Index Military Definitions

back order. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The quantity of an item requisitioned by ordering activities that is not immediately available for issue but is recorded as a stock commitment for future issue.

back tell. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The transfer of information from a higher to a lower echelon of command. See also track telling.

back-haul airlift. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The rearward movement of personnel and materiel from an air terminal in forward deployed areas back to a staging base (either in-theater or out) after the normal forward delivery. See also staging base.

back-scattering. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Radio wave propagation in which the direction of the incident and scattered waves, resolved along a reference direction (usually horizontal), are oppositely directed. A signal received by back-scattering is often referred to as back-scatter.

back-up. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In cartography, an image printed on the reverse side of a map sheet already printed on one side. Also the printing of such images.

backfill. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Reserve Component units and individuls recalled to replace deploying active units and/or individuals in the continental United States and outside the continental United States. See also Reserve Components.

backfitting. [DSMC] The addition of new type equipment to the configuration of operating systems or the installation of equipment in production systems which have been delivered without such equipment. Also called retrofit.

background count. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The evidence or effect on a detector of radiation, other than that which it is desired to detect, caused by any agent. In connection with health protection, the background count usually includes radiations produced by naturally occurring radioactivity and cosmic rays.

background radiation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Nuclear (or ionizing) radiations arising from within the body and from the surroundings to which individuals are always exposed.

background training. The training that provides basic technical knowledge and skills required to prepare for further specialized training.

backlog. [DSMC] That known work input which is beyond the workload capability of an organization or segment of an organization for any given period of time.

backshore. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The area of a beach extending from the limit of high water foam lines to dunes or extreme inland limit of the beach.

backup aircraft authorization. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Aircraft over and above the primary aircraft authorized to permit scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, modifications, and inspections and repair without reduction of aircraft available for the operational mission. No operating resources are allocated for these aircraft in the Defense budget. See also primary aircraft authorization.

backup aircraft inventory. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The aircraft designated to meet the backup authorization. See also primary aircraft inventory.

backwash. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An even layer of water that moves along the sea floor from the beach through the surf zone and caused by the pile-up of water on the beach from incoming breakers.

balance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A concept as applied to an arms control:

l Adjustments of armed forces and armaments in such a manner that one state does not obtain military advantage over other states agreeing to the measure.

l Internal adjustments by one state of its forces in such manner as to enable it to cope with all aspects of remaining threats to its security in a post arms control agreement era.

balance station zero. See reference datum.

balanced stock(s). [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l That condition of supply when availability and requirements are in equilibrium for specific items.

l An accumulation of supplies in quantities determined necessary to meet requirements for a fixed period.

balanced line. [DSMC] A series of progressive related operations with approximately equal standard times for each, arranged so that work flows at a desired steady rate from one operation to the next.

balanced stock(s). 1That condition of supply when availability and requirements are in equilibrium for specific items. 2An accumulation of supplies in quantities determined necessary to meet requirements for a fixed period.

bale cubic capacity. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The space available for cargo measured in cubic feet to the inside of the cargo battens, on the frames, and to the underside of the beams. In a general cargo of mixed commodities, the bale cubic applies. The stowage of the mixed cargo comes in contact with the cargo battens and as a general rule does not extend to the skin of the ship.

balisage. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The marking of a route by a system of dim beacon lights enabling vehicles to be driven at near daytime speed, under blackout conditions.

ball park estimate. [DSMC] Very rough estimate (usually cost estimate), but with some knowledge and confidence.

ballistic missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any missile which does not rely upon aerodynamic surfaces to produce lift and consequently follows a ballistic trajectory when thrust is terminated. See also aerodynamic missile; guided missile.

ballistic missile early warning system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An electronic system for providing detection and early warning of attack by enemy intercontinental ballistic missiles.

ballistic trajectory. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The trajectory traced after the propulsive force is terminated and the body is acted upon only by gravity and aerodynamic drag.

ballistic wind. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That constant wind that would have the same effect upon the trajectory of a bomb or projectile as the wind encountered in flight.

ballistics. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The science or art that deals with the motion, behavior, appearance, or modification of missiles or other vehicles acted upon by propellants, wind, gravity, temperature, or any other modifying substance, condition, or force.

balloon barrage. See barrage, part 2.

balloon reflector. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In electronic warfare, a balloon-supported confusion reflector to produce fraudulent echoes.

band pass. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The number of cycles per second expressing the difference between the limiting frequencies at which the desired fraction (usually half power) of the maximal output is obtained. Term applies to all types of amplifiers.

Bandit. Hostile aircraft.

bands of performance. A costing ceiling and performance floor that describes a performance characteristic of a system. The cost ceiling is most cost and operationally effective capability that the materiel developer can achieve without going over the highest acceptable cost. The performance floor is the least operational capability that the user will accept.

bandwidth. [DoD] The range of frequencies available for signals.

bank. [DSMC] A planned accumulation of work-in-process to permit reasonable fluctuations in performance times of coordinated or associated operations.

bank angle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The angle between the aircraft's normal axis and the Earth's vertical plane containing the aircraft's longitudinal axis.

bar. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A submerged or emerged embankment of sand, gravel, or mud created on the sea floor in shallow water by waves and currents. A bar may be composed of mollusk shells.

bar chart. [DSMC] The detailed graphical working plan of a part providing sequence and time for the job scheduled ahead and progress to date.

bar scale. See graphic scale; scale.

bare base. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A base having minimum essential facilities to house, sustain, and support operations to include, if required, a stabilized runway, taxiways, and aircraft parking areas. A bare base must have a source of water that can be made potable. Other requirements to operate under bare base conditions form a necessary part of the force package deployed to the bare base. See also base.

barge. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A flat-bed, shallow-draft vessel with no superstructure that is used for the transport of cargo and ships' stores or for general utility purposes. See also watercraft.

barometric altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The altitude determined by a barometric altimeter by reference to a pressure level and calculated according to the standard atmosphere laws. See also altitude.

barrage. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A prearranged barrier of fire, except that delivered by small arms, designed to protect friendly troops and installations by impeding enemy movements across defensive lines or areas.

l A protective screen of balloons that are moored to the ground and kept at given heights to prevent or hinder operations by enemy aircraft. This meaning also called balloon barrage.

l A type of electronic attack intended for simultaneous jamming over a wide area of frequency spectrum.

