Index Military Definitions

C-format videotape. A standard for one-inch videotape and one-inch videotape recorders and players.

C2-attack. See command and control warfare.

C2W. See command and control warfare.

C3I/C4I systems. [TP 71] C3I means command, control, communications, and intelligence systems. C4I is the same but with the addition of word "computer". While information technology (IT) by definition includes C3I/C4I systems, C3I/C4I systems are classified as National Security System IT (see IT).

C4 systems. [CJCSI 6212.01A] Any system featuring all or a subset of the following: Communications, automated information, or intelligence systems or equipment that assist the commander in planning, directing, and controlling forces. C4I systems consist of hardware, software, personnel, facilities, and procedures and represent the integration of information (including data), information processing, and information transfer systems organized to collect, produce, store, display, and disseminate information. See command, control, communications, and computer systems.

CA administration. See civil administration.

cache. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In evasion and recovery operations, source of subsistence and supplies, typically containing items such as food, water, medical items, and/or communications equipment, packaged to prevent damage from exposure and hidden in isolated locations by such methods as burial, concealment, and/or submersion, to support evaders in current or future operations. See also evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery; recovery operations; concealment.

cadre training. Training of an initial (nucleus) group of personnel, such as instructors. See instructor and key personnel training, and new equipment training.

calibrated focal length. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An adjusted value of the equivalent focal length, so computed as to equalize the positive and negative values of distortion over the entire field used in a camera. See also focal length.

call fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Fire delivered on a specific target in response to a request from the supported unit. See also fire.

call for fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A request for fire containing data necessary for obtaining the required fire on a target.

call mission. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A type of air support mission which is not requested sufficiently in advance of the desired time of execution to permit detailed planning and briefing of pilots prior to takeoff. Aircraft scheduled for this type of mission are on air, ground, or carrier alert, and are armed with a prescribed load.

call sign. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any combination of characters or pronounceable words, which identifies a communication facility, a command, an authority, an activity, or a unit; used primarily for establishing and maintaining communications. See also collective call sign; indefinite call sign; international call sign; net call sign; tactical call sign; visual call sign; voice call sign.

camera axis. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An imaginary line through the optical center of the lens perpendicular to the negative photo plane.

camera axis direction. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Direction on the horizontal plane of the optical axis of the camera at the time of exposure. This direction is defined by its azimuth expressed in degrees in relation to true/magnetic north.

camera calibration. The determination of the calibrated focal length, the location of the principal point with respect to the fiducial marks and the lens distortion effective in the focal plane of the camera referred to the particular calibrated focal length.

camera cycling rate. The frequency with which camera frames are exposed, expressed as cycles per second.

camera nadir. See photo nadir.

camera station (photogrammetry). See air station (photogrammetry). .

camera-ready copy (CRC). [TR 350-70] CRCs can be in two forms: paper or electronic.

l Paper CRC is material that has been composed, edited, illustrated, and properly displayed on illustration boards and is ready for entry into the printing procurement system.

l Electronic CRC is the computer version of this material provided either on a disk or as a printed copy.

camouflage. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The use of natural or artificial material on personnel, objects, or tactical positions with the aim of confusing, misleading, or evading the enemy.

camouflage detection photography. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Photography utilizing a special type of film (usually infrared) designed for the detection of camouflage.

camouflet. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The resulting cavity in a deep underground burst when there is no rupture of the surface. See also crater.

camp. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A group of tents, huts, or other shelter set up temporarily for troops, and more permanent than a bivouac. A military post, temporary or permanent, may be called a camp.

campaign. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A series of related military operations designed to achieve one or more strategic objectives within a given time and space. See also campaign plan.

campaign plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A plan for a series of related military operations aimed to achieve strategic and operational objectives within a given time and space. See also campaign.

campaign planning. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process whereby combatant commanders and subordinate joint force commanders translate national or theater strategy into operational concepts through the development of campaign plans. Campaign planning may begin during deliberate planning when the actual threat, national guidance, and available resources become evident, but is normally not completed until after the National Command Authorities select the course of action during crisis action planning. Campaign planning is conducted when contemplated military operations exceed the scope of a single major joint operation. See also campaign; campaign plan.

campus area network (CAN). [TR 350-70] A CAN generally covers a smaller geographic area, i.e., installation, than a WAN. A CAN transports data throughout an installation. This network connects LANs and provides data interface and network management interface to the LANs.

canalize. [JP 1-02] (DoD) To restrict operations to a narrow zone by use of existing or reinforcing obstacles or by fire or bombing.

cancel. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, the term, cancel, when coupled with a previous order, other than an order for a quantity or type of ammunition, rescinds that order.

cancel check firing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The order to rescind check firing.

cancel converge. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The command used to rescind converge.

cannibalize. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) To remove serviceable parts from one item of equipment in order to install them on another item of equipment.

cannot observe. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A type of fire control which indicates that the observer or spotter will be unable to adjust fire, but believes a target exists at the given location and is of sufficient importance to justify firing upon it without adjustment or observation.

cantilever lifting frame (CLF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Used to move Navy lighterage causeway systems on to and off of lighter aboard ship (LASH) vessels. This device is suspended from the Morgan LASH barge crane and can lift one causeway section at a time. It is designed to allow the long sections to clear the rear of the ship as they are lowered into the water. See also causeway; lighterage.

capability. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) The ability to execute a specified course of action. (A capability may or may not be accompanied by an intention.) 2[DSMC] A measure of the systems' ability to achieve mission objectives, given the system condition during the mission.

capability goal. An objective which justifies combat and materiel developments. When achieved, it will reduce the Army’s vulnerability or will provide a major operational advantage in a certain area. Capability goals are detailed enough to provide a basis for:

l Early development planning.

l Evaluating technological proposals provided by materiel developers.

l Evaluating materiel proposals by Army users.

capacity. [DSMC] Analysis An analysis most frequently employed in a machine or process area to project capacity for additional business.

capacity load (Navy). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The maximum quantity of all supplies (ammunition; petroleum, oils, and lubricants; rations; general stores; maintenance stores; etc.) which each vessel can carry in proportions prescribed by proper authority. See also wartime load.

capstone publications. [TR 350-70] Describe the applicable warfighting principles, regardless of the type of operations or the echelon. These publications focus on general principles. For example, a principle of training is to "train as you fight" and a principle of combat is to "concentrate combat power at the decisive place and time." Leaders and soldiers read these publications to gain insight into the principles underlying the concepts for training and executing operations. They provide the foundation for all subordinate doctrinal and training publications

capstone requirements document (CRD). 1[TP 71] Identifies systems requirements to define a mission area and serves as a guide for ORD development. CRDs can be a combination of two or more MNS/ORDs/programs. The CRD is the bridge between the MNS and program ORDs. It is a living document that reflects changes in threat or technologies. 2[DSMC] A document resulting from a combination of two or more mission need statement (MNS)/operational requirements documents (ORDs)/programs when considered together in a system-of-systems. The CRD concept takes advantage of independent systems which can be integrated together to create a master system which satisfies a higher level requirement. The CRD identifies master system requirements and serves as a guide for ORD development of independent system components and as a vehicle for program oversight.

capstone test and evaluation master plan (capstone TEMP). A test and evaluation master plan which addresses the testing and evaluation of a defense system or program consisting of a collection of individual systems which function collectively. Individual system-unique content requirements are addressed in an annex to the basic capstone TEMP.

Capstone Warfighting Concept. [TP 71] This is the highest level Army concept. This concept links National Military Strategy, Defense Planning Guidance, Joint Vision, The Army Plan, and other high level documents to a description of required future operational capabilities. These capabilities cover the entire range of military operations at strategic, operational, and tactical levels in joint, multi-national, and interagency activities. There is only one Capstone concept at a time and TRADOC Pam 525-5 serves as the Capstone Warfighting Concept.

capsule. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A sealed, pressurized cabin for extremely high altitude or space flight which provides an acceptable environment for man, animal, or equipment.

l An ejectable sealed cabin having automatic devices for safe return of the occupants to the surface.

captive firing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A firing test of short duration, conducted with the missile propulsion system operating while secured to a test stand.

captured. See missing.

cardinal point effect. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The increased intensity of a line or group of returns on the radarscope occurring when the radar beam is perpendicular to the rectangular surface of a line or group of similarly aligned features in the ground pattern.

career management field (CMF). A grouping of related military occupational specialties that provides visible and logical progression of an enlisted soldier's career to SGM.

caretaker status. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A non-operating condition in which the installations, materiel, and facilities are in a care and limited preservation status. Only a minimum of personnel is required to safeguard against fire, theft, and damage from the elements.

cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Commodities and supplies in transit. See also air cargo; chemical ammunition cargo; dangerous cargo; flatted cargo; general cargo; heavy-lift cargo; high explosive cargo; immediately vital cargo; loading; inflammable cargo; perishable cargo; special cargo; troop space cargo; unwanted cargo; valuable cargo; vehicle cargo; wanted cargo.

cargo carrier. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Highly mobile, air transportable, unarmored, full-tracked cargo and logistic carrier capable of swimming inland waterways and accompanying and resupplying self-propelled artillery weapons. Designated as M548.

cargo classification (combat loading). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The division of military cargo into categories for combat loading aboard ships. See also cargo.

cargo outturn message. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A brief message report transmitted within 48 hours of completion of ship discharge to advise both the Military Sealift Command and the terminal of loading of the condition of the cargo, including any discrepancies in the form of overages, shortages, or damages between cargo as manifested and cargo as checked at time of discharge.

cargo outturn report. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A detailed report prepared by a discharging terminal to record discrepancies in the form of over, short, and damaged cargo as manifested, and cargo checked at a time and place of discharge from ship.

cargo sling. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A strap, chain, or other material used to hold cargo items securely which are to be hoisted, lowered, or suspended.

cargo tie-down point. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A point on military materiel designed for attachment of various means for securing the item for transport.

cargo transporter. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A reusable metal shipping container designed for worldwide surface and air movement of suitable military supplies and equipment through the cargo transporter service.

carpet bombing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The progressive distribution of a mass bomb load upon an area defined by designated boundaries, in such manner as to inflict damage to all portions thereof.

career management field (CMF). [TR 350-70] A grouping of related military occupational specialties that provides visible and logical progression of a soldier's career to grade SGM.

carriage. See gun carriage.

carrier air group. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Two or more aircraft squadrons formed under one commander for administrative and tactical control of operations from a carrier.

carrier onboard delivery (COD). Aircraft designed to deliver goods to carriers, but not necessarily carrier-based.

carrier striking force. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A naval task force composed of aircraft carriers and supporting combatant ships capable of conducting strike operations.

cartel. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An association of independent businesses organized to control prices and production, eliminate competition, and reduce the cost of doing business

cartridge actuated device. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Small explosive devices used to eject stores from launched devices, actuate other explosive systems, or provide initiation for aircrew escape devices.

CARVER. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A special operations forces acronym used throughout the targeting and mission planning cycle to assess mission validity and requirements. The acronym stands for criticality, accessibility, recuperability, vulnerability, effect, and recognizability.

cascaded equipment. [TR 350-70] Equipment or systems currently in the Army inventory that are to be redistributed within a MACOM, or between MACOMs, as a result of the Army modernization process.

case. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l An intelligence operation in its entirety.

l Record of the development of an intelligence operation, including personnel, modus operandi, and objectives.

case file. [TP 25-71] A folder or other file unit containing various information relating to a specific action, transaction, event, person, place, project, or other subject. A case file may cover one or many subjects that relate to the case. For example, a contract file contains records on a specific contract, such as applications, correspondence, addenda, reports, and processing documents. Other types of case files include official personnel folders, medical records, surveys, and studies.

case study. A learning experience in which students encounter a real-life situation under the guidance of an instructor or computer in order to achieve an instructional objective.

case-telescoped (CT). A round that contains the bullet within the cartridge, to have a compact, cylindrical round.

casual. See transient.

casualty. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any person who is lost to the organization by having been declared dead, duty status – whereabouts unknown, missing, ill, or injured. See also casualty category; casualty status; casualty type; duty status – whereabouts unknown; hostile casualty; nonhostile casualty.

casualty category. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A term used to specifically classify a casualty for reporting purposes based upon the casualty type and the casualty status. Casualty categories include killed in action, died of wounds received in action, and wounded in action. See also casualty; casualty status; casualty type; duty status – whereabouts unknown; missing.

casualty receiving and treatment ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, a ship designated to receive, provide treatment for, and transfer casualties.

casualty status. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A term used to classify a casualty for reporting purposes. There are seven levels of casualty status:

l Deceased.

l Duty status – whereabouts unknown.

l Missing.

l Very seriously ill or injured.

l Seriously ill or injured.

l Incapacitating illness or injury.

l Not seriously injured.

See also casualty; casualty category; casualty type; deceased; duty status – whereabouts unknown; incapacitating illness or injury; missing; not seriously injured; seriously ill or injured; very seriously ill or injured.

casualty type. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A term used to identify a casualty for reporting purposes as either a hostile casualty or a non-hostile casualty. See also casualty; casualty category; casualty status; hostile casualty; nonhostile casualty.

Catalog of Approved Requirements Documents (CARDS). [TP 71] CARDS is an ODCSOPS publication that lists approved materiel requirements documents. Its purpose is to provide up-to-date reference information to the combat and materiel development communities.

catalytic attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An attack designed to bring about a war between major powers through the disguised machinations of a third power.

catalytic war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Not to be used. See catalytic attack.

catapult. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A structure which provides an auxiliary source of thrust to a missile or aircraft; must combine the functions of directing and accelerating the missile during its travel on the catapult; serves the same functions for a missile as does a gun tube for a shell.

categories of data. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In the context of perception management and its constituent approaches, data obtained by adversary individuals, groups, intelligence systems, and officials. Such data fall in two categories:

l information - a compilation of data provided by protected or open sources that would provide a substantially complete picture of friendly intentions, capabilities, or activities.

l indicators - data derived from open sources or from detectable actions that adversaries can piece together or interpret to reach personal conclusions or official estimates concerning friendly intentions, capabilities, or activities. Note: In operations security, actions that convey indicators exploitable by adversaries, but that must be carried out regardless, to plan, prepare for, and execute activities, are called observables.

See also operations security.

categories of interactive courseware (ICW). There are four categories of ICW, descriptions are as follows:

l category 1 – Low Simulation Presentation. This is the lowest (baseline) category of ICW development. It is normally a knowledge or familiarization lesson, provided in a linear format (one idea after another). Category 1 is primarily used for introducing an idea or concept. The user has little or no control over the sequence and timed events of the lesson material. Minimal interactively is provided by selective screen icons and inserted into the lesson through typical input/output peripherals and programming protocols. This category may include simple developed graphics and/or clip art, customer provided video and audio clips.

l category 2 – Medium Simulation Presentation. This category involves the recall of more information than a Category 1 presentation and allows the student more control over the lesson’s scenario through screen icons and other peripherals, such as light pens or touch screens. Typically Category 2 is used for non-complex operations and maintenance lessons. Simple emulations or simulations are presented to the user. As an example, the user is requested to rotate switches, turn dials, make adjustments, or identify and replace a faulted component as part of a procedure. This category also may include simple to standard developed graphics, and/or clip art, and customer provided video and audio clips.

l category 3 – High Simulation Presentation. This category involves the recall of more complex information (compared to Categories 1 and 2) and allows the user an increased level of control over the lesson scenario through peripherals such as light pen, touch screen, track ball, or mouse. Video, graphics, or a combination of both are presented simulating the operation of a system, subsystem, or equipment to the user. The lesson scenario training material typically is complex and involves more frequent use of peripherals to affect a transfer of learning. Operation and maintenance procedures are normally practiced with Category III scenarios and students may be required to alternate between multiple screens to keep pace with the lesson material. Multiple software branches (two to three levels) and rapid response are provided to support remediation. Emulations and simulations are an integral part of this presentation. This category may also include complex developed graphics, and/or clip art, and customer provided video and audio clips.

l category 4 – Real-time Simulation Presentation. This ICW category involves more in-depth recall of a larger amount of information (compared to Categories 1, 2, and 3) and allows the user an increased level of control over the lesson. Every possible subtask is analyzed an presented with full, on-screen interaction, similar to the approach used in aircraft simulator technology. The lesson material is extremely complex and involves more frequent use of peripherals to affect the transfer of learning. This category normally supports certification, recertification or qualification requirements. Complicated operation and maintenance procedures are normally practiced with Category 4 and involves all of the elements of Categories 1, 2, and 3 presentations plus

l A high degree of interactively.

l An extensive branching (four or more levels).

l Levels of sophistication short of artificial intelligence.

category code. [TP 25-71] A unique identifier assigned to a record group based on a file plan.

causeway. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A craft similar in design to a barge, but longer and narrower, designed to assist in the discharge and transport of cargo from vessels. See also barge; watercraft.

causeway launching area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An area located near the line of departure but clear of the approach lanes, where ships can launch pontoon causeways.

caveat. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A designator used with a classification to further limit the dissemination of restricted information.

cease engagement. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air defense, a fire control order used to direct units to stop the firing sequence against a designated target. Guided missiles already in flight will continue to intercept. See also engage; hold fire.

cease fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A command given to air defense artillery units to refrain from firing on, but to continue to track, an airborne object. Missiles already in flight will be permitted to continue to intercept.

cease fire line. See armistice demarcation line. See also armistice; cease fire.

cease loading. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, the command used during firing of two or more rounds to indicate the suspension of inserting rounds into the weapon.

ceiling. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The height above the earth's surface of the lowest layer of clouds or obscuration phenomena that is reported as broken, overcast, or obscured and not classified as thin or partial.

celestial guidance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The guidance of a missile or other vehicle by reference to celestial bodies. See also guidance.

celestial sphere. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An imaginary sphere of infinite radius concentric with the Earth, on which all celestial bodies except the Earth are imagined to be projected.

cell. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Small group of individuals who work together for clandestine or subversive purposes.

cell system. See net, chain, cell system.

censorship. See armed forces censorship; civil censorship; field press censorship; military censorship; national censorship; primary censorship; prisoner of war censorship; secondary censorship.

center of burst. See mean point of impact.

center of gravity. The hub of all power and movement upon which everything depends; that characteristic, capability, or location from which enemy and friendly forces derive their freedom of action, physical strength, or the will to fight.

centers of gravity (COGs). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those characteristics, capabilities, or localities from which a military force derives its freedom of action, physical strength, or will to fight. See also capability.

centigray. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A unit of absorbed dose of radiation (one centigray equals one rad).

central air data computer. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device which computes altitude, vertical speed, air speed and mach number from inputs of pilot and static pressure and temperature.

central control officer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The officer designated by the amphibious task force commander for the overall coordination of the waterborne ship-to-shore movement. The central control officer is embarked in the central control ship.

central procurement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The procurement of material, supplies, or services by an officially designated command or agency with funds specifically provided for such procurement for the benefit and use of the entire component, or, in the case of single managers, for the military departments as a whole.

central war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Not to be used. See general war.

centralized control. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air defense, the control mode whereby a higher echelon makes direct target assignments to fire units. See also decentralized control.

centralized management. [DSMC] The concept of using a single, designated management authority. It includes system management, program/project management, and product management.

centralized receiving and shipping point (CRSP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Actual location where containers with cargo must be sorted before transshipment to the appropriate supply support activity or owning unit. Single consignee cargo and ammunition will not pass through the centralized receiving and shipping point. Cargo will be shipped directly to the owner with the movement organization maintaining visibility and ammunition will go directly to the appropriate ammunition storage facility. See also cargo.

centrally managed item. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An item of materiel subject to inventory control point (wholesale level) management.

certification. 1[CJCSI 6212.01A] The process by which DoD systems with C4I capabilities is evaluated for satisfaction of requirements for interoperability, compatibility, and integration. This process occurs at two levels in the instruction:

l requirements certification. Confirmation by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, based on assessments by Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) and other components, that applicable standards and compatibility, interoperability, and integration requirements have been considered during the requirements review process. This certification will occur as a prerequisite for the system acquisition to progress to each acquisition milestone and so will be a multiple occurrence for each program. As part of the requirements certification process, DISA will determine if the standardization approach proposed for a planned new or modified C4I system will support compatibility and interoperability with functionally related C4I systems and equipment. As the system concept and technical approach are developed, the detailed approach to standardization should evolve and will be documented in a final standards profile that is included in subsequent acquisition documents (i.e., draft specifications).

l interoperability certification. Confirmation by DISA that a C4I/AIS system has undergone appropriate testing; that the applicable standards and requirements for compatibility, interoperability, and integration have been met; and a system is ready for joint and/or combined use.

l security certification. The formal technical evaluation of security features and other safeguards on a system. Security certification establishes the extent to which a particular system design and implementation meet a set of specified security requirements.

2[TR 350-32] Determination of training effectiveness analysis analytical soundness and sufficiency to answer decision maker's issues. 3[TR 350-70] Written verification of proficiency in a given task or tasks.

certification for initial operational test and evaluation (IOTE). [DSMC] A service process undertaken in the engineering and management development resulting in the announcement of a system's readiness to undergo IOTE. The process varies with each Service.

certified instructor. [TR 350-70] An instructor who is certified by the Instructor Certification Board as meeting all the requirements to instruct in a specific course. Certification normally requires:

l Training as an instructor (through graduation from a TRADOC-approved instructor training course) and eligibility to hold the instructor identifier.

l Training in small group instruction for those assigned responsibility to facilitate small group instruction.

l Demonstrating performance ability in course content (including being MOS/specialty qualified) or being a graduate of the course.

l Demonstrating teaching or facilitating competence in the course the instructor will conduct.

chaff. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Radar confusion reflectors, which consist of thin, narrow metallic strips of various lengths and frequency responses, used to reflect echoes for confusion purposes. See also rope; window.

chain. See net, cell system.

chain of command. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The succession of commanding officers from a superior to a subordinate through which command is exercised. Also called command channel. See also administrative chain of command; operational chain of command.

chaining. [TR 350-70] A training technique that uses or transforms a learned response into the stimulus for the next desired response, which then becomes the stimulus for the next response and so on to the final desired response. It is sometimes used when constructing a test that requires the student to use an answer from an already completed test question in order to arrive at the answer of a different test question. This situation should normally be avoided in testing because missing the initial question can result in missing all other chained questions.

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) instruction. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A replacement document for all types of correspondence containing CJCS policy and guidance that does not involve the employment of forces. An instruction is of indefinite duration and is applicable to external agencies or both the Joint Staff and external agencies. It remains in effect until superseded, rescinded, or otherwise canceled. CJCS Instructions, unlike joint publications, will not contain joint doctrine and/or joint tactics, techniques, and procedures. See also guidance; joint doctrine; joint publication; joint tactics, techniques, and procedures.

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) memorandum of policy. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A statement of policy approved by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and issued for the guidance of the services, the combatant commands, and the Joint Staff.

Chairman's program assessment (CPA). [DSMC] Summarizes the views of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff on the balance and capabilities of forces and support levels to attain national security objectives. It is the Chairman's personal assessment of the adequacy of the program objectives memorandum (POM) force to assist the Secretary of Defense in decisions on the future years defense program subsequent to receipt of the POMs.

Chairman's program recommendations (CPR). [DSMC] Documentation sent to the Secretary of Defense by the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff which reflects his view of the priorities and warfighting requirements of the unified combatant commanders Commanders-in-Chief that should be incorporated into the Defense Planning Guidance for DoD components.

chalk commander. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The commander of all troops embarked under one chalk number. See also chalk number; chalk troops.

chalk number. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The number given to a complete load and to the transporting carrier. See also chalk commander; chalk troops.

chalk troops. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A load of troops defined by a particular chalk number. See also chalk commander; chalk number.

challenge. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any process carried out by one unit or person with the object of ascertaining the friendly or hostile character or identity of another. See also countersign; password; reply.

change of operational control (CHOP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The date and time (coordinated Universal Time) at which the responsibility for operational control of a force or unit passes from one operational control authority to another.

change order (CO). [DSMC] A unilateral order, signed by the government contracting officer, directing the contractor to make a change that the changes clause authorizes without the contractor's consent.

channel. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Used in conjunction with a predetermined letter, number, or code word to reference a specific radio frequency.

channel airlift. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Common-user airlift service provided on a scheduled basis between two points.

Chaparral. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A short-range, low-altitude, surface-to-air, Army air defense artillery system. Designated as MIM-72.

characteristic actuation probability. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The average probability of a mine of a given type being actuated by one run of the sweep within the characteristic actuation width.

characteristic actuation width. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The width of path over which mines can be actuated by a single run of the sweep gear.

characteristic detection probability. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The ratio of the number of mines detected on a single run to the number of mines which could have been detected within the characteristic detection width.

characteristic detection width. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The width of path over which mines can be detected on a single run.

characterization (evaluation). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A biographical sketch of an individual or a statement of the nature and intent of an organization or group.

charge. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The amount of propellant required for a fixed, semi-fixed, or separate loading projectile, round or shell. It may also refer to the quantity of explosive filling contained in a bomb, mine or the like.

l In combat engineering, a quantity of explosive, prepared for demolition purposes.

charged demolition target. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A demolition target on which all charges have been placed and which is in the states of readiness, either state 1 - safe, or state 2 - armed. See also state of readiness - state 1 safe; state of readiness - state 2 armed.

chart base. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A chart used as a primary source for compilation or as a framework on which new detail is printed. Also called topographic base. See also base map.

chart index. See map index.

chart location of the battery. See battery center.

chart series. See map; map series.

chart sheet. See map; map sheet.

charter (joint program manager's). [DSMC] Formal document prepared by the lead service with approval of the participating services which delineates the program manager's (PM's) responsibility, authority and major functions, and describes relationships with other organizations which will use and/or support the program. The charter also describes and assigns responsibility for satisfying unique management requirements of participating services.

charter (program manager's (PM's)). [DSMC] Provides authority to conduct the program within cost, schedule, and performance constraints approved by the decision authority. Establishes manpower resources for the program office and includes assignment of personnel to perform the functions of technical management/systems engineering, logistics, business and financial management, as well as the designation of a contracting officer. It also defines the PM's line of authority and reporting channels.

check firing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a command to cause a temporary halt in firing.

check port/starboard. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a term meaning, "Alter heading ____ degrees to port/starboard momentarily for airborne radar search and then resume heading."

check sweeping. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, sweeping to check that no moored mines are left after a previous clearing operation.

check-on-learning. [TR 350-70] An informal, required, check to determine if students are learning the lesson content. It can be as simple as asking one or two review questions or as complex as asking students to demonstrate skill performance. Quizzes, practical exercises, and check questions are examples.

checklist. [TR 350-70]

l Job aid: Used to determine or ensure a process or procedure is followed. The elements of the activity are listed in the execution sequence. A check is usually placed beside each element as it is accomplished.

l Test: A list of actions that identify critical actions that must be performed and that can be objectively observed and measured to determine student performance of the objective to the prescribed standard; the sequence of performance, if any; and an identification of which steps absolutely must be accomplished, if any. The actions are measured in the form of GO or NO GO. This is an absolute measure - the performer either performed or did not perform the action described in the learning objective, met or did not meet the performance criteria.

checkout. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A sequence of functional, operational, and calibrational tests to determine the condition and status of a weapon system or element thereof.

checkpoint. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A predetermined point on the surface of the Earth used as a means of controlling movement, a registration target for fire adjustment, or reference for location.

l Center of impact; a burst center.

l Geographical location on land or water above which the position of an aircraft in flight may be determined by observation or by electrical means.

l A place where military police check vehicular or pedestrian traffic in order to enforce circulation control measures and other laws, orders, and regulations.

chemical agent. A chemical substance which is intended for use in military operations to kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate personnel through its physiological effects. Excluded from consideration are riot control agents, herbicides, smoke, and flame. See also biological agent.

chemical agent cumulative action. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The building up, within the human body, of small ineffective doses of certain chemical agents to a point where eventual effect is similar to one large dose.

chemical ammunition. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A type of ammunition, the filler of which is primarily a chemical agent.

chemical ammunition cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Cargo such as white phosphorous munitions (shell and grenades). See also cargo.

chemical, biological, and radiological operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A collective term used only when referring to a combined chemical, biological, and radiological operation.

chemical defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The methods, plans and procedures involved in establishing and executing defensive measures against attack utilizing chemical agents. See also NBC defense.

chemical dose. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The amount of chemical agent, expressed in milligrams, that is taken or absorbed by the body.

chemical environment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Conditions found in an area resulting from direct or persisting effects of chemical weapons.

chemical horn. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a mine horn containing an electric battery, the electrolyte for which is in a glass tube protected by a thin metal sheet. Also called Hertz Horn.

chemical monitoring. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The continued or periodic process of determining whether or not a chemical agent is present. See also chemical survey.

chemical operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Employment of chemical agents to kill, injure, or incapacitate for a significant period of time, personnel or animals, and deny or hinder the use of areas, facilities, or material; or defense against such employment.

chemical survey. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The directed effort to determine the nature and degree of chemical hazard in an area and to delineate the perimeter of the hazard area.

chemical warfare (CW). [JP 1-02] (DoD) All aspects of military operations involving the employment of lethal and incapacitating munitions/agents and the warning and protective measures associated with such offensive operations. Since riot control agents and herbicides are not considered to be chemical warfare agents, those two items will be referred to separately or under the broader term chemical, which will be used to include all types of chemical munitions/ agents collectively. The term chemical warfare weapons may be used when it is desired to reflect both lethal and incapacitating munitions/agents of either chemical or biological origin. See also chemical operations, herbicide, riot control agent.

chemical warfare agent. See chemical agent.

chicks. Friendly fighter aircraft.

Chief Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps censor. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An officer appointed by the commander of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps component of a unified command to supervise all censorship activities of that service.

chief of staff. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The senior or principal member or head of a staff, or the principal assistant in a staff capacity to a person in a command capacity; the head or controlling member of a staff, for purposes of the coordination of its work; a position, that in itself is without inherent power of command by reason of assignment, except that which is invested in such a position by delegation to exercise command in another's name. In the Army and Marine Corps, the title is applied only to the staff on a brigade or division level or higher. In lower units, the corresponding title is executive officer. In the Air Force, the title is applied normally in the staff on an Air Force level and above. In the Navy, the title is applied only on the staff of a commander with rank of commodore or above. The corresponding title on the staff of a commander of rank lower than commodore is chief staff officer, and in the organization of a single ship, executive officer.

chief information officer validation. A representative of the DISC4 (the Army CIO) participates in the requirements determination process as a member of the ICT, and later the IPT. This person validates requirements against business process reengineering, compliance with the ATA, and ensures they are in compliance with emerging C4I technologies.

chop. [DSMC] Concurrence acquired during coordination.

chronic radiation dose. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A dose of ionizing radiation received either continuously or intermittently over a prolonged period of time. A chronic radiation dose may be high enough to cause radiation sickness and death but if received at a low dose rate a significant portion of the acute cellular damage will be repaired. See also acute radiation dose; radiation dose; radiation dose rate.

chronological order. Arranging content in order from one topic to another based on when they occurred in time.

chuffing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The characteristic of some rockets to burn intermittently and with an irregular noise.

CI liaison. The establishment and maintenance of personal contacts between CI liaison officers and personnel of organizations which have missions, responsibilities, information resources, or capabilities similar to those of U.S. Army intelligence. It is conducted to promote cooperation, unity of purpose, and mutual understanding; coordinate actions and activities; and to exchange information and viewpoints. OCONUS CI liaison also includes overt collection of foreign intelligence and CI; acquisition from foreign sources of material and assistance not otherwise available; and the procedures used to gain access to individuals whose cooperation, assistance, or knowledge are desired.

CINC's required date (CDR). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The original date relative to C-day, specified by the combatant commander for arrival of forces or cargo at the destination; shown in the time-phased force and deployment data to assess the impact of later arrival.

CINC's Strategic Concept (CSC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Final document produced in Step 5 of the concept development phase of the deliberate planning process. The CINC's strategic concept is used as the vehicle to distribute the CINC's decision and planning guidance for accomplishing joint strategic capabilities plan or other Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) taskings. CJCS approval of the strategic concept becomes the basis of the plan for development into an operation plan or operation plan in concept format. Formerly called the concept of operations.

cipher. Any cryptographic system in which arbitrary symbols or groups of symbols, represent units of plain text of regular length, usually single letters, or in which units of plain text are rearranged, or both, in accordance with certain predetermined rules. See also cryptosystem.

circuit. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l An electronic path between two or more points, capable of providing a number of channels.

l A number of conductors connected together for the purpose of carrying an electrical current.

circuitry. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A complex of circuits describing interconnection within or between systems.

circular error probable (CEP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An indicator of the delivery accuracy of a weapon system, used as a factor in determining probable damage to a target. It is the radius of a circle within which half of a missile's projectiles are expected to fall. See also delivery error; deviation; dispersion error; horizontal error.

civic action. See military civic action.

civil administration. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An administration established by a foreign government in

l friendly territory, under an agreement with the government of the area concerned, to exercise certain authority normally the function of the local government, or

l hostile territory, occupied by United States forces, where a foreign government exercises executive, legislative, and judicial authority until an indigenous civil government can be established.

Also called CA administration.

civil affairs (CA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The activities of a commander that establish, maintain, influence, or exploit relations between military forces and civil authorities, both governmental and nongovernmental, and the civilian populace in a friendly, neutral, or hostile area of operations in order to facilitate military operations and consolidate operational objectives. Civil affairs may include performance by military forces of activities and functions normally the responsibility of local government. These activities may occur prior to, during, or subsequent to other military actions. They may also occur, if directed, in the absence of other military operations. See also civil-military operations.

civil affairs activities. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Activities performed by commanders, staffs, Department of Defense elements and units, and foreign military forces that:

l embrace the relationship between military forces and civil authorities and population in areas where military forces are present; and

l involve application of civil affairs functional specialty skills, in areas normally the responsibility of civilian government, which enhance conduct of civil-military operations.

civil affairs agreement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An agreement which governs the relationship between allied armed forces located in a friendly country and the civil authorities and people of that country. See also civil affairs.

civil censorship. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Censorship of civilian communications, such as messages, printed matter, and films, entering, leaving, