Title: "Gulf Crisis: Chronology for June, July 1991." Chronological listing of key facts and events in the Persian Gulf crisis from June 5 to August 2. (910802)
Translated Title: Crisis del Golfo: Chronologia de Junio y Julio de 1991. (910802)
08/02/91 GULF CRISIS: CHRONOLOGY FOR JUNE, JULY 1991 (3560)
(The following is an update of the chronology of key facts and events in the Persian Gulf crisis.)
-- Iraq has systematically diverted substantial quantities of World Food Program (WFP) food shipments into the Ministry of Trade's regular food ration system, White House spokesman Marlin Fitzwater says in a special White House statement. "This is another cynical example of Saddam's disregard for vulnerable groups of women and children in favor of actions designed to buttress his regime's standing," Fitzwater says. The WFP limits distribution of stocks in the country until the problem is adequately solved.
-- The first group of weapons experts to oversee the destruction of Iraq's chemical and biological weapons is scheduled to arrive in Baghdad June 9, the U.N. announces.
The U. N. Special Commission (UNSCOM) overseeing Iraq's disarmament estimates that Iraq has about 600 tons of chemical weapons, and says it has "indication from some governments that there are more chemical weapons than Iraq has disclosed." UNSCOM inspections will seek to determine whether Iraq has any biological weapons-related items that should be destroyed.
-- The government of Kuwaiti announces that martial law will end on June 25. Kuwait's minister of Justice says that all court cases will be considered by the regular court system after June 25.
-- The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) assumes responsibility for the management of the Operation Provide Comfort, the allied program to assist Kurdish refugees in northern Iraq. UNHCR will also coordinate the role of the non-governmental and private
GE 2 POL504 voluntary organizations providing food distribution, water, health care, shelter and social services to Iraqi refugees and displaced persons.
-- U.S. Ambassador to Kuwait Edward Gnehm applauds Kuwait's "incredible achievements" in rebuilding since its liberation from Iraqi occupation. Gnehm also calls on Kuwaitis to "champion justice and firmness for all people living in Kuwait in the same way the entire world stood for those principles for Kuwaitis."
-- Iraq's compliance with U.N Security Council resolution 687 ending the war has been "far less than even adequate, satisfactory compliance," consequently, trade sanctions against Baghdad are likely to remain in place, says U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Alexander Watson, following a two-hour U.N. Security Council review meeting. UNSEC resolution 687 establishes a timetable for Iraq to meet each requirement, and calls for the first review of Baghdad's compliance in 60 days. The resolution calls for a gradual lifting of the economic embargo as Iraq complies.
-- U.N. Secretary General Perez de Cuellar chairs a pledging conference in Geneva to raise funds for the Iraq/Kuwait, Iraq/Turkey and Iraq/Iran border programs. The United Nations says that its emergency aid programs for Iraq, Kuwait, Iran and Turkey are more than 240 million dollars in debt and seriously in need of funds for food and to support the U.N. guards in Kurdish cities.
-- U.S. Ambassador Alexander Watson tells the U.N. Security Council that 50 percent of Iraq's oil revenues should be set aside to pay compensation for gulf war damages. Watson says that the U.S. feels Perez de Cuellar's recommendation of 30 percent is "a little too low." U.N mandatory sanctions against Iraqi oil are still in place, however, and no Iraqi oil sales are expected in the near future.
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-- U.N. Assistant Secretary General Richard Foran says Kuwait will be receiving the first major shipment of its property looted by Iraq in about two weeks: 3,216 gold bricks, in a transfer in Arar, Saudi Arabia, 60 km. south of the Iraqi border and 400 km west of Kuwait. Foran says there is no evidence so far that any of the Kuwait Museum pieces are now on the international art market.
-- The United States will continue vigorously to encourage the United Nations to implement the provisions of U.N. Security Council Resolution 687, which calls for a continuing embargo on military equipment to Iraq, and international supervision of the destruction of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles with ranges over 150 kilometers, Assistant Secretary of State John Kelly tells the U.S. Congress.