See also barrage jamming; electronic warfare; fire.

barrage fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fire which is designed to fill a volume of space or area rather than aimed specifically at a given target. See also fire.

barrage jamming. Simultaneous electromagnetic jamming over a broad band of frequencies. See also jamming.

barricade. See aircraft arresting barrier.

barrier. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A coordinated series of obstacles designed or employed to channel, direct, restrict, delay, or stop the movement of an opposing force and to impose additional losses in personnel, time, and equipment on the opposing force. Barriers can exist naturally, be manmade, or a combination of both.

barrier combat air patrol. [JP 1-02] (DoD) One or more divisions or elements of fighter aircraft employed between a force and an objective area as a barrier across the probable direction of enemy attack. It is used as far from the force as control conditions permit, giving added protection against raids that use the most direct routes of approach. See also combat air patrol.

barrier forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Air, surface, and submarine units and their supporting systems positioned across the likely courses of expected enemy transit for early detection and providing rapid warning, blocking, and destruction of the enemy.

barrier, obstacle, and mine warfare plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A comprehensive, coordinated plan which includes responsibilities, general location of unspecified and specific barriers, obstacles, and minefields, special instructions, limitations, coordination, and completion times. The plan may designate locations of obstacle zones or belts. It is normally prepared as an annex to a campaign plan, operation plan, or operation order.

base. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A locality from which operations are projected or supported.

l An area or locality containing installations which provide logistic or other support. See also establishment.

l Home airfield or home carrier.

See also base of operations; facility.

base cluster. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In base defense operations, a collection of bases, geographically grouped for mutual protection and ease of command and control.

base cluster commander. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In base defense operations, the senior officer in the base cluster (excluding medical officers, chaplains, and commanders of transient units), with responsibility for coordinating the defense of bases within the base cluster and for integrating defense plans of bases into a base cluster defense plan.

base cluster operations center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command and control facility that serves as the base cluster commander's focal point for defense and security of the base cluster.

base command. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An area containing a military base or group of such bases organized under one commander. See also command.

base commander. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In base defense operations, the officer assigned to command a base.

base complex. See Army base; installation complex; Marine base; Naval base; Naval or Marine (air) base. See also noncontiguous facility.

base defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The local military measures, both normal and emergency, required to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of enemy attacks on, or sabotage of, a base, to ensure that the maximum capacity of its facilities is available to U.S. forces.

base defense forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Troops assigned or attached to a base for the primary purpose of base defense and security, and augmentees and selectively armed personnel available to the base commander for base defense from units performing primary missions other than base defense.

base defense operations center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command and control facility established by the base commander to serve as the focal point for base security and defense. It plans, directs, integrates, coordinates, and controls all base defense efforts, and coordinates and integrates into area security operations with the rear area operations center/rear tactical operations center.

base defense zone (BDZ). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An air defense zone established around an air base and limited to the engagement envelope of short-range air defense weapons systems defending that base. Base defense zones have specific entry, exit, and identification, friend or foe procedures established.

base development. The improvement or expansion of the resources and facilities of an area or a location to support military operations.

base development (less force beddown). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The acquisition, development, expansion, improvement, and construction and/or replacement of the facilities and resources of an area or location to support forces employed in military operations or deployed in accordance with strategic plans.

base development plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A plan for the facilities, installations, and bases required to support military operations.

base element. See base unit.

base line. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l (surveying) A surveyed line established with more than usual care, to which surveys are referred for coordination and correlation.

l (photogrammetry) The line between the principal points of two consecutive vertical air photographs. It is usually measured on one photograph after the principal point of the other has been transferred.

l (radio navigation systems) The shorter arc of the great circle joining two radio transmitting stations of a navigation system.

l (triangulation) The side of one of a series of coordinated triangles the length of which is measured with prescribed accuracy and precision and from which lengths of the other triangle sides are obtained by computation.

base map. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A map or chart showing certain fundamental information, used as a base upon which additional data of specialized nature are compiled or overprinted. Also, a map containing all the information from which maps showing specialized information can be prepared. See also chart base; map.

base of operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An area or facility from which a military force begins its offensive operations, to which it falls back in case of reverse, and in which supply facilities are organized.

base operations (BASOPS). BASOPS are those requirements that have no interaction with tactical units and do not support an exchange of warfighting information. Examples of BASOPS requirements includes morale, welfare and recreation services; base services support; real estate; facility support services; maintenance and repair; minor construction; and environmental compliance.

base operations requirements. [TP 71] Base operations IT are any requirements which do not fall within the definition of warfighting requirements, e.g., those requirements that have no interaction with tactical units and do not support an exchange of warfighting information. Examples of base operations requirements includes morale, welfare and recreation services; base services support; real estate; facility support services; maintenance and repair; minor construction; and environmental compliance.

base period. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That period of time for which factors were determined for use in current planning and programming.

base program. [DSMC] The program described in the future years defense program base file, updated to conform to the budget presented to the Congress. It constitutes the base from which all current year program changes are considered.

base section. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An area within the communications zone in an area of operations organized to provide logistic support to forward areas.

base surge. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A cloud which rolls out from the bottom of the column produced by a subsurface burst of a nuclear weapon. For underwater bursts, the surge is, in effect, a cloud of liquid droplets which has the property of flowing almost as if it were a homogeneous fluid. For subsurface land bursts the surge is made up of small solid particles but still behaves like a fluid.

base unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Unit of organization in a tactical operation around which a movement or maneuver is planned and performed.

l Base element.

base year (BY). [DSMC] A reference period which determines a fixed price level for comparison in economic escalation calculations and cost estimates. The price level index for the BY is 1.000.

base-level commercial equipment (BCE). [TR 350-70] Nonstandard equipment authorized by table of distribution and allowance (TDA) or joint table of allowances (JTA) (except for some type-classified items purchased by TDA organizations). BCE funds can be used to procure non-standard training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations (TADSS) with a per item cost of less than $100k. Major Army commands (MACOMs) may not purchase TADSS using BCE funds unless the items are specifically approved by HQDA (DCSOPS).

baseline. [DSMC] Defined quantity or quality used as starting point for subsequent efforts and progress measurement that can be a technical cost or schedule baseline. See performance measurement baseline and acquisition program baseline.

baseline comparison system (BCS). [DSMC] A current operational system, or a composite of current operational subsystems, which most closely represents the design, operational, and support characteristics of the new system under development.

baseline cost estimate (BCE). 1A detailed acquisition cost estimate prepared by the materiel developer. It is a detailed estimate of acquisition and ownership normally required for high level decisions. It provides the basis for subsequent tracking and auditing. 2[DSMC] See program office estimate (POE).

baseline data. [TR 350-70] Valid and reliable information about the current level of performance of the student population. This data can be used to confirm the need to develop new instruction or to assess differences between student performance before (at baseline) and after instruction.

baselining. [DSMC] A process whereby all managers concerned collectively agree on the specific description of the program, requirements, funding, and make a commitment to manage the program along those guidelines.

basic cover. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Coverage of any installation or area of a permanent nature with which later coverage can be compared to discover any changes that have taken place.

basic encyclopedia. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A compilation of identified installations and physical areas of potential significance as objectives for attack.

basic intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Fundamental intelligence concerning the general situation, resources, capabilities, and vulnerabilities of foreign countries or areas which may be used as reference material in the planning of operations at any level and in evaluating subsequent information relating to the same subject.

basic load. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The quantity of supplies required to be on hand within, and which can be moved by, a unit or formation. It is expressed according to the wartime organization of the unit or formation and maintained at the prescribed levels.

basic military route network. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Axial, lateral, and connecting routes designated in peacetime by the host nation to meet the anticipated military movements and transport requirements, both allied and national.

basic ordering agreement (BOA). [DSMC] An instrument of understanding (not a contract) executed between a procuring activity and a contractor which sets forth negotiated contract clauses that will be applicable to future procurements entered into between the parties during the term of the agreement. It includes as specific a description as possible of the supplies or services and a description of the method for determining pricing, issuing, and delivery of future orders.

basic psychological operations study. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A document which describes succinctly the characteristics of a country, geographical area, or region which are most pertinent to psychological operations, and which can serve as an immediate reference for the planning and conduct of psychological operations.

basic research. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Research directed toward the increase of knowledge, the primary aim being a greater knowledge or understanding of the subject under study. See also applied research; research.

basic research (6.1). [DSMC] Efforts typically performed in laboratories as experiments to explore the basic laws of science and their potential application to DoD weapon systems or technology development. Funded under the 6.1 activity of the research, development, test, and evaluation appropriation.

basic scientific and technical information. [DSMC] Information relating to fundamental theories, designs, and data for purely theoretical or experimental investigation into possible military application of the knowledge. It does not include manufacturing knowledge or information on operational or development systems.

Basic Skills Education Program (BSEP). [TR 350-70] A program which provides soldiers with educational skills essential for progressing in Army careers. The program is a standard, job-related curriculum providing on-duty instruction in prerequisite academic competencies necessary for job proficiency and preparation for advanced training. In coordination with the educational services officer, commanders determine which soldiers should be enrolled in the program.

basic stocks. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Stocks to support the execution of approved operational plans for an initial predetermined period. See also sustaining stocks.

basic stopping power. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The probability, expressed as a percentage, of a single vehicle being stopped by mines while attempting to cross a minefield.

basic tactical organization. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The conventional organization of landing force units for combat, involving combinations of infantry, supporting ground arms, and aviation for accomplishment of missions ashore. This organizational form is employed as soon as possible following the landing of the various assault components of the landing force.

basic undertakings. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The essential things, expressed in broad terms, that must be done in order to implement the commander's concept successfully. These may include military, diplomatic, economic, psychological, and other measures. See also strategic concept.

basis of issue. (BOI). 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) Authority which prescribes the number of items to be issued to an individual, a unit, a military organization, or for a unit piece of equipment. 2[TR 350-70] The basis by which an item of equipment (i.e., TADSS) will be issued to the using community. Note: The BOI for TADSS will normally be different for the AC, RC, and TRADOC service school(s). The desired method of issue is to provide sufficient quantities of TADSS to a Training Support Center (TSC) to support regional training requirements IAW the CATS. The least desired method because of cost is a per-unit BOI whereby a quantity is designated per battalion, brigade, division, etc. Regardless of the way in which the BOI is structured, TADSS will be issued to the supporting TSC and may be sub-hand receipted to the user on a temporary or permanent basis. Training-unique ammunition, munitions, and inert items (i.e., dummy) procured as Class V supply items, are stored and issued through ammo supply channels.

basis-of-issue plan (BOIP). [TR 350-70] A planning document that lists specific elements (table of organization and equipment- level 1, table of distribution and allowances, common table of allowances, joint table of allowances, and allied ordinance publication) in which a new item of materiel may be placed, the quantity of item proposed for each organization element, and other equipment and personnel required as a result of the introduction of the new item. The BOIP is not an authorization document.

bathymetric contour. See depth contour.

battalion landing team (BLT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In an amphibious operation, an infantry battalion normally reinforced by necessary combat and service elements; the basic unit for planning an assault landing.

battery. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Tactical and administrative artillery unit or subunit corresponding to a company or similar unit in other branches of the Army.

l All guns, torpedo tubes, searchlights, or missile launchers of the same size or caliber or used for the same purpose, either installed in one ship or otherwise operating as an entity.

battery (troop) left (right). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A method of fire in which weapons are discharged from the left (right), one after the other, at five second intervals.

battery center. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A point on the ground, the coordinates of which are used as a reference indicating the location of the battery in the production of firing data. Also called chart location of the battery.

battle. A series of related tactical engagements.

battle command. [TP 525-5] The art of battle decision making, leading, and motivating soldiers and their organizations into action to accomplish mission. Includes visualizing current state and future state, then formulating concepts of operations to get from one to the other at least cost. Also includes assigning missions; prioritizing and allocating resources; selecting the critical time and place to act; and knowing how and when to make adjustments during the fight.

battle damage assessment (BDA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The timely and accurate estimate of damage resulting from the application of military force, either lethal or non-lethal, against a predetermined objective. Battle damage assessment can be applied to the employment of all types of weapon systems (air, ground, naval, and special forces weapon systems) throughout the range of military operations. Battle damage assessment is primarily an intelligence responsibility with required inputs and coordination from the operators. Battle damage assessment is composed of physical damage assessment, functional damage assessment, and target system assessment. See also bomb damage assessment; combat assessment.

battle damage repair. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Essential repair, which may be improvised, carried out rapidly in a battle environment in order to return damaged or disabled equipment to temporary service.

battle drill. A collective action executed in a standard manner without the application of a deliberate decision making process. The action is vital to success in combat or critical to preserving life. The drill is initiated on a cue, such as an enemy action or simple order, and is a trained response to the given stimulus. It requires minimal orders to accomplish and is standard throughout like units. See drill.

battle dynamics. [TP 525-5] Five major interrelated dynamics that define significant areas of change from current operations to Force XXI Operations; dynamics are battle command, battlespace, depth and simultaneous attack, early entry, and combat service support.

battle force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A standing operational Naval task force organization of carriers, surface combatants, and submarines assigned to numbered fleets. A battle force is subdivided into battle groups.

battle group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A standing Naval task group consisting of a carrier or battleship, surface combatants, and submarines as assigned in direct support, operating in mutual support with the task of destroying hostile submarine, surface, and air forces within the group's assigned area of responsibility and striking at targets along hostile shore lines or projecting fire power inland.

battle map. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A map showing ground features in sufficient detail for tactical use by all forces, usually at a scale of 1:25,000. See also map.

battle reserves. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Reserve supplies accumulated by an army, detached corps, or detached division in the vicinity of the battlefield, in addition to unit and individual reserves. See also reserve supplies.

battle space. [TP 525-66] Components of this space are determined by the maximum capabilities of friendly and enemy forces to acquire and dominate each other by fires and maneuver and in the electromagnetic spectrum.

battlefield automated system. A system designed for use by the Army in the field that contains a computer and will not function without it.

battlefield coordination detachment (BCD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An Army liaison provided by the Army component commander to the Air Operations Center (AOC) and/or to the component designated by the joint force commander to plan, coordinate, and deconflict air operations. The battlefield coordination detachment processes Army requests for tactical air support, monitors and interprets the land battle situation for the AOC, and provides the necessary interface for exchange of current intelligence and operational data. See also air operations center; liaison.

battlefield coordination element (BCE). An Army liaison provided by the Army component commander to the air operations center (AOC) and/or to the component designated by the joint force commander to plan, coordinate, and deconflict air operations. The battlefield coordination element processes Army requests for tactical air support, monitors and interprets the land battle situation for the AOC, and provides the necessary interface for exchange of current intelligence and operational data.

battlefield development plan. The summary of the various mission area analyses. It integrates deficiencies identified by specific requirements and presents them to HQDA.

battlefield framework. A area of geographical and operational responsibility established by the commander; it provides a way to visualize how he/she will employ his forces; it helps him relate his forces to one another and to the enemy in time, space, and purpose.

battlefield illumination. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The lighting of the battle area by artificial light, either visible or invisible to the naked eye. See also indirect illumination.

battlefield integration. The act or process of harmonizing separate materiel systems and personnel resources into a cohesive battlefield system, configured to maximize total system capabilities.

battlefield operating systems (BOS). 1Major functions performed by the force on the battlefield to successfully execute Army operations (battles and engagements). Note: The blueprint is organized in three levels of war, each with its own operating systems and major functions. See TRADOC Pam 11-9, Blueprint of the Battlefield. 2[TR 350-70] The major functions occurring on the battlefield.

battlefield psychological activities. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Planned psychological activities conducted as an integral part of combat operations and designed to bring psychological pressure to bear on enemy forces and civilians under enemy control in the battle area, to assist in the achievement of the tactical objectives.

battlefield surveillance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Systematic observation of the battle area for the purpose of providing timely information and combat intelligence. See also surveillance.

battlefield visualization. [TP 525-75] The process whereby the commander develops a clear understanding of his current state with relation to the enemy and environment, envisions a desired end state which represents mission accomplishment and then, subsequently, visualizes the sequence of activity that moves the commander's force from its current state to the desired end state.

battlespace. 1[TP 525-5] Components of this space are determined by the maximum capabilities of friendly and enemy forces to acquire and dominate each other by fires and maneuver and in the electromagnetic spectrum. 2[TP 525-75] Components of this space are determined by the maximum capabilities of friendly and enemy forces to acquire and dominate each other's fires and maneuver. It includes width, depth, height, time, the electromagnetic spectrum, and human factors.

beach. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The area extending from the shoreline inland to a marked change in physiographic form or material, or to the line of permanent vegetation (coastline).

l In amphibious operations, that portion of the shoreline designated for landing of a tactical organization.

beach capacity. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An estimate, expressed in terms of measurement tons, or weight tons, of cargo that may be unloaded over a designated strip of shore per day. See also clearance capacity; port capacity.

beach group. See Naval beach group; shore party.

beach landing site (BLS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A geographic location selected for across-the-beach infiltration, exfiltration, or resupply operations.

beach marker. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A sign or device used to identify a beach or certain activities thereon for incoming waterborne traffic. Markers may be panels, lights, buoys, or electronic devices.

beach minefield. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A minefield in the shallow water approaches to a possible amphibious landing beach. See also minefield.

beach organization. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In an amphibious operation, the planned arrangement of personnel and facilities to effect movement, supply, and evacuation across beaches and in the beach area for support of a landing force.

beach party. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Naval component of the shore party. See also beachmaster unit; shore party.

beach party commander. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Naval officer in command of the Naval component of the shore party.

beach photography. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Vertical, oblique, ground, and periscope coverage at varying scales to provide information of offshore, shore, and inland areas. It covers terrain which provides observation of the beaches and is primarily concerned with the geological and tactical aspects of the beach.

beach reserves. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In an amphibious operation, an accumulation of supplies of all classes established in dumps in beachhead areas. See also reserve supplies.

beach support area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, the area to the rear of a landing force or elements thereof, established and operated by shore party units, which contains the facilities for the unloading of troops and materiel and the support of the forces ashore; it includes facilities for the evacuation of wounded, enemy prisoners of war, and captured materiel.

beach survey. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The collection of data describing the physical characteristics of a beach; that is, an area whose boundaries are a shoreline, a coastline, and two natural or arbitrary assigned flanks.

beach width. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The horizontal dimensions of the beach measured at right angles to the shoreline from the line of extreme low water inland to the landward limit of the beach (the coastline).

beachhead. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A designated area on a hostile or potentially hostile shore that, when seized and held, ensures the continuous landing of troops and materiel, and provides maneuver space requisite for subsequent projected operations ashore.

beachmaster. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Naval officer in command of the beachmaster unit of the Naval beach group.

beachmaster unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A commissioned Naval unit of the Naval beach group designed to provide to the shore party a Naval component known as a beach party which is capable of supporting the amphibious landing of one division (reinforced). See also beach party; shore party.

beacon. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A light or electronic source which emits a distinctive or characteristic signal used for the determination of bearings, courses, or location. See crash locator beacon; fan marker beacon; localizer; meaconing; personal locator beacon; radio beacon; submarine locator acoustic beacon; Z marker beacon.

beacon double. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Pilot select double pulse mode on your tracking beacon."

beacon off. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Turn off your tracking beacon."

beacon on. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Turn on your tracking beacon."

beam attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, an attack by an interceptor aircraft attack which terminates with a heading crossing angle greater than 45 degrees but less than 135 degrees. See also heading crossing angle.

beam rider. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A missile guided by an electronic beam.

beam width. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The angle between the directions, on either side of the axis, at which the intensity of the radio frequency field drops to one-half the value it has on the axis.

bearing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The horizontal angle at a given point measured clockwise from a specific datum point to a second point. See also grid bearing; relative bearing; true bearing.

beaten zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The area on the ground upon which the cone of fire falls.

behavior. [TR 350-70] An observable activity or action. The performance of a skill. See skill.

behavior modification. 1The change in the knowledge, skills, or attitude of an individual. 2[TR 350-70] Methods of influencing behavior, mainly through application of reinforcement and modeling principles.

behavioral attributes. Qualities or activities that characterize an object or process. Behavioral attributes characterize each category of learning.

behavioral objective. See learning objective (LO).

beleaguered. See missing.

bent. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept and close air support, a code meaning, "Equipment indicated is inoperative (temporarily or indefinitely)." Canceled by "Okay."

berm, natural. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The nearly horizontal portion of a beach or backshore having an abrupt fall and formed by deposition of material by wave action. A berm marks the limit of ordinary high tide. For air cushion vehicles, berms (constructed) are required to protect materials handling equipment operations. See also backshore.

besieged. See missing.

best and final offer (BAFO). [DSMC] Upon completion of discussions during a conventional source selection, contracting officers issue to offerors still within the competitive range a request for BAFO. Following evaluation of BAFOs the Source Selection Authority selects that source whose BAFO is most advantageous to the government.

best technical approach (BTA). An element of the concept formulation package which identifies the best technical approach(es) for a materiel solution to a user deficiency. A document prepared by a special task force (STF) or special study group (SSG), or jointly by the combat developer and materiel developer during concept exploration. It identifies the best general technical approach(es) based on the results of the trade-off determination (TOD) and an analysis of trade-offs among support concepts, technical concepts, life-cycle costs, and schedules.

bias. A systematic and pervasive error in measurement, not attributable to chance or random effects.

biennial budget. [DSMC] The fiscal year (FY)86 DoD Authorization Act required the submission of two-year budgets for the DoD beginning with FY88/89. A biennial budget, as currently structured, represents program budget estimates for a two-year period in which FY requirements remain separate and distinct. The Congress, however, still appropriates annual budget authority.

bight. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A bend in a coast forming an open bay or an open bay formed by such a bend.

bilateral infrastructure. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Infrastructure which concerns only two NATO members and is financed by mutual agreement between them (e.g., facilities required for the use of forces of one NATO member in the territory of another). See also infrastructure.

bill. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A ship's publication listing operational or administrative procedures.

billet. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Shelter for troops.

l To quarter troops.

l A personnel position or assignment which may be filled by one person. The position is assigned qualifiers that define the duties, tasks, and functions to be performed and the specific skills and skill level required to perform these functions.

bin storage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Storage of items of supplies and equipment in an individual compartment or subdivision of a storage unit in less than bulk quantities. See also bulk storage; storage.

binary chemical munition. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A munition in which chemical substances, held in separate containers, react when mixed or combined as a result of being fired, launched or otherwise initiated to produce a chemical agent. See also munition.

binding. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The fastening or securing of items to a movable platform called a pallet. See also palletized unit load.

bingo. 1When originated by a pilot, it means, "I have reached minimal fuel for safe return to base or to designated alternate." 2When originated by a controlling activity, it means, "Proceed to alternate airfield or carrier as specified."

bingo field. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Alternate airfield.

bingo fuel. Critical fuel level, usually fuel level necessary for return to base.

biographical intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That component of intelligence which deals with individual foreign personalities of actual or potential importance.

biological agent. A microorganism that causes disease in personnel, plants, or animals or causes the deterioration of materiel. See also biological operation; biological weapon; chemical agent.

biological ammunition. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A type of ammunition, the filler of which is primarily a biological agent.

biological defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The methods, plans, and procedures involved in establishing and executing defensive measures against attacks using biological agents.

biological environment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Conditions found in an area resulting from direct or persisting effects of biological weapons.

biological half-time. See half-life.

biological operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Employment of biological agents to produce casualties in personnel or animals and damage to plants or materiel; or defense against such employment.

biological threat. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A threat that consists of biological material planned to be deployed to produce casualties in personnel or animals and damage plants or other materiel. See also biological agent; biological ammunition; biological defense; biological environment; chemical, biological, and radiological operation; contamination; contamination control.

biological warfare. See biological operation.

biological weapon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An item of materiel which projects, disperses, or disseminates a biological agent including arthropod vectors.

biomechanics. Physical movements of the body and body members which effect human performance and capability.

biomedical. Of or relating to a branch of medical science concerned specifically with the capability of human beings to survive and function in abnormally stressing environments and with the protective modification of such environments.

black. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In intelligence handling, a term used in certain phrases (e.g., living black, black border crossing) to indicate reliance on illegal concealment rather than on cover.

Black Crow. This equipment detects the ignition systems of piston engines. Fitted to AC-130 gunships.

Black Fly/Black Night. Code name for the RB-57D high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft.

black list. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An official counterintelligence listing of actual or potential enemy collaborators, sympathizers, intelligence suspects, and other persons whose presence menaces the security of friendly forces.

black propaganda. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Propaganda which purports to emanate from a source other than the true one. See also propaganda.

Black Spot. Sensor package fitted to the NC-123.

blanking. The period of time in which no video image is displayed. See horizontal blanking and horizontal blanking interval.

blast. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The brief and rapid movement of air, vapor or fluid away from a center of outward pressure, as in an explosion or in the combustion of rocket fuel; the pressure accompanying this movement. This term is commonly used for explosion, but the two terms may be distinguished.

blast effect. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Destruction of or damage to structures and personnel by the force of an explosion on or above the surface of the ground. Blast effect may be contrasted with the cratering and ground-shock effects of a projectile or charge that goes off beneath the surface.

blast line. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A horizontal radial line on the surface of the Earth originating at ground zero on which measurements of blast from an explosion are taken.

blast wave. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A sharply defined wave of increased pressure rapidly propagated through a surrounding medium from a center of detonation or similar disturbance.

blast wave diffraction. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The passage around and envelopment of a structure by the nuclear blast wave.

bleeding edge. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That edge of a map or chart on which cartographic detail is extended to the edge of the sheet.

blind bombing zone. A restricted area (air, land, or sea) established for the purpose of permitting air operations, unrestricted by the operations or possible attack of friendly forces.

blind transmission. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any transmission of information that is made without expectation of acknowledgment.

blip. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The display of a received pulse on a cathode ray tube.

blister agent. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A chemical agent which injures the eyes and lungs, and burns or blisters the skin. Also called vesicant agent.

block design. Development of system improvements in blocks while the basic system is still being developed and continues into production. This replaces or supplements the heel-to-toe development procedures previously inherent in Army policy. It greatly improves responsiveness to battlefield threat. It is used in conjunction with preplanned product improvement (P3I).

block of instruction. A group of related instructional units or modules covering a major subject area.

block modification. [TP 71] A grouping of modifications for the purpose of achieving economies in funds, manpower, equipment and/or time to enhance configuration management. A block modification includes several modifications in engineering, procurement and/or application that are managed as a single modification. Block modifications will be accomplished whenever possible.

block scheduling. Mode of instruction whereby all students receive the same instruction at the same time.

block shipment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A method of shipment of supplies to overseas areas to provide balanced stocks or an arbitrary balanced force for a specific number of days, e.g., shipment of 30 days' supply for an average force of 10,000 individuals.

block stowage loading. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A method of loading whereby all cargo for a specific destination is stowed together. The purpose is to facilitate rapid off-loading at the destination, with the least possible disturbance of cargo intended for other points. See also loading.

blocking. Refers to the process of defining and illustrating the different camera movements and camera shots in a television or film script. A blocked script may also contain directions as to the movement of actors as well as scenery changes.

blocking and chocking. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The use of wedges or chocks to prevent the inadvertent shifting of cargo in transit.

blocking position. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A defensive position so sited as to deny the enemy access to a given area or to prevent his advance in a given direction.

blood agent. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A chemical compound, including the cyanide group, that affects bodily functions by preventing the normal utilization of oxygen by body tissues.

blood chit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A small cloth chart depicting an American Flag and a statement in several languages to the effect that anyone assisting the bearer to safety will be rewarded.

blood chit (intelligence). See blood chit.

blow. [JP 1-02] (DoD) To expose, often unintentionally, personnel, installations, or other elements of a clandestine organization or activity.

blowback. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Escape, to the rear and under pressure, of gases formed during the firing of the weapon. Blowback may be caused by a defective breech mechanism, a ruptured cartridge case, or a faulty primer.

l Type of weapon operation in which the force of expanding gases acting to the rear against the face of the bolt furnishes all the energy required to initiate the complete cycle of operation. A weapon which employs this method of operation is characterized by the absence of any breech-lock or bolt-lock mechanism.

Blue Bark. [JP 1-02] (DoD) U.S. military personnel, U.S. citizen civilian employees of the Department of Defense, and the dependents of both categories who travel in connection with the death of an immediate family member. It also applies to designated escorts for dependents of deceased military members. Furthermore, the term is used to designate the personal property shipment of a deceased member.

Blue Bird. Boeing RC-135C, ELINT aircraft.

blue commander. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The officer designated to exercise operational control over blue forces for a specific period during an exercise.

Blue Eagle. Boeing EC-135J, ABNCP aircraft.

blue forces. U.S. and friendly forces.

blueprint of the battlefield. [TP 11-9] A comprehensive, hierarchical listing of Army functions performed in support of the battlefield and their definitions; collectively includes three blueprints-one for each level of war: strategic, operational, and tactical.

boat diagram. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In the assault phase of an amphibious operation, a diagram showing the positions of individuals and equipment in each boat.

boat group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The basic organization of landing craft. One boat group is organized for each battalion landing team (or equivalent) to be landed in the first trip of landing craft or amphibious vehicles.

boat group commander. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An officer assigned to be embarked in a control boat who is responsible for discipline and organization within the boat group to complete the assigned mission.

boat lane. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A lane for amphibious assault landing craft, which extends seaward from the landing beaches to the line of departure. The width of a boat lane is determined by the length of the corresponding beach.

boat space. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The space and weight factor used to determine the capacity of boats, landing craft, and amphibious vehicles. With respect to landing craft and amphibious vehicles, it is based on the requirements of one person with individual equipment. The person is assumed to weigh 224 pounds and to occupy 13.5 cubic feet of space. See also man space.

boat wave. See wave.

boattail. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The conical section of a ballistic body that progressively decreases in diameter toward the tail to reduce overall aerodynamic drag.

bogey. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An air contact which is unidentified but assumed to be enemy. (Not to be confused with unknown.) See also friendly; hostile.

bomb damage assessment (BDA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The determination of the effect of all air attacks on targets (e.g., bombs, guided missiles, rockets, or strafing). See also battle damage assessment; combat assessment.

bomb disposal unit. See explosive ordnance disposal unit.

bomb impact plot. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A graphic representation of the target area, usually a prestrike air photograph, on which prominent dots are plotted to mark the impact or detonation points of bombs dropped on a specific bombing attack.

bomb line. See fire support coordination line.

bomb release line. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An imaginary line around a defended area or objective over which an aircraft should release its bomb in order to obtain a hit or hits on an area or objective.

bomb release point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The point in space at which bombs must be released to reach the desired point of detonation.

bomber. See intermediate-range bomber aircraft; long-range bomber aircraft; medium-range bomber aircraft.

bombing angle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The angle between the vertical and a line joining the aircraft to what would be the point of impact of a bomb released from it at that instant.

bombing height. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air operations, the height above ground level at which the aircraft is flying at the moment of ordnance release. Bombing heights are classified as follows: very low: below 100 feet; low: from 100 to 2,000 feet; medium: from 2,000 to 10,000 feet; high: from 10,000 to 50,000 feet; very high: 50,000 feet and above.

bombing run. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air bombing, that part of the flight that begins, normally from an initial point, with the approach to the target, includes target acquisition, and ends normally at the weapon release point.

bona fides. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Good faith. In evasion and recovery operations, the use of verbal or visual communication by individuals who are unknown to one another to establish their authenticity, sincerity, honesty, and truthfulness. See also evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery; recovery operations.

bonding. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In electrical engineering, the process of connecting together metal parts so that they make low resistance electrical contact for direct current and lower frequency alternating currents. See also earthing; grounding.

booby trap. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An explosive or non-explosive device or other material, deliberately placed to cause casualties when an apparently harmless object is disturbed or a normally safe act is performed.

Bookie Escort. Air cover for transport aircraft on resupply missions.

boost phase. That portion of the flight of a ballistic missile or space vehicle during which the booster and sustainer engines operate. See also midcourse phase; terminal phase.

booster. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A high-explosive element sufficiently sensitive so as to be actuated by small explosive elements in a fuse or primer and powerful enough to cause detonation of the main explosive filling.

l An auxiliary or initial propulsion system which travels with a missile or aircraft and which may or may not separate from the parent craft when its impulse has been delivered. A booster system may contain, or consist of, one or more units.

boost phase. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of the flight of a ballistic missile or space vehicle during which the booster and sustainer engines operate. See also midcourse phase; reentry phase; terminal phase.

border. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In cartography, the area of a map or chart lying between the neatline and the surrounding framework.

border break. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A cartographic technique used when it is required to extend a portion of the cartographic detail of a map or chart beyond the sheetlines into the margin.

border crosser. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An individual, living close to a frontier, who normally has to cross the frontier frequently for legitimate purposes.

boresafe fuse. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Type of fuse having an interrupter in the explosive train that prevents a projectile from exploding until after it has cleared the muzzle of a weapon. See also fuse.

bottom mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mine with negative buoyancy which remains on the seabed. Also called ground mine. See also mine.

bound. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In land warfare, a single movement, usually from cover to cover, made by troops often under enemy fire.

l Distance covered in one movement by a unit that is advancing by bounds.

boundary. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A line which delineates surface areas for the purpose of facilitating coordination and deconfliction of operations between adjacent units, formations, or areas. See also airspace control boundary.

bouquet mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a mine in which a number of buoyant mine cases are attached to the same sinker, so that when the mooring of one mine case is cut, another mine rises from the sinker to its set depth. See also mine.

bracketing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A method of adjusting fire in which a bracket is established by obtaining an over and a short along the spotting line, and then successively splitting the bracket in half until a target hit or desired bracket is obtained.

branch. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A subdivision of any organization.

l A geographically separate unit of an activity which performs all or part of the primary functions of the parent activity on a smaller scale. Unlike an annex, a branch is not merely an overflow addition.

l An arm or service of the Army.

branch codes (BC). [TR 350-70] Numerical codes assigned in DA Pam 600-3 to represent the branches of the Army in which all officers are commissioned or transferred, trained, developed, and promoted.

branch proponent. [TP 71] The branch proponent is the commandant or director of the respective school or institution that develops warfighting concepts, doctrine, tactics, techniques, procedures, organization designs, materiel requirements, training programs, training support requirements, manpower requirements (except as provided in AR 600-3), education requirements, and related matters for a branch in the Army.

branching. 1[DoD] A computer operation where a selection is made between two or more possible courses of action depending upon some related fact or condition or user response. Two or more directions a program path can go from a decision point. 2[TR 350-70] An instructional technique in which the student's next step of instruction is determined by the last response. In automation, the next step may be determined by the pattern of responses to a series of items relating to the subject matter.

branching design criteria. Previously determined paths developed by the designer and influenced by the user's input. Branching is intended to allow for differences in students learning processes.

brassboard. An experimental device used to determine feasibility and to develop technical operational data, sufficiently hardened for use outside the laboratory to demonstrate the technical and operational principles of immediate interest.

brassboard configuration. [DSMC] An experimental device (or group of devices) used to determine feasibility and to develop technical and operational data. It normally will be a model sufficiently hardened for use outside of laboratory environments to demonstrate the technical and operational principles of immediate interest. It may resemble the end item, but is not intended for use as the end item.

breadboard. An experimental device used to determine feasibility and to develop technical data. It is normally only configured for laboratory use to demonstrate the technical principles of immediate interest.

breadboard configuration. [DSMC] An experimental device (or group of devices) used to determine feasibility and to develop technical data. It normally will be configured for laboratory use only to demonstrate the technical principles of immediate interest. It may not resemble the end item and is not intended for use as the projected end item.

break off. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In close air support, a command utilized to immediately terminate an attack.

break-even analysis. 1[DSMC] The study of cost-volume-profit (C-V-P) relationships. 2[DSMC] The analysis of proposed procurement and facilitation to compare potential costs of establishing a second source with potential savings due to competitive pressure from the second source.

break-even point. 1[DSMC] In business enterprise, the point at which revenues from sales exactly equal total incurred cost, i.e., Revenues = Variable Costs + Fixed Costs. 2[DSMC] In decision making such as make versus buy, lease versus buy, etc., it is the point of indifference, meaning that level of activity where either method results in exactly the same cost. These type of break-even decisions often involve making assumptions about levels of activity such as number of units needed.

break-up. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In detection by radar, the separation of one solid return into a number of individual returns which correspond to the various objects or structure groupings. This separation is contingent upon a number of factors including range, beam width, gain setting, object size and distance between objects.

l In imagery interpretation, the result of magnification or enlargement which causes the imaged item to lose its identity and the resultant presentation to become a random series of tonal impressions. Also called split-up.

breakaway. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The onset of a condition in which the shock front moves away from the exterior of the expanding fireball produced by the explosion of a nuclear weapon. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l After completion of attack, turn to heading as directed.

breakbulk cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any commodity that, because of its weight, dimensions, or noncompatability with other cargo, must be shipped by mode other than MILVAN or SEAVAN. See also breakbulk ship; cargo.

breakbulk ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A ship with conventional holds for stowage of breakbulk cargo, below or above deck, and equipped with cargo-handling gear. Ships also may be capable of carrying a limited number of containers, above or below deck. See also breakbulk cargo.

breaker. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A wave in the process of losing energy where offshore energy loss is caused by wind action and nearshore energy loss is caused by the impact of the sea floor as the wave enters shallow (shoaling) water. Breakers either plunge, spill, or surge. See also breaker angle.

breaker angle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The angle a breaker makes with the beach. See also breaker.

breakoff position. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The position at which a leaver or leaver section breaks off from the main convoy to proceed to a different destination.

breakout. [DSMC] Execution of acquisition strategy to convert some parts or system components from contractor furnished to government furnished. Rather than having the prime contractor provide from its sources, the government procures items directly, and provides them to the prime.

brevity code. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A code which provides no security but which has as its sole purpose the shortening of messages rather than the concealment of their content.

Briar Patch. Boeing KC-135R, ELINT aircraft

bridgehead. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An area of ground held or to be gained on the enemy's side of an obstacle. See also airhead; beachhead.

bridgehead line. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The limit of the objective area in the development of the bridgehead. See also objective area.

briefing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The act of giving in advance specific instructions or information.

brigade. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A unit usually smaller than a division to which are attached groups and/or battalions and smaller units tailored to meet anticipated requirements.

broach. [JP 1-02] (DoD) When a water craft is thrown broadside to the wind and waves, against a bar, or against the shoreline.

broadcast quality. A level of quality for audio and video that can both be acceptably transmitted by radio or television.

broadcast intelligence. 1[TP 525-5] Capability to rapidly "pull down" or broadcast accurate/real-time intelligence (all levels, even national level) to the lowest possible tactical level, precluding the layered procedural intelligence flow of information. 2[TP 525-75] Directed downlink of broadcast of raw data and smart push of intelligence products; and the capability for units to access intelligence products and data bases in a smart pull mode, to obtain the specific intelligence they require.

broadcast-controlled air interception. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An interception in which the interceptor is given a continuous broadcast of information concerning an enemy raid and effects interception without further control. See also air interception; close-controlled air interception.

broken arrow. [military jargon] An accident involving nuclear weapons.

Bronco. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A light, twin turboprop, twin-seat observation and support aircraft. May be equipped with machine guns and light ordnance for close air support missions. Designated as OV-10.

budget. 1A planned program for a fiscal period in terms of estimated costs, obligations, expenditures, source of funds for financing, reimbursements anticipated, and other resources to be applied. 2[DSMC] A comprehensive financial plan for the Federal Government, encompassing the totality of Federal receipts and outlays (expenditures). Budget documents routinely include the on-budget and off-budget amounts and combine them to derive a total of Federal fiscal activity, with a focus on combined totals. Also a plan of operations for a fiscal period in terms of estimated costs, obligations, and expenditures; source of funds for financing including anticipated reimbursements and other resources; and history and workload data for the projected program and activities.

budget activity (BA). [DSMC] Categories within each appropriation and fund account that identify the purposes, projects, or types of activities financed by the appropriation or fund.

budget authority (BA). [DSMC] Authority provided by law to enter into obligations that will result in immediate or future outlays. It may be classified by the period of availability, by the timing of congressional action, or by the manner of determining the amount available.

budget estimate. [DSMC] Cost estimate prepared for inclusion in DoD budget to support acquisition programs.

budget estimate submission (BES). [DSMC] The DoD Component's budget submissions to the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) showing budget requirements for inclusion in the DoD budget.

budget execution. [DSMC] See execution.

budget for work packages. [DSMC] See work package budgets.

budget resolution. [DSMC] See concurrent budget resolution.

budget year(s) (BY). [DSMC] The year(s) following the current fiscal year (FY), and for which the budget estimate is prepared. For example, if the current FY is FY97, BY(s) would be FY98-99.

budgeted cost. [DSMC] The sum of the budgets for completed work packages and portions of open work packages, plus the appropriate portion of budgets for level of effort and apportioned effort.

budgeted cost for work scheduled (BCWS). [DSMC] The sum of the budgets for all work (work packages, planning packages, etc.) scheduled to be accomplished (including in-process work packages), plus the amount of level of effort and apportioned effort scheduled to be accomplished within a given time period.

budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP). [DSMC] A measurement of work performed in cost/schedule control systems criteria (C/SCSC) terminology. BCWP is a measurement of work performed as compared to the original plan.

budgeting. 1Process of translating approved resource requirements into time-phased financial requirements. 2[DSMC] The process of translating resource requirements into a funding profile.

Buffalo Hunter. Ryan AQM-34L or M for low-altitude reconnaissance.

buffer distance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In nuclear warfare:

l The horizontal distance which, when added to the radius of safety, will give the desired assurance that the specified degree of risk will not be exceeded. The buffer distance is normally expressed quantitatively in multiples of the delivery error.

l The vertical distance which is added to the fallout safe-height of burst in order to determine a desired height of burst which will provide the desired assurance that militarily significant fallout will not occur. It is normally expressed quantitatively in multiples of the vertical error.

buffer zone (BZ). [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A defined area controlled by a peace operations force from which disputing or belligerent forces have been excluded. A buffer zone is formed to create an area of separation between disputing or belligerent forces and reduce the risk of renewed conflict. Also called area of separation in some United Nations operations. See also area; area of separation; line of demarcation; peace operations.

l A conical volume centered on the laser's line-of-sight with its apex at the aperture of the laser, within which the beam will be contained with a high degree of certainty. It is determined by the buffer angle. See also laser.

bug. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A concealed microphone or listening device or other audiosurveillance device.

l To install means for audiosurveillance.

bugged. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Room or object which contains a concealed listening device.

builder's trial (BT). [DSMC] Evaluation trials and inspection conducted by the builder for the purpose of assuring the builder and the Navy that the ship is, or will be, ready for acceptance trials. This trial should be a comprehensive test of all ship's equipment and approximate the scope of the acceptance trial.

buildup. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The process of attaining prescribed strength of units and prescribed levels of vehicles, equipment, stores, and supplies. Also may be applied to the means of accomplishing this process.

built-in test equipment (BITE). [DSMC] Any device permanently mounted in the prime equipment and used for the express purpose of testing the prime equipment, either independently or in association with external test equipment.

bulk cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That which is generally shipped in volume where the transportation conveyance is the only external container; such as liquids, ore, or grain.

bulk petroleum product. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A liquid petroleum product transported by various means and stored in tanks or containers having an individual fill capacity greater than 250 liters.

bulk storage. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Storage in a warehouse of supplies and equipment in large quantities, usually in original containers, as distinguished from bin storage.

l Storage of liquids, such as petroleum products in tanks, as distinguished from drum or packaged storage.

See also bin storage; storage.

burden. [DSMC] Costs which cannot be attributed or assigned to a system as direct cost. An alternative term for Overhead.

burial. See emergency burial; group burial; trench burial. See also graves registration.

burn. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Deliberately expose the true status of a person under cover.

l The legitimate destruction and burning of classified material, usually accomplished by the custodian as prescribed in regulations.

burn notice. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An official statement by one intelligence agency to other agencies, domestic or foreign, that an individual or group is unreliable for any of a variety of reasons.

burn rate. [DSMC] The monthly rate at which a contractor's funds are expended during the period of the contract.

burn-through range. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The distance at which a specific radar can discern targets through the external interference being received.

burned. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Used to indicate that a clandestine operator has been exposed to the operation (especially in a surveillance) or that reliability as a source of information has been compromised.

burnout. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The point in time or in the missile trajectory when combustion of fuels in the rocket engine is terminated by other than programmed cutoff.

burnout velocity. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The velocity attained by a missile at the point of burnout.

burst transmission. The process of messages being stored for a while, then released at a much faster rate of transmission; the received signals are recorded and then slowed down for the user.

business and financial management. [DSMC] Business and financial functions, including management of acquisition funds and contracting activities, typically include: the acquisition plan (AP) (checklist), acquisition strategy (road map); contract types, award and monitoring; cost estimating, formulation of input for the program objectives memorandum (POM), the budget, and other programmatic or financial documentation of the planning, programming, and budgeting system (PPBS); request for proposal (RFP) preparation; source selection; contractor surveillance; and budget execution (paying bills).

business process reengineering. [TP 71] The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of core processes to bring about dramatic improvements in performance under political conditions characteristic of the public sector environment.

buster.[JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Fly at maximal continuous speed (or power)."

buy. 1[DSMC] To approve, concur, or accept an action or proposal from another agency or office. 2[DSMC] The number of end items to be procured either over a certain period or in total.

Buy-American Act. [DSMC] Provides that the U.S. government generally give preference to domestic end products. (Title 10 U.S.C.41 A-D). This preference is accorded during the price evaluation process by applying punitive evaluation factors to most foreign products. Subsequently modified (relaxed) by Culver-Nunn Amendment (1977) and other 1979 trade agreements for dealing with North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) allies.

buy-in. [DSMC] Submission of an offer, usually substantially below estimated costs, with the expectation of winning the contract.

buy-out. [DSMC] During production when there are multiple contractors, a final competition for the last lot to be produced — winner-take-all.

bypassing. [TR 350-70] In programmed instruction, a technique that permits a student to skip certain portions of the material because of prior knowledge.