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Title: Renowned Scientist Qian Xuesen Views 'Three Represents'  

Document Number: FBIS-CHI-2002-0722
Document Region: China 
Document Date: 24 Jun 2002
Sourceline: CPP20020722000120 Beijing Renmin Ribao (Internet Version-WWW) in 
Chinese 24 Jun 02 
AFS Number: CPP20020722000120 
Citysource: Beijing Renmin Ribao (Internet Version-WWW) 
Language: Chinese 

Subslug: Report by Tu Yuanji:  "Comprehend Important Thinking of 'Three 
Represents' From High Plane of Integrating Science, Politics --  On 
Comrade Qian Xuesen's Study of Important Thinking of 'Three Represents'" 

[FBIS Translated Text]     In February, 2000, during an inspection tour in 
Guangdong Province, General Secretary Jiang Zemin advanced his important 
thinking of "Three Represents."   Approaching the age of 90, Comrade Qian 
Xuesen quickly realized that it was a key theory.   He began scanning all 
the media reports with great attention, asking us to buy him reference 
books.   Later, we bought him a few reference books on the theory.   At 
an old age, lying in his bed, Comrade Qian Xuesen began reading those 
books in real earnest, reflecting on the theory.   He also time and again 
discussed with us what he had learned from those books.   On 11 December, 
2000, namely, his 89th birthday, Comrade Qian Xuesen held another more 
detailed talk with us about the theory. 

    Reverend Qian remarked:   Today is my 89th birthday.   I have lived a 
long life, longer than my teacher Carmen's [should be: von Kármán].
I owe this to the party and the state for taking care of
and showing concern for me.   When in the United States, I studied
natural science and engineering technology.   I longed to serve
my country with the science and technology I was learning 
at the time.   I had no idea what politics was.   In the early 1950s, 
McCarthyism began running wild in the United States, and I was 
persecuted.   By that time, I had come to see through my personal 
experiences what democracy really was.   After returning to the 
motherland, I studied further and gradually acquired a little knowledge 
about Marxism and politics.   I strongly believed that science must 
integrate with politics.   It can be said that what I have done since my 
return to the motherland are about integrating science with politics.   
This is also true even with my pure technological work, which has also 
followed a clear-cut political direction.   Otherwise, my technological 
work would have gone astray, deprived of a driving force as well. 

    In modern times, a person, especially a leading cadre and a senior 
cadre, must know a little about science, for political knowledge alone is 
not enough.   A person must also learn to integrate science with politics 
through persistent efforts.   For a long time, our party has stressed 
that leading cadres, senior cadres in particular, should follow a correct 
political direction and master the art of superb political leadership 
while learning at the same time modern scientific and cultural knowledge, 
thus heightening the cultural level of leadership.   The core of the 
three generations of the CPC leadership have persistently set great store 
by both politics and science, with successful efforts in integrating the 
two.   Because of this, they have offered superb political leadership 
when faced with complicated situations. 

    I have personally met with the core of the three generations of the 
CPC leadership.   Chairman Mao founded the new China, this being a signal 
achievement making the dream of Chinese people over the past nearly one 
hundred years come true.   At that time, I was in the United States.   I 
was very happy after hearing that and decided to return to the motherland 
to take part in the building of the new China.   Although my plan was 
later obstructed, my dream finally came true in 1955.   After my return 
to China, I met old Chairman Mao on several occasions, during which he 
also discussed with me a few scientific issues.   I was impressed by his 
wisdom, a wisdom built on his learning of the Marxist philosophy, 
history, literature, and art, including his practice during the 
revolutionary wars.   Chairman Mao also attached great importance to 
scientific issues and spared no efforts in analyzing them.   Hs two 
theoretical works, entitled "On Practice" and "On Contradictions" 
respectively, represented, in my view, a glorious chapter in the Marxist 
philosophy.   Back in the motherland, I repeatedly studied those two 
works and learned a lot from them.   When in the United States, I studied 
applied mechanics, including jet propelling and engineering control 
theories, all about technological sciences.   As you know, technological 
sciences are based on an integration of theories with practice.   I 
selected topics for my dissertations in line with my practice with 
aeronautic engineering and rocket technology.   I also compared my 
theoretical results with laboratorial data, with tests conducted in 
practice.   It was after repeated tests that I finally completed one 
research project after another, with research results applied in 
engineering practice.   This was exactly a process Chairman Mao had 
mentioned in his "On Practice." 

    Practical engineering issues always tend to be complicated and hinge 
on a variety of factors.   In those years, we had merely limited 
calculation means to conduct research.   How could we tackle nonlinear 
issues?   We had no choice but to simplify them.   In so doing, we had to 
understand those issues thoroughly, thus grasping the key contradictions. 

  With the key contradictions identified, we were able to rationalize our 
simplification of the issues before having it applied in engineering 
practice.   Is it not true that that was also exactly a process Chairman 
Mao had mentioned in his "On Contradictions"?   When in the United 
States, I had conducted research for more than 10 years before coming up 
with the above practices.   All of a sudden, I found my practices already 
mentioned by Chairman Mao in his "On Practice" and "On Contradictions."   
This explains why I often mention Chairman Mao as a great man.   Of 
course, in those years, sciences were not as advanced as they are today. 

    I also held talks with Comrade Deng Xiaoping.   When China decided to 
build "two bombs," Comrade Deng Xiaoping gave us unreserved support.   At 
the office of the CPC Central Committee Secretariat, Comrade Deng 
Xiaoping listened to our report and said:   "Go ahead with those plans.   
If successful, you take the credit.   If unsuccessful, the Secretariat 
take the responsibility."   Comrade Deng Xiaoping had complete trust in 
intellectuals, boldly elevating them to key posts.   We were greatly 
inspired by his remarks.   After China launched reform and opening up, 
Comrade Deng Xiaoping did much more for our nation in his capacity as the 
core of the second generation of the CPC leadership.   He advanced the 
theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, this being an 
unprecedented and bold theoretical breakthrough.   In delivering his "1 
July" speech, General Secretary Jiang acknowledged:   Deng Xiaoping 
Theory "has done the best job in inheriting and creatively developing Mao 
Zedong Thought under the new historical conditions, with signal 
contributions in opening up brand-new vistas for China's socialist 
cause." 

    Comrade Deng Xiaoping once said:   "Intellectuals are a component of 
the working class"; "science and technology are productive forces"; and 
especially, "science and technology are the primary productive forces."   
His important thinking represented a phenomenal development of the 
Marxist theory on social productive forces and embodied a profound 
understanding of how important science and technology are to modern 
society.   Clearly, Comrade Deng Xiaoping kept abreast with the 
development of the times.   Through his major theoretical views, he did a 
great service for China's modernization drive.   Comrade Deng Xiaoping 
also stressed:   In selecting successors, we must stress both political 
and scientific qualities.   In my view, one of his important 
contributions was his selection and elevation of Comrade Jiang Zemin as 
the core of the third generation of the CPC leadership. 

    Truly, General Secretary Jiang Zemin has inherited and developed 
Marxism, Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, and Deng Xiaoping Theory.   In 
this process, he has proven himself a true Marxist, for Marxism should be 
a constantly developing theory.   We should not blindly follow outdated 
doctrines.   Instead, we must develop our theories in light of a new 
situation and through our new practice.   By development, I mean bringing 
forth new ideas and keeping abreast with the development of the times.   
It is good for us to emphasize keeping abreast with the development of 
the times.   Under the leadership of the third generation of the CPC 
leading collective with Comrade Jiang Zemin as the core, China has made 
headway with each passing day, in reform, opening up, and modernization 
building, with fresh success on a regular basis.   Look at today's world, 
have we seen any other country developing as fast as ours? 

    By advancing his important thinking of "Three Represents," General 
Secretary Jiang Zemin has made a tremendous development of Marxism, 
Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, and Deng Xiaoping Theory, this being a key 
event with an impact on China's development for a long time to come.   I 
am studying his thinking in real earnest.   If not, I would fall behind, 
unable to keep abreast with the development of the times. 

    We should comprehensively comprehend and understand the important 
thinking of "Three Represents."   What is crucial in so doing is, I 
believe, for us to persistently integrate science with politics.   
Nowadays, China and the world are developing so fast, at a tremendous 
pace!   We have witnessed the era of information, computers, the 
Internet, bioengineering, the gene bank, economic globalization, WTO, 
among others.   How can people stop learning?   How should people keep 
abreast with the development of the times?   The world is moving forward 
with giant strides.   Were people to stop learning, they would fall 
behind others without even knowing about it.   It may matter little if 
one person falls behind.   However, a nation that falls behind is bound 
to find itself in passivity, defeated and humiliated by others, deprived 
of a seat on the world stage as well.   Is it not true that China once 
had a similar bitter lesson in modern history?   In the past, I once told 
a story about the Ford Motor Corporation in the United States.   As a 
skilled technician, Henry Ford founded the Ford Motor Corporation because 
he had vision.   He also introduced advanced assembly lines and hired an 
experienced expert as his manager at the time.   By accurately assessing 
the market, Henry Ford also established a marketing network.   Finally, 
he turned the Ford Motor Corporation into an "auto empire."   Years 
later, advanced in years, Henry Ford stopped mastering advanced science 
and technology and managerial expertise.   His thinking became 
stereotyped and conservative.   In the end, his "auto empire" reached the 
brink of collapse under fierce competition.   His grandson, the younger 
Ford, took over from him.   Skilled in management and with scientific and 
technological training, the younger Ford also fully understood the trend 
of development within the auto sector at the time.   As soon as he took 
over the corporation, he launched a series of drastic reforms, reviving 
the dying corporation in the end.   This is a true story about an 
enterprise.   I believe that it is still more the same with a country, a 
nation, and a political party. 

    By calling for integrating science with politics, I have actually put 
forth a huge concept.   Certainly, by "politics," I mean Marxism, 
Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, and Deng Xiaoping Theory, as well as the 
basic line and major principles and policies the CPC must follow in 
governing the country.   By "science," I mean not only natural sciences 
and engineering technology but also social sciences, mathematics, systems 
science, among others.   In the past, I once proposed that China 
establish a modern scientific and technological system, consisting of 11 
major departments, each containing three levels, namely, basic sciences, 
technological sciences, and engineering sciences, with the Marxist 
philosophy serving as the ultimate theoretical summation of various 
sciences.   By modern science, I refer to not just natural sciences but 
also a system comprising 11 key departments, each containing three 
levels.   We'd better learn a little about what the 11 key departments 
do, mastering dialectics as well.   Only by so doing will we be able to 
broaden our vision and avoid one-sided and shortsighted views.   This is 
also what the Marxist outlook on science demands. 

    During my talks with General Secretary Jiang, I found that he has 
excellent training in science and technology, a keen interest in a wide 
range of issues, and a strong desire to learn.   Each time we met, he 
would discuss with me a few scientific and technological issues.   I 
still remember that in 1999, shortly after taking office at the central 
level, together with Comrade Li Peng, he had a meeting with me inside the 
Zhongnanhai, discussing the issue of "Crowell Jr. Prize."   Prior to our 
talks, he discussed with me for a long time several issues concerning 
system engineering, showing a keen interest in the subject.   I gave him 
right away the book "On System Engineering."   After that, General 
Secretary Jiang delivered several speeches, aptly quoting the principles 
of system engineering.   One day in around 1991, the phone in my home 
rang suddenly.   I picked it up and heard the voice of General Secretary 
Jiang.   "Comrade Xuesen, I'd like to consult you on two issues.   
Nowadays, physicists are talking about the theory of superabstruseness 
and the phenomenon of turbidity.   Would you please say something about 
them?"   I replied:   "I have written an article on the issues.   I will 
forward them to you for reference."   Later on, I delivered him a 
dissertation written by me, entitled "Basic Scientific Research Must Take 
Marxist Philosophy as Guide," in which I addressed several abstruse 
scientific and philosophical issues in modern physics.   Occupied with a 
myriad of state affairs, General Secretary Jiang still managed to draw 
time to study the latest physical theories.   On 11 January, 1995, my 
colleagues and I submitted to General Secretary Jiang a dissertation 
entitled "We Should Study How To Greet 21st Century."   It had taken us 
one year to write it.   A few days later, having read our dissertation, 
General Secretary Jiang alone came to my home by car.   I remember that 
it was on 29 January.   We talked for nearly three hours about a few 
major issues discussed in the dissertation.   I saw that he was extremely 
concerned with China's long-term development.   I know that General 
Secretary Jiang has also regularly discussed with quite a few other 
scientists key issues relating to scientific and technological 
development.   He also often invites experts in different specialties to 
the Zhongnanhai to lecture the central leaders on scientific, 
technological, economic, and legal issues.   Thanks to his sound 
scientific and political training, General Secretary Jiang has integrated 
the fundamental tenets of Marxism with significant scientific, 
technological, cultural, and military changes in the contemporary world 
and China, coming up from a high plane with his important thinking of 
"Three Represents."   Indeed, the "Three Represents," which includes 
representing the demand of China's advanced productive forces 
development, representing the direction of China's advanced cultures 
development, and representing the fundamental interests of the broadest 
majority of people in China, is profoundly scientific in content. 

    In learning and studying the important thinking of "Three 
Represents," we must learn to view its backdrop and significance through 
integrating science with politics.   Instead of being purely political or 
scientific in nature, "Three Represents" signals an organic integration 
and distillation of science and politics.   Certainly, it is no easy job 
to integrate science and politics, as this requires superb wisdom.   
However, "Three Represents" reflects exactly such wisdom through a 
theoretical summation. 

    General Secretary Jiang is also chairman of the Central Military 
Commission.   Why has he been able to command the whole army?   In my 
view, the reason is that he has been able to integrate science and 
politics, or integrate scientific, political, and military affairs.   His 
important thinking of "Three Represents" calls for representing "the 
fundamental interests of the broadest majority of people in China," which 
is also the aim of our party and our people's army.   In view of the 
nature of our army, Chairman Mao put forth his thinking on a people's 
war, under which, our army has defeated superior enemies and won 
revolutionary wars.   Considering a new situation, General Secretary 
Jiang has set about further developing the thinking on a people's war by 
urging us to study new strategies and tactics aimed at inheriting and 
carrying forward under hi-tech conditions the thinking on a people's war. 
  He has also called for upholding the party's absolute leadership over 
the armed forces, building strong armed forces with science and 
technology, stepping up quality building within the armed forces.   In so 
doing, he has innovated on and developed the integration of science and 
politics for army building.   General Secretary Jiang has also laid 
emphasis on both the dynamic role of human beings in a war and the 
importance of modern weapons and equipment.   In view of the dialectical 
relations of human beings and weapons, he has also demanded "an optimal 
integration of human beings and weapons."   After studying his thinking, 
I thought it over for a long time.   I realized that his is the best view 
on this topic.   For years, handling relations between human beings and 
weapons has been a key research topic in military science.   To do so, we 
have to overcome subjective idealism by refraining from overemphasizing 
the role of human beings.   At the same time, we must also overcome the 
worship of weapons by refraining from overemphasizing the role of 
weapons.   Of course, we should understand the dialectical relations of 
human beings and weapons.   Yet, this alone is not enough.   General 
Secretary Jiang has hit the nail on the head by demanding an optimal 
integration of human beings and weapons. By so doing, he has made clear 
the dialectical relations of the two.   His thinking is also 
user-friendly, with explicit guiding principles for the establishment and 
training of armed forces and for equipment development, under which those 
responsible for the establishment and training of armed forces have to 
analyze the characteristics of new weapons and equipment, while those 
responsible for weapons and equipment development have to analyze how to 
ensure user-friendliness.   Only by so doing is it possible to secure an 
optimal integration of human beings and weapons and bring into full play 
the fighting capacity of armed forces.   For some time, our equipment may 
still lag behind that of others.   Nevertheless, being a people's army, 
our armed forces may still maintain the upper hand ideologically and 
politically.   By bringing into full play the dynamic role of human being 
and optimally integrating human beings and weapons, we will be able to 
defeat enemies armed with superior equipment.   Yet, the crux of the 
matter is whether or not we are able to secure "an optimal integration" 
during the establishment and training of forces with the existing weapons 
and equipment. 

    General Secretary Jiang's thinking may also apply to sectors other 
than the military.   For instance, we have developed computers, networks, 
and intelligence systems.   Yet, no matter how advanced our automatic and 
intelligence systems may become, human brains will remain irreplaceable.  
 In view of this, insofar as computerized intelligence systems are 
concerned, I have proposed that "human beings and computers be 
integrated," with emphasis on the former.   In so saying, I believe that 
computers must be allowed to do whatever they are capable of while human 
beings must be encouraged to think creatively.   We must view human 
beings and computers as an integral system.   We must work hard to secure 
"an integration of human beings and computers" by stressing the former 
and allowing the two to benefit each other with their respective strong 
points.   Abroad, some people are still unaware of dialectics in this 
respect.   They have kept stressing the role of machines and computers, 
with a huge amount of funds spent the development of human intelligence 
systems that have proven to be inferior to human brains.   We must avoid 
taking a similar road. 

    On 31 May, 2002, General Secretary Jiang delivered at the Central 
Party School an important speech, calling for holding high the great 
banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory, comprehensively implementing the 
requirements of "Three Represents," keeping abreast with the development 
of the times, and striving to open up fresh vistas for the cause of 
building socialism with Chinese characteristics.   After reading the 
media reports, Comrade Qian Xuesen, over the age of 90, set about 
conscientiously studying the speech.   Comrade Qian noted:   In his 
speech, General Secretary Jiang stated that with the arrival of the new 
century, China has entered a new stage of development, with stress on 
comprehensively building a comparatively well-off society and expediting 
a socialist modernization drive.   General Secretary Jiang also stressed 
the need to bring forth a new train of thought for development, secure a 
fresh breakthrough in reform, and open up new vistas for opening up.   In 
my view, what General Secretary Jiang has stressed is one word, namely, 
"new."   In particular, General Secretary Jiang has also called for 
developing socialist democracy and building socialist political 
civilization.   In my view, this signals an important theoretical 
development, with which we are able to turn China's socialist 
modernization drive into an integral system aimed at building socialist 
material civilization, socialist spiritual civilization, and socialist 
political civilization. 

    Comrade Qian Xuesen stated:   In one word, General Secretary Jiang 
Zemin's important thinking of "Three Represents" is rich in content.   I 
am still studying it.   Many good articles written by the theoretical 
circles are also worth reading.   The above are merely what I have 
generalized thus far. 

[Description of Source: Beijing Renmin Ribao (Internet Version-WWW) in 
Chinese -- Internet version of daily newspaper of the CPC Central 
Committee (People's Daily).   Root URL on filing date:   
http://www.peopledaily.com.cn]