top attack submunition with acoustic and infrared seekers working
together to acquire, track, and home on operating armored vehicles. 
BAT submunitions can be carried deep into enemy territory by the
delivery vehicle, then dispersed over numerous targets to attack and
destroy them.  About 6,000 BATs are expected to be the basic variant
with acoustic and infrared sensors.  The remainder are expected to
have an improved version with acoustic, infrared, and millimeter wave
sensors. 


      PROGRAM DATA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:3.4

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force

Program status      Development

Mission             Control and shape the battlefield for
                    the ground commander through deep anti-
                    armor fires that delay, disrupt, and
                    destroy moving targets.

Targets             Mobile hard, mobile soft

Platform            MLRS M270 launcher

First capability    2001

Guidance method     Missile--GPS/INS; submunition--acoustic
                    and infrared or acoustic, infrared, and
                    millimeter wave sensors

Range               Greater than 15 nautical miles

Quantity            Missiles--1,206; submunitions--16,170

Development cost    $1,327.5 million

Production cost     $2,651.8 million

Total acquisition   $3,979.3 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $3.3 million
cost

Production unit     $2.2 million
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


      ATACMS BLOCK IIA/
      BRILLIANT ANTIARMOR
      SUBMUNITION PRODUCT
      IMPROVEMENT
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:3.5

This ATACMS Block IIA configuration will deliver a reduced payload of
six improved BAT submunitions to an extended range.  The Army plans
to add a millimeter wave capability to the seeker assembly and
improve the submunition warhead for attack of cold, stationary tanks
and targets such as mobile missile launchers.  The improvement
program is being conducted concurrently with the engineering and
manufacturing development program for the basic variant. 


      PROGRAM DATA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:3.6

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force

Program status      Development

Mission             Interdiction

Targets             Fixed soft, mobile hard, mobile soft

Platform            MLRS M270 launcher

First capability    2003

Guidance method     Missile--GPS/INS; submunition--
                    acoustic, imaging infrared, millimeter
                    wave

Range               Greater than 60 nautical miles

Quantity            Missiles--600; submunitions--3,732

Development cost    $425.0 million

Production cost     $887.4 million

Total acquisition   $1,312.4 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $2.19 million
cost

Production unit     $1.48 million
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


   CONVENTIONAL AIR-LAUNCHED
   CRUISE MISSILE
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:4

The Conventional Air-Launched Cruise Missile (CALCM) is deployed on
the B-52H and was used during Operation Desert Storm.  It provides
the Air Force with a capability for attack of soft targets while the
aircraft remains outside of threat defenses.  The missile uses a
conventional blast fragmentation warhead. 


      PROGRAM DATA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:4.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force

Program status      Inventory

Mission             Offensive counterair, interdiction,
                    suppression of enemy air defense

Targets             Fixed soft

Platform            B-52H

First capability    1987

Guidance method\a

Range               Greater than 350 nautical miles

Circular error
probable\a

Quantity\a

Development cost\a

Production cost\a

Total acquisition
cost\a

Acquisition unit
cost\a

Production unit
cost\a
------------------------------------------------------------
\a This information is classified. 



   ENHANCED FIBER OPTIC GUIDED
   MISSILE
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:5

The Enhanced Fiber Optic Guided Missile (EFOG-M) system includes a
gunner's station, launcher, and the tactical missile.  The system
uses a fiber optic data link that allows a human to view what the
missile seeker sees and provide guidance commands.  The missile
launcher is to be mounted on a heavy high-mobility multi-purpose
wheeled vehicle.  EFOG-M is being developed as an advanced concept
technology demonstration.  Accordingly, the Army has no plans to
produce the system once development is completed.  A contract for the
development and purchase of the demonstration equipment was awarded
in May 1995.  Following the demonstration program, the remaining
equipment is to be turned over to an Army unit for a 2-year user
evaluation. 


      PROGRAM DATA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:5.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force

Program status      Development

Mission             To engage and defeat targets that may be
                    masked from line-of-sight direct fire
                    weapons.

Targets             Mobile hard

Platform            Heavy high-mobility multi-purpose
                    wheeled vehicle

First capability    1999-2000 (2-year user evaluation)

Guidance method     GPS/INS; fiber optic man-in-the-loop

Range               15 kilometers

Circular error      0.5 meters
probable

Quantity            300 missiles; 16 ground units

Development cost    $289.7 million

Production cost     No production planned

Total acquisition   $289.7 million
cost

Acquisition unit    Not applicable
cost

Production unit     Not applicable
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


   GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM AIDED
   MUNITION
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:6

The Global Positioning System Aided Munition (GAM) is being developed
by the Air Force and Northrop Grumman Corporation as an interim
precision munition for the B-2.  The munition is to be replaced on
the B-2 by the Joint Direct Attack Munition.  GAM is a tail kit that
will fit on the 2,000-pound general purpose bomb.  GAM uses GPS
guidance to more accurately guide to target locations. 


      PROGRAM DATA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:6.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force

Program status      Development

Mission             Close air support, air interdiction,
                    counterair, airborne strike, suppression
                    of enemy air defense

Targets             Mobile hard, mobile soft, fixed hard,
                    fixed soft, maritime surface

Platforms           B-2

First capability    1996

Guidance method     GPS/INS

Range               Greater than 5 nautical miles

Circular error      12-18 meters
probable

Quantity            128

Development cost    Munition development cost is included
                    with development of the GPS Aided
                    Targeting System

Production cost     $29.6 million

Total acquisition   $29.6 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $231,250
cost

Production unit     $231,250
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


   GUIDED BOMB UNIT-10
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:7

The Guided Bomb Unit-10 (GBU-10) utilizes the 2,000-pound general
purpose or penetrating warhead.  The operator illuminates a target
with a laser designator and then the munition guides to a spot of
laser energy reflected from the target.  The munition was used during
Operation Desert Storm, and, according to the Air Force, hit 78
percent of its targets. 


      PROGRAM DATA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:7.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force, Navy

Program status      Inventory

Mission             Air interdiction

Targets             Mobile hard, fixed soft, fixed hard

Platforms           A-7, A-10, B-52, F-111, F-117, F-15E, F-
                    16 , F/A-18 C/D, A-6, F-14

First capability    1976

Guidance method     Laser (man-in-the-loop)

Range               8 nautical miles

Circular error      9 meters
probable

Quantity            Air Force: 10,145; Navy: 1,184

Development cost\a

Production cost     Air Force: $240.436 million; Navy:
                    $30.902 million

Total acquisition   Not available
cost

Acquisition unit    Not available
cost

Production unit     Air Force: $23,700 ; Navy: $26,100
cost
------------------------------------------------------------
\a Air Force officials stated that they could not provide development
cost for the munition because they do not have records covering the
development period. 



   GUIDED BOMB UNIT-12
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:8

The Guided Bomb Unit-12 (GBU-12) utilizes a 500-pound general purpose
warhead.  The operator illuminates a target with a laser designator
and then the munition guides to a spot of laser energy reflected from
the target.  The munition was used during Operation Desert Storm,
and, according to the Air Force, hit 88 percent of its targets. 


      PROGRAM DATA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:8.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force, Navy

Program status      Inventory

Mission             Air interdiction

Targets             Mobile hard, fixed soft, fixed hard

Platforms           A-7, A-10, B-52, F-111, F-117, F-15, F-
                    16, F/A-18 C/D, F-14, A-6

First capability    1976

Guidance method     Laser (man-in-the-loop)

Range               8 nautical miles

Circular error      9 meters
probable

Quantity            Air Force: 29,654 ; Navy: 2,982

Development cost\a

Production cost     Air Force: $563.426 million;
                    Navy: $56.807 million

Total acquisition   Not available
cost

Acquisition unit    Not available
cost

Production unit     Air Force: $19,000; Navy: $19,050
cost
------------------------------------------------------------
\a Air Force officials stated that they could not provide development
cost because they do not have records covering the development
period. 



   GUIDED BOMB UNIT-15
-------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:9

The Guided Bomb Unit-15 (GBU-15) utilizes either a 2,000-pound
general purpose or 2,000-pound penetrating warhead.  The GBU-15
allows the aircraft to launch the munition from outside direct attack
ranges, thus enhancing the survivability of the aircraft.  The weapon
has a television or infrared seeker data link with man-in-the-loop
guidance. 


      PROGRAM DATA
------------------------------------------------------ Appendix II:9.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force

Program status      Inventory

Mission             Offensive counter air, close air
                    support, interdiction, naval anti-
                    surface warfare

Targets             Mobile soft, fixed hard, fixed soft

Platforms           F-15E, F-111

First capability    1985

Guidance method     Mid-course guidance-data link

Range               Greater than 5 nautical miles

Quantity            2,823

Development cost    $188.3 million

Production cost     $586.2 million

Total acquisition   $774.5 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $274,354
cost

Production unit     $207,651
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


   GUIDED BOMB UNIT-24
------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:10

The Guided Bomb Unit-24 (GBU-24) utilizes a 2,000-pound general
purpose or penetrator warhead.  The operator illuminates a target
with a laser designator and then the munition guides to a spot of
laser energy reflected from the target.  The GBU-24 is similar to the
GBU-10, but it has improved electronics and a larger aerodynamic
flight surface that allows the munition to be launched from a lower
altitude and from a greater distance from the target.  The GBU-24 has
low-level, standoff capability of more than 10 nautical miles. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:10.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force, Navy

Program status      Inventory

Mission             Close air support, interdiction,
                    offensive counter air, naval anti-
                    surface warfare

Targets             Mobile hard, fixed soft, fixed hard

Platforms           A-10, F-111, F-15, F-16, F/A-18, F-14,
                    A-6

First capability    1983

Guidance method     Laser (man-in-the-loop)

Range               Greater than 10 nautical miles

Quantity            13,114

Development cost\a  Not available

Production cost     $729.138 million

Total acquisition   Not available
cost

Acquisition unit    Not available
cost

Production unit     $55,600
cost
------------------------------------------------------------
\a Air Force officials stated that development cost was not available
because they do not have records covering the development period. 



   GUIDED BOMB UNIT-27
------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:11

The Guided Bomb Unit-27 (GBU-27) is a GBU-24 modified for delivery by
the F-117 stealth fighter.  The operator illuminates a target with a
laser designator and then the munition guides to a spot of laser
energy reflected from the target.  It uses a 2,000-pound penetrating
warhead against hard targets.  The GBU-27 was used in Operation
Desert Storm.  According to the Air Force, the GBU-27 hit 70 percent
of its targets. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:11.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force

Program status      Inventory

Mission             Close air support, interdiction,
                    offensive counter air, naval anti-
                    surface warfare

Targets             Mobile hard, fixed hard, fixed soft

Platform            F-117

First capability    1987

Guidance method     Laser (man-in-the-loop)

Range               Greater than 10 nautical miles

Quantity            3,213

Development cost\a  Not available

Production cost     $176.715 million

Total acquisition   Not available
cost

Acquisition unit    Not available
cost

Production unit     $55,000
cost
------------------------------------------------------------
\a Air Force officials stated that development cost was not available
because they do not have records covering the development period. 



   GUIDED BOMB UNIT-28
------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:12

The Guided Bomb Unit-28 (GBU-28) is a 5,000-pound laser-guided
conventional munition that uses a 4,400-pound penetrating warhead. 
The operator illuminates a target with a laser designator and then
the munition guides to a spot of laser energy reflected from the
target.  The Air Force produced a limited quantity of the GBU-28
during Operation Desert Storm to attack multi-layered, hardened
underground targets.  After Operation Desert Storm, the Air Force
incorporated some modifications, and further tested the munition. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:12.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force

Program status      Production

Mission             Offensive counter air, close air
                    support, interdiction

Targets             Fixed hard

Platforms           F-15E, F-111F

First capability    1991

Guidance method     Laser (man-in-the-loop)

Range               Greater than 5 nautical miles

Quantity            125

Development cost\a

Production cost     $18.2 million

Total cost          $18.2 million

Acquisition unit    $145,600
cost

Production unit     $145,600
cost
------------------------------------------------------------
\a Development cost is not applicable to this munition. 



   HIGH-SPEED ANTI-RADIATION
   MISSILE
------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:13

The High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) suppresses or destroys
land or sea-based radar emitters that direct enemy air defense
systems.  The Navy developed HARM; the Air Force also uses the
missile. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:13.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Navy and Air Force

Program status      Inventory

Mission             Defense suppression

Targets             Fixed soft

Platforms           F/A-18, A-6E, F-4G, F-16

First capability    1983

Guidance method     Homes on electronic emissions

Range               Greater than 15 nautical miles

Quantity            19,607 (Navy and Air Force)

Development cost    $644.5 million

Production cost     $5,568.1 million

Total acquisition   $6,212.6 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $316,856
cost

Production unit     $283,985
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


   HARPOON
------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:14

The Harpoon missile provides the Navy and the Air Force with a common
missile for air, ship, and submarine launches.  The weapon system
uses mid-course guidance with a radar seeker to attack surface ships. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:14.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Navy and Air Force

Program status      Inventory

Mission             Maritime ship attack

Targets             Maritime surface

Platforms           A-6, F/A-18, S-3, P-3, B-52H, ships

First capability    1977

Guidance method     Radar seeker with mid-course guidance

Range               Greater than 60 nautical miles

Quantity            Navy: 5,983; Air Force: 90

Development cost    $320.7 million

Production cost     $2,882.3 million

Total acquisition   $3,203.0 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $527,416
cost

Production unit     $474,609
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


   JOINT DIRECT ATTACK MUNITION
------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:15

The Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) is a joint Air Force and Navy
program with the Air Force as the lead service.  The JDAM will
upgrade the existing inventory of general purpose and penetrator
unitary bombs and a product improvement may add a terminal seeker to
improve accuracy. 


      JOINT DIRECT ATTACK MUNITION
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:15.1

The JDAM will upgrade the existing inventory of 1,000- and
2,000-pound general purpose unitary bombs and the 2,000-pound hard
target penetrator bomb by integrating a guidance kit consisting of a
GPS aided INS.  JDAM is not intended to replace any existing weapon
system; rather, it is to provide accurate delivery of general purpose
bombs in adverse weather conditions. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:15.2

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force and Navy

Program status      Development

Mission             Close air support, interdiction,
                    offensive counterair, suppression of
                    enemy air defense, naval anti-surface
                    warfare, amphibious strike

Targets             Mobile hard, mobile soft, fixed hard,
                    fixed soft, maritime surface

Platforms           B-52, B-1, B-2, F-22, F-16, F-15E, F-
                    117, F-14 A/B/D, F/A-18C/D, F/A-18E/F,
                    AV-8B, P-3, S-3

First capability    1997

Guidance method     GPS/INS (autonomous)

Range               Greater than 5 nautical miles

Circular error      13 meters
probable

Quantity            Navy: 12,000; Air Force: 62,000

Development cost    $496.2 million

Production cost     $4,154.4 million

Total cost          $4,650.6 million

Acquisition unit    $62,846
cost

Production unit     $56,141
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


      JOINT DIRECT ATTACK MUNITION
      PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:15.3

The JDAM product improvement program may add a terminal seeker for
precision guidance and other system improvements to existing JDAMs to
provide the Air Force with 3-meter precision and improved
anti-jamming capability.  The Air Force is evaluating several
alternatives and estimates that the seeker could be available for
operations by 2004.  The seeker kit could be used by both the
2,000-pound blast fragmentation and penetrator JDAMs. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:15.4

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force

Program status      Development

Mission             Close air support, interdiction,
                    offensive counterair, suppression of
                    enemy air defense, naval anti-surface
                    warfare, amphibious strike

Targets             Fixed hard, fixed soft, mobile hard,
                    mobile soft

First capability    2004

Platforms           B-52, B-1, B-2, F-16, F-15E, F-117

Guidance method     GPS/INS mid-course with a terminal
                    seeker yet to be selected

Range               Greater than 5 nautical miles

Circular error      3 meters
probable

Quantity            5,000--kits to be added to basic JDAM

Development cost\a

Production cost\a

Total cost\a

Acquisition unit
cost\a

Production unit
cost\a
------------------------------------------------------------
\a Air Force officials stated that the Air Force has not completed
evaluation of the seeker technologies and therefore cannot determine
the total cost of the product improvement.  However, the Air Force
has programmed about $76.5 million for development through 2001. 



   JOINT STANDOFF WEAPON
------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:16

The Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW), formerly the Advanced Interdiction
Weapon System, is a joint Navy and Air Force program with the Navy as
the lead service.  JSOW, a family of unpowered air-to-ground weapons,
utilizes a global position system targeting capability and an
efficient aerodynamic airframe to allow aircraft to standoff outside
defenses.  The Navy and Air Force are developing three JSOW
configurations:  (1) JSOW Baseline with combined effects submunitions
for soft and area targets, (2) JSOW/BLU-108 with the submunitions
used in the Sensor Fuzed Weapon (SFW) for massed land combat
vehicles, and (3) JSOW/Unitary, a pre-planned product improvement
with a unitary warhead and an autonomous or man-in-the-loop terminal
seeker for use against fixed hard and soft and maritime surface
targets. 

The JSOW Baseline and Unitary are intended to replace a number of
missile and guided bomb munitions included in this review.  These
include the Walleye, laser guided bombs (GBU-10, GBU-12, and GBU-24),
and the Maverick.  The JSOW/BLU-108 does not replace any existing
PGMs. 


      JOINT STANDOFF WEAPON
      BASELINE
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:16.1

The JSOW Baseline consists of the JSOW airframe and 145 combined
effects submunitions.  The JSOW airframe provides standoff and
accurate delivery for targets dispersed over a wide area and other
targets sensitive to blast and damage from fragments. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:16.2

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Navy and Air Force

Program status      Development

Mission             Close air support, interdiction,
                    amphibious strike and anti-surface
                    warfare

Targets             Mobile soft, fixed soft

Platforms           B-1, F-16, F-15E, F/A-18C/D, F/A-18E/F,
                    AV-8B, P-3, S-3

First capability    1998

Guidance method     GPS/INS

Range               Greater than 15 nautical miles at low
                    altitude; greater than 40 nautical miles
                    at high altitude

Quantity            Navy: 8,800; Air Force: 3,000

Development cost    $417.9 million

Production cost     $2,909.7 million

Total acquisition   $3,327.6 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $282,000
cost

Production unit     $246,585
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


      JOINT STANDOFF
      WEAPON/BLU-108
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:16.3

The JSOW/BLU-108 consists of the JSOW carrier and six BLU-108
submunitions.  The airframe provides standoff launch and accurate
delivery for low altitude release of the submunitions.  The
submunitions are the same as those used in the Sensor Fuzed Weapon. 
Each submunition houses four projectiles; each projectile contains an
explosively-formed penetrator warhead and a two-color infrared
sensor. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:16.4

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Navy and Air Force

Program status      Development

Mission             Close air support, interdiction,
                    amphibious strike and anti-surface
                    warfare

Targets             Mobile hard, mobile soft

Platforms           B-1, F-16 C/D, F-15E, F/A-18C/D, F/A-
                    18E/F, AV-8B, P-3, S-3

First capability    2001

Guidance method     JSOW airframe--GPS/INS
                    BLU-108 submunitions--two-color infrared
                    sensors

Range               Greater than 15 nautical miles at low
                    altitude; greater than 40 nautical miles
                    at high altitude

Quantity            Navy: 1,200; Air Force: 3,000

Development cost    $227.8 million

Production cost     $1,805.7 million

Total acquisition   $2,033.5 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $484,167
cost

Production unit     $429,929
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


      JOINT STANDOFF
      WEAPON/UNITARY
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:16.5

The JSOW/Unitary builds on the JSOW Baseline by incorporating an
autonomous terminal seeker, a man-in-the-loop data link, and a
unitary warhead.  These improvements are expected to provide
increased accuracy and lethality, and the capability for aimpoint
selection, target discrimination, and bomb impact assessment. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:16.6

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Navy

Program status      Development

Mission             Close air support, interdiction,
                    amphibious strike and anti-surface
                    warfare

Targets             Fixed hard, maritime surface

Platforms           F/A-18C/D, F/A-18E/F, AV-8B, P-3, S-3

First capability    2002

Guidance method     GPS/INS with a terminal seeker and man-
                    in-the-loop data link

Range               Greater than 15 nautical miles at low
                    altitude; greater than 40 nautical miles
                    at high altitude

Quantity            7,800

Development cost    $452.4 million

Production cost     $5,155.9 million

Total acquisition   $5,608.3 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $719,012
cost

Production unit     $661,013
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


   MAVERICK
------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:17

The Maverick utilizes either a 125-pound shaped-charge or 300-pound
blast fragmentation warhead; its primary targets include armored
vehicles, especially tanks.  The Maverick variants include
electro-optical/television (A and B), imaging infrared (D, F, and G),
or laser guidance (E).  The Air Force developed the Maverick, and the
Navy procured the imaging infrared and the laser guided versions. 
Maverick was used during Operation Desert Storm and, according to the
Air Force, hit 85 percent of its targets. 


      MAVERICK, AIR FORCE
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:17.1

The Air Force uses two variants of the infrared Maverick.  The D
variant has a shaped charge warhead for attack of armored targets,
while the G variant has a blast fragmentation warhead for attacking
land targets. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:17.2

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force

Program status      Inventory

Mission             Close air support, air interdiction,
                    offensive counterair, strike

Targets             Mobile hard, mobile soft, fixed hard,
                    fixed soft, and maritime surface

Platforms           A-7, A-10, F-4, F-16, F-15E

First capability    1986

Guidance method     Imaging infrared (D/G)

Range               12 nautical miles

Quantity            23,689

Development cost\a  $168 million

Production cost     $2,895.5 million

Total acquisition   $3,063.5 million

Acquisition unit    $129,322

Production unit     $122,230
------------------------------------------------------------
\a The Air Force reported quantities of 12,559 of the Maverick
electro-optical/ television variant.  Cost information for this
variant was not available. 



      MAVERICK, NAVY
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:17.3

The Navy uses a laser and an imaging infrared variant of the
Maverick.  The laser variant homes on reflected laser energy from
either a ground or airborne designator and carries a
blast/penetration warhead.  The imaging infrared variant carries a
blast fragmentation warhead for attacking ships. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:17.4

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Navy

Program status      Inventory

Mission             Close air support, air interdiction,
                    offensive counterair, strike, anti-
                    surface warfare

Targets             Mobile hard, mobile soft, fixed hard,
                    fixed soft, and maritime surface

Platforms           A-6, F-18, AV-8B, P-3

First capability    1986

Guidance method     Imaging infrared; laser

Range               12 nautical miles

Quantity            4,115

Development cost    $25.5 million

Production cost     $627.5 million

Total acquisition   $653 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $158,688
cost

Production unit     $152,491
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


   PENGUIN
------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:18

Penguin was initially developed by the Norwegians as an anti-ship
weapon for patrol boats.  However, the missile has been modified for
aircraft launch.  The missile uses a programmed inertial navigation
and an infrared terminal seeker.  The target coordinates are
delivered to the weapon using the launch aircraft radar.  The weapon
is autonomous, allowing the aircraft to break off immediately after
launch.  Penguin provides the Navy's SH-60B helicopters with an
anti-ship capability. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:18.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Navy

Program status      Inventory

Mission             Anti-surface warfare

Targets             Maritime surface

Platforms           SH-60B helicopter

First capability    1994

Guidance method     Infrared seeker with mid-course guidance

Range               17 nautical miles

Quantity            101

Development cost    $83.5 million

Production cost     $158.2 million

Total acquisition   $241.7 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $2.4 million
cost

Production unit     $1.57 million
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


   SENSE AND DESTROY ARMOR
   MUNITION
------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:19

The Sense and Destroy Armor Munition (SADARM) is expected to provide
capability against stationary, armored vehicles beyond the forward
line of troops and enable rapid engagement, day or night despite
degraded battlefield conditions.  Two 5.8-inch diameter SADARMs are
carried in a 155-millimeter projectile launched from a howitzer.  The
submunition has both millimeter wave and infrared sensing devices,
electronics for information processing, and an explosively formed
penetrator warhead. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:19.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Army

Program status      Development

Mission             Counterfire

Targets             Mobile hard

Platform            155-millimeter howitzer

First capability    1999

Guidance method     Active and passive millimeter wave and
                    infrared

Range               22.5 kilometers

Quantity            Projectiles: 73,612; SADARM
                    submunitions: 147,224

Development cost    $356.3 million

Production cost     $2,581.1 million

Total acquisition   $2,937.4 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $39,904
cost

Production unit     $35,063
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


   SENSOR FUZED WEAPON
------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:20

The Air Force's Sensor Fuzed Weapon (SFW) is a 1,000-pound,
unpowered, multiple kill per pass munition.  The SFW's tactical
munitions dispenser houses 10 BLU-108 submunitions.  Each submunition
contains four projectiles, an orientation and stabilization system, a
radar altimeter, and a rocket motor.  Each projectile contains an
explosively formed penetrator warhead and a two-color infrared
sensor.  If the projectile does not detect a target, it detonates
after a fixed elapsed time, causing damage to material and personnel. 
Neither the munition dispenser nor the BLU-108 submunitions are
guided.  However, the projectiles scan a wide area with their
infrared sensors searching for targets.  The Air Force is also
developing a tail kit, termed the Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser,
for the SFW and similar munitions that will provide inertial
navigation and allow aircraft to deliver them from high altitudes. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:20.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Air Force

Program status      Production

Mission             Interdiction

Targets             Mobile hard, mobile soft

Platform            F-16, F-15E, F-111, A-10, B-52H, B-52

First capability    1995

Guidance method     Two color infrared sensor

Range               Direct attack

Quantity            5,000

Development cost    $227.7 million

Production cost     $1,599.4 million

Total acquisition   $1,827.1 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $365,420
cost

Production unit     $319,880
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


   STANDOFF LAND ATTACK MISSILE
------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:21

The Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM) is derived from the Harpoon
missile and is designed to provide an intermediate range
day/night/adverse weather air-to-surface weapon for use against land
targets and surface ships in port.  The Navy plans to improve
performance by retrofitting SLAMs with a suite of improvements. 


      BASELINE STANDOFF LAND
      ATTACK MISSILE
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:21.1

SLAM combines an imaging infrared seeker, inertial GPS-aided
guidance, and data link control to provide standoff precision strike
against land targets and selective ship attack.  The pilot can fine
tune the aim point while the missile is in flight, providing
targeting accuracy, real time bomb damage assessment, and minimum
collateral damage. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:21.2

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Navy

Program status      Production

Mission             Anti-surface warfare, strike

Targets             Fixed hard, fixed soft, maritime surface

Platforms           F/A-18C/D, F/A-18E/F, A-6E

First capability    1991

Guidance method     Imaging infrared seeker, inertial GPS-
                    aided guidance, and data link control

Range               Greater than 60 nautical miles

Quantity            767

Development cost    $81.9 million

Production cost     $1,056.9 million

Total acquisition   $1,138.8 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $1.49 million
cost

Production unit     $1.38 million
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


      STANDOFF LAND ATTACK MISSILE
      EXPANDED RESPONSE
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:21.3

The SLAM-Expanded Response (SLAM-ER) is an upgrade and retrofit to
the baseline SLAM.  It will maintain baseline SLAM capability while
improving performance in the areas of launch and control, aircraft
survivability, immunity to countermeasures and probability of kill
against hardened targets.  SLAM-ER is also expected to provide
improved range, hard target penetration and user interfaces for both
mission planning and aircraft integration. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:21.4

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Navy

Program status      Development

Mission             Anti-surface warfare, strike

Targets             Fixed hard, fixed soft, maritime surface

Platforms           F/A-18C/D/E/F, A-6 and potentially: B-
                    52, B-1, B-2, F-16, F-15E, F-117, F-14,
                    AV-8B, P-3, S-3, V-22

First capability    1997

Guidance method     Imaging infrared seeker, inertial GPS-
                    aided guidance, and man-in-the-loop data
                    link control

Range               Greater than 60 nautical miles

Quantity            700

Development cost    $192.3 million

Production cost     $358.0 million

Total acquisition   $550.3 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $786,143
cost

Production unit     $511,428
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


   TOMAHAWK
------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:22

The Navy has three conventional versions of the Tomahawk missile: 
Tomahawk Anti-Ship Missile (TASM), Tomahawk Land-Attack Missile
(TLAM), and the developmental Tomahawk Baseline Improvement Program
(TBIP). 


      TOMAHAWK ANTI-SHIP MISSILE
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:22.1

TASM attacks over-the-horizon, open ocean ships in a battle group. 
The TASM mission has receded because this variant is not particularly
suited to warfare in waters that may be crowded with both combatant
and noncombatant ships.  The Navy plans to remanufacture the existing
TASMs into TBIPs. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:22.2

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Navy

Program status      Inventory

Mission             Maritime ship attack

Targets             Ships

Platforms           Ships, submarines

First capability    1984

Guidance method     Mid-course guidance

Range               Greater than 60 nautical miles

Quantity            593

Development cost    $346.9 million

Production cost     $1,513.9 million

Total acquisition   $1,860.8 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $3.14 million
cost

Production unit     $2.553 million
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


      TOMAHAWK LAND ATTACK MISSILE
      C/D
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:22.3

Tomahawk Land Attack Missile-C (TLAM-C) uses a unitary warhead and
the Tomahawk Land Attack Missile-D (TLAM-D) uses a submunition
warhead.  TLAM-C generally attacks single, fixed targets such as a
specific point on a building; TLAM-D attacks area-type targets such
as aircraft parked on a ramp.  The Tomahawk missile follows a
pre-programmed route over specific terrain features using a
combination of terrain contour matching and digital scene matching
area correlation guidance. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:22.4

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Navy

Program status      Production

Mission             Close air support/interdiction,
                    offensive counter air, suppression of
                    enemy air defense, naval anti-surface
                    warfare

Targets             Fixed soft, fixed hard, mobile soft

Platforms           Ships, submarines

First capability    TLAM-C/D Block II: 1986; Block III: 1993

Guidance method     Terrain Correlation Mapping, Digital
                    Scene Matching Area Correlator

Range               Greater than 350 nautical miles

Quantity            TLAM-C: 2,729; TLAM-D: 676

Development cost    $1,224.9 million

Production cost     $7,201.9 million

Total acquisition   $8,426.8 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $2.475 million
cost

Production unit     $2.115 million
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


      TOMAHAWK BASELINE
      IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:22.5

TBIP represents a major upgrade to the Tomahawk.  TBIP uses (1) a
jam-resistant GPS receiver and an INS to guide the missile throughout
the mission and (2) a forward-looking terminal sensor to autonomously
attack the target.  The Navy plans to upgrade or remanufacture the
existing TASM and the TLAM-C inventory to TBIP. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:22.6

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Navy

Program status      Development

Mission             Amphibious strike and anti-surface
                    warfare, naval warfare support, naval
                    warfare

Targets             Fixed hard, fixed soft, maritime surface

Platforms           Ships, submarines

First capability    2000

Guidance method     GPS/INS

Range               Greater than 350 nautical miles

Quantity            1,181

Development cost    $745.7 million

Production cost     $1,832.9 million

Total cost          $2,578.6 million

Acquisition unit    $2.18 million
cost

Production unit     $1.55 million
cost
------------------------------------------------------------


   WALLEYE
------------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:23

Walleye is a television-guided munition that can be either
autonomous, homing on a high contrast target; or the pilot can send
guidance commands in-flight with a data link to update the aimpoint. 
Walleye has two warhead sizes, 415 pounds and 1,000 pounds, that can
be used during daylight operations against a variety of fixed,
mobile, or maritime targets.  Walleye was used during Operation
Desert Storm and, according to the Navy, achieved a success rate of
60 percent. 


      PROGRAM DATA
----------------------------------------------------- Appendix II:23.1

------------------  ----------------------------------------
Service             Navy

Program status      Inventory

Mission             Close air support, interdiction,
                    offensive counter air, naval anti-
                    surface warfare

Targets             Mobile hard, fixed hard, fixed soft,
                    maritime surface

Platforms           A-6, F/A-18

First capability    1967; data link configuration--mid 1970s

Guidance method     TV data link and man-in-the-loop

Range               Greater than 15 nautical miles

Circular error      15 feet
probable

Quantity            1,300 non-data link configuration; 1,900
                    data link configuration

Development cost    $77 million

Production cost     $295 million

Total acquisition   $372 million
cost

Acquisition unit    $116,250
cost

Production unit     $92,188
cost
------------------------------------------------------------

SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY
========================================================= Appendix III

We identified 33 precision guided munitions that have some capability
to alter their in-flight course to improve the chances of hitting a
target.  In selecting these munitions for review, we considered only
munitions that are surface-to-surface, indirect fire weapons or are
air-to-surface weapons.  In addition, munitions included have a
nominal standoff from their launching platform of about 5 nautical
miles or more. 

The 33 PGM types we reviewed included Army, Navy, and Air Force
munitions in inventory that are no longer in production; munitions
that have an open production line; and developmental munitions that
have not yet begun production.  Developmental munitions also include
munition product improvements that are not yet being produced.  The
munitions selected are not the total universe of precision guided
munitions but are those that, in our judgement, represented the
substantial majority of the services' PGM investment and capability. 

We reviewed the services' mission need and cost and operational
effectiveness analyses for the developmental systems to determine the
tradeoffs that the services had examined before approving munition
development.  We obtained program cost, schedule, and employment
information for all 33 munitions in order to compare munitions
capabilities with each other.  We did not compare PGM capabilities
with non-precision munitions.  We interviewed Air Force, Navy, and
Army personnel concerning requirements, acquisition, and platform
integration and visited the following locations: 

  Office of the Undersecretary of Defense, Acquisition and
     Technology, Office of Munitions, Washington, D.C.;

  Office of the Undersecretary of Defense, Program Analysis and
     Evaluation, Washington, D.  C.;

  Naval Air Systems Command, Arlington, Virginia;

  Program Executive Office, Cruise Missiles and Unmanned Aerial
     Vehicles Joint Program Office, Arlington, Virginia;

  Air Force's Aeronautical Systems Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force
     Base, Ohio, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida;

  Air Force's Air Combat Command, Langley Air Force Base, Virginia;

  Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research,
     Development and Acquisition, Washington, D.C.;

  Program Executive Office, Tactical Missiles, Redstone Arsenal,
     Alabama;

  Fire Support Armaments Center, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey; and

  U.S.  Army Training and Doctrine Command, Ft.  Monroe, Virginia. 

We also obtained documents on Air Force munitions in inventory from
the Air Force Logistics Command, Hill Air Force Base, Utah, and
Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma. 

We performed our work from January 1994 to May 1995 in accordance
with generally accepted government auditing standards. 




(See figure in printed edition.)Appendix IV
COMMENTS FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF
DEFENSE
========================================================= Appendix III


The following is GAO's comment on the Department of Defense's letter
dated May 15, 1995. 

GAO COMMENT

1. The technical corrections provided in the enclosure to the
Department of Defense's comments consisted primarily of changes to
cost and quantities since the completion of our fieldwork.  We have
revised the report to include these changes, where appropriate. 


MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS REPORT
========================================================== Appendix II

NATIONAL SECURITY AND
INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS DIVISION,
WASHINGTON, D.C. 

Thomas J.  Schulz, Associate Director
Raymond Dunham, Assistant Director

ATLANTA FIELD OFFICE

Carol T.  Mebane, Evaluator-in-Charge
Wayne Gilliam, Advisor
Graham D.  Rawsthorn, Evaluator
Angel D.  Sharma, Evaluator
Dana S.  Solomon, Evaluator