-- It is important that the IAEA and UNSCOM inspection teams use "to maximum effect" their authority to carry out "short-notice, suspect-site inspections" to assure the elimination of Iraq's nuclear capability, says State Department Deputy Spokesman Richard Boucher. Ambassador Rolf Ekeus of Sweden is executive chairman of UNSCOM and Dr. Robert L. Gallucci of the U.S. is deputy executive chairman. Disarmament experts from 19 other nations serve on the commission.
-- U.N. officials confirm that about 10 officials and weapons experts from the IAEA and UNSCOM are scheduled to return to Iraq to investigate reports of additional nuclear weapons-grade uranium sites.
The group seeks to investigate assertions by an Iraqi scientist who defected to U.S. troops in northern Iraq that the Iraqi regime has been trying to manufacture weapons-grade uranium for use in nuclear weapons and has four secret installations that survived allied bombing during the war.
-- The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopts U.N. resolution 699 which approves the Secretary General's plan for the IAEA and the UNSCOM to carry out the destruction of Iraq's weapons.
-- The U.N. Security Council in a separate action, also adopts resolution 700 reaffirming the arms embargo against Iraq. The embargo covers all forms of conventional weapons and military equipment; chemical and biological weapons and their components; all ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 kilometers, and nuclear weapons or nuclear weapons usable material or components. The council asks all countries to monitor arms shipments and impose penalties for violations.
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-- State Department Deputy Spokesman Richard Boucher reiterates U.S. concerns about the need for due process in the continuing series of martial law court trials in Kuwait. "We're consistently stressed to the government of Kuwait...the importance of respect for human rights and principles of due process and we have continued to do that during the course of the current trials," Boucher says.
-- The U.S. Treasury Department adds seven persons to its list identifying front companies as agents of Iraq, as a part of an ongoing Treasury investigation to uncover and neutralize Iraq's worldwide procurement and financial network. They are: Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Saddam's paternal first cousin and Iraq's Minister of the Interior; Hussein Kanel Al-Majid, Saddam's son-in-law who heads Iraq's Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization; Barzan Ibrahim Hassan Al-Takriti, Saddam's half-brother who acts as Permanent Representative of Iraq to the United Nations in Geneva; Sabawi Ibrahim Al-Takriti, Saddam's half-brother and Director of the Iraqi Intelligence Service; Watban Al- Takriti, Saddam's half-brother who serves as an official in Iraq's Presidential Palace; Udai Saddam Hussein, Saddam's eldest son; and Latif Nusayyif Jaasim, a member of the Revolutionary Command Council and former Minister of Culture and Information of the Government of Iraq.
-- A majority of the Security Council's 15 members agree that the trade sanctions against Iraq will not be lifted, but keeping Iraqi trade sanctions in place was not meant to hurt Iraqi civilians, says U.S. Ambassador Alexander Watson.
"Conditions in Iraq may be difficult for a whole lot of reasons...which have to do with the behavior of the Iraqi government," Watson says.
-- The United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) team sent to Iraq to destroy chemical weapons, issues a statement on the results of its first inspection in Iraq at the Muthanna State Establishment. They report that Iraqi representatives told the team that the site has been used for the production of the herbicides Propanil and Dalapon and for research on the nerve agents Soman and VX, but that no large-scale production of the nerve agents has been undertaken. The report concludes that the visit was "only an initial exploratory inspection" and that it was not possible to come to any conclusion as to the veracity of
GE 5 POL504 the overall Iraqi declaration concerning the Muthanna State Establishment.
-- The Kuwaiti government announces the end of martial law.
-- The United States accuses Iraq of deliberately deceiving the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) about its nuclear weapons program, and denounces Baghdad for blocking a surprise inspection of a military site suspected of containing nuclear materials. The United States "is deeply concerned by the Iraqi regime's flouting of its obligations under U.N. Security Council Resolution 687," says State Department spokesman Margaret Tutwiler in a special statement.
-- Iraq has denied necessary access by the United Nations special commission (UNSCOM) in Iraq to verify and account for Iraq's nuclear material and weapons of mass destruction, Assistant Secretary of State John Kelly tells Congress. Iraqis prevented access to sites "where suspicious activity was underway," Kelly says. " We're not going to have to take no for an answer....We are very determined to see these resolutions carried out in their entirety. We are going to urge that the U.N. take strong action against Iraq because this kind of violation of the Security Council resolutions ...is unacceptable."
-- The U.N. Security Council holds formal and informal sessions "to express deep dismay at Iraq's attempt to conceal the extent of its nuclear weapons related program." The Council instructs its current president, the representative of the Ivory Coast, Jean-Jacques Bechio, to meet with Iraq's permanent representative to demand "new written assurances that Iraq will comply with resolution 687." The Council president is instructed to indicate that the Security Council insists that Iraq make available immediately to the Special Committee that equipment which was removed from the site in Iraq.
-- Deputy Assistant Secretary of State David Mack summons the head of Iraq's interests section in Washington to the State Department to warn that Baghdad must strictly adhere to provisions of United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 regarding inspections of its nuclear facilities.
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-- The United States says warning shots were fired June 28 at inspection teams as Iraqi authorities prevented a surprise inspection of a military facility for the second time in a week. Denouncing Iraq's "total disregard" for a United Nations resolution 687 requiring unimpeded access to suspected nuclear sites, State Department spokesman Margaret Tutwiler, characterizes Iraq's behavior as "an unambiguous and flagrant breach of U.N. Security Council resolution 687."
-- President Bush in a statement from Kennebunkport, Maine asserts that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein must comply with United Nations resolutions. "I want to see full implementation of those U.N. resolutions -- and so does everybody else," the president says.
-- The U.N. Security Council decides to send a special mission to Baghdad to discuss with Iraqi authorities the latest clash between the Iraqi military and a U.N. team trying to inspect uranium enrichment material believed moved to a second Iraqi facility. According to Rolf Ekeus, the Swedish diplomat who heads a special U.N. commission, the team was once again denied entry to the Al Falluja facility early in the morning of June 28. The event marks the second time within a week that Iraq has violated U.N. Security Council Resolution 687.
-- A U.N. mission including Ambassador Rolf Ekeus, executive chairman of UNSCOM; Hans Blix, the director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency; and Yasushi Akashi U.N. undersecretary general for information leaves for Iraq.
-- The U.S. plans extensive diplomatic consultations on Iraq's continued defiance concerning international nuclear inspections, says White House deputy press secretary Roman Popadiuk.
-- The United States demands full disclosure of Iraqi nuclear activities and immediate access to Iraqi facilities by United Nations inspectors. State Department spokesman
GE 7 POL504 Margaret Tutwiler says the government of Iraq, in a 29-page letter addressed to U.N. Secretary General Perez de Cuellar, acknowledges that Iraq hid equipment from the U.N./IAEA for certain 'national security reasons' but it maintains that its program is for peaceful purposes only. Statements Iraq makes about the extent of its capabilities do not comport with U.S. scientific data about Iraq's program, says Tutwiler. "We find that totally unacceptable," she says, pointing out that Iraq accepted Security council resolution 687 and agreed to implement it in full.
-- Defense Department spokesman Pete Williams says of the nearly half million refugees who fled at the height of the crisis, "only about 9,500 remain in the U.N. camp at Zakhu." He says the U.S. military's humanitarian mission in northern Iraq "has been pretty well completed."
-- The five permanent United Nations Security Council representatives meeting in Paris on arms transfers and non- proliferation, call for a weapons-of-mass-destruction-free- zone in the Middle East. The United States, the United Kingdom, China, France and the Soviet Union say the Middle East is a primary area of tension, and agree to meet in September to develop consultation and information exchanges concerning arms transfers to the region.
-- The government of Iraq is "fully liable" under both existing international law and U.N. Security Council Resolution 687 for "wanton" environmental damage caused during its occupation of Kuwait, U.S. State Department legal adviser Michael J. Matheson tells the Congress.
-- Pentagon spokesman Pete Williams says allied forces departing from northern Iraq have warned Baghdad against breaching the peace again in the region. Williams says that Iraqi officials have been informed of specific coalition demands: Iraqi aircraft are not to fly north of the 36th parallel, and the Iraqi army, special policy and military border guards must remain outside the security zone.
-- The five permanent members of the Security council warn Iraq to give a full accounting of all its nuclear weapons material in the next two weeks or face serious consequences. Western diplomats will not revel details of the private meeting between the five ambassadors and Iraqi Ambassador Abul Amir Al-Anbari. The five give Baghdad until
GE 8 POL504 July 25 to cooperate fully with the U.N. teams in the country.
-- Kurdish rebel leader Jalal Talabani meets with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and says their talk has cleared some obstacles to a Kurdish autonomy agreement. But Massoud Barzani, head of the Kurdish Democratic Party, says outstanding issues still remain with Iraq, including the size of the future autonomous Kurdish area, and provisions in a multiparty law allowing Saddam Hussein's ruling Baath Party alone to campaign within armed forces and security zones.
-- The basic humanitarian needs of the Iraqi people can be met within the existing U.N. Security Council sanctions, says State Department spokesman Richard Boucher, but he said the U.S. thinks that any mechanism developed to provide essential supplies to the Iraqi people "must include strict control and close monitoring." Boucher says since March 22, shipments of over 1.1 million tons of food (for Iraq) have been reported amounting to one ton for every 18 Iraqis. The U.S. is "closely consulting with members of the Security Council and our coalition partners."
-- The U.N. Special Commission (UNSCOM) reports that it has found another large multi-billion dollar uranium enrichment plant which Baghdad omitted from its declarations to the U.N. Security Council. They report that there are still discrepancies between what Iraq has declared and what the experts are finding as they inspect facilities around the country. The team says the type of facilities seen so far are not practical for peaceful atomic energy uses.
-- UNSCOM confirms reports that it received documents from Iraq filed July 18 admitting that Baghdad also has been building a "super gun." Iraq had denied having such a gun as recently as May. The commission is trying to determine if the weapon was intended for chemical, biological or nuclear use, say diplomats speaking on background.
-- Assistant Secretary of State John Bolton, testifying to the Congress on a proposal to unfreeze Iraqi assets and turn them over to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), says the U.S. is sympathetic to the needs of the Iraqi people and the intentions of the proposal, but says "the first initiative must come from Baghdad. They have shown no such humanitarian indications."
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-- U.S. Ambassador Thomas Pickering, sharply denouncing Iraq's violations of the cease-fire agreement that ended the war, tells the Congress that any provision of aid to Iraqi citizens must be strictly controlled and supervised by the international community.
-- UNSCOM says "much work needs to be done" to establish the full extent of Baghdad's program, and a third of nuclear experts and IAEA officials is now viewing sites and collecting data in Iraq.
-- United Nations guards on duty in northern Iraq report clashes between Kurds and Iraqi forces. Preliminary information received by the office of Executive Delegate Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan in Geneva indicate casualties between 50 and 500; the number of wounded is undetermined.
-- The governing council of the U.N. Compensation Commission, composed of representatives of the current 15 members of the U.N Security Council, holds its first session in Geneva to establish guidelines for the presenting and evaluating claims resulting from Iraq's occupation of Kuwait.
-- Fausto Pocar, human rights expert from Italy, and chairman of the U.N. Human Rights Committee meeting in Geneva, criticizes Iraq for "unsatisfactory" answers to questions about its compliance with international human rights standards says that the committee "had not been satisfied at all" with Iraq's answers to questions about its actions surrounding the invasion of Kuwait. In some cases the answers had been "nonexistent," he said.
-- The deadline set by the five permanent members of the Security Council for Iraq's full disclosure of its nuclear program passes quietly with diplomats still dissatisfied with Baghdad's response.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), declaring that Iraq not only did not disclose the full extent of its
* PAGE 10 PAGE 10 POL504 nuclear program as required by the council's cease-fire resolution, but also committed material breaches of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, plans a fourth inspection of Iraq's facilities. British Ambassador Hannay, noting "We are all considering very carefully where to go from here and that is a matter of concern for the council in days ahead," says "One way or another, Iraq's nuclear program is going to be removed."
Defense Department spokesman Pete Williams, says while "talk of military action was never linked specifically to the July 25 deadline...we continue to be prepared to undertake military action if we get that order."
-- President Bush notifies the Congress that he has extended executive orders August 2 and 9, 1990 declaring a complete embargo on trade with Iraq.
The president says the Iraqi regime "has continued to violate basic human rights by repressing the Iraqi civilian population and depriving it of humanitarian assistance, and by failing to comply fully with binding United Nations Security Council resolutions. The United States will continue to apply economic sanctions to deter Iraq from threatening the peace and stability of the region."
-- U.N. officials confirm that Kuwait will begin receiving the gold, banknotes and currency stolen by Iraq during the occupation on August 5.
The transfer of 3,216 gold bars will be supervised by the United Nations in the town of Ar'ar, Saudi Arabia, 60 kilometers south of the Iraqi border and 400 kilometers west of Kuwait. Hans Glittenberg, administration chief of the U.N.'s Vienna office, will oversee the transfer; two gold experts from the National Bank of Austria will take part.
-- UNSCOM inspectors say Iraq has 46,000 chemical weapons in its arsenal -- four times the number originally declared. Baghdad originally claimed in its report to the U.N Security council that it had about 11,100 agent filled munitions weapons and 1,000 tons of bulk agent and bulk precursor materials.
"Members of the council were struck by the new figures on chemical weapons which were given to them for the first
* PAGE 11 PAGE 11 POL504 time and the size of the stockpile," U.S. Ambassador Thomas Pickering says.
Ambassador Rolf Ekeus, UNSCOM chairman, says that investigators were surprised at the "size and the magnitude of the chemical weapons and the facilities" they found during their first inspection visit to a 25-square-mile site near Samarra in mid-June. As a result of the disclosures, Ekeus says, the special commission will be carrying out "a large and complex inspection program" with "five inspections in a row."
One team of 70 chemical weapons experts is scheduled to go to Iraq in September for six to eight weeks. Two other missions to different sites are also being scheduled for August.
-- Hans Blix, IAEA director general, reporting to the Security Council on the results of the third inspection of Iraq's nuclear facilities, an upcoming visit to look for biological weapons sites, and plans to monitor Iraq's long-range compliance with the cease-fire requirement, says that the full extent of Iraq's nuclear capability is unknown and the IAEA does not yet have an inventory of all nuclear material in the country.
A U.N. team of biological weapons inspectors arrives in Baghdad, although Iraq has declared it has no biological weapons program. NNNN
File Identification: 08/02/91, PO-504; 08/02/91, AX-503; 08/02/91, AR-512; 08/02/91, PX-502; 08/02/91, EU-508; 08/02/91, NE-505; 08/02/91, NA-508; 08/05/91, AS-103; 08/05/91, NA-107
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Keywords: PERSIAN GULF WAR; IRAQ/Defense & Military; INSPECTIONS; ARMS CONTROL VERIFICATION; INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY; NUCLEAR WEAPONS; UNITED NATIONS-HIGH COMMISSION FOR REFUGEE AFFAIRS (UNHCR); REFUGEE RELIEF; IRAQ/Economic
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Thematic Codes: 1NE; 1UN; 1AC; 6RE
Target Areas: AF; AR; EA; EU; NE
PDQ Text Link: 192630; 192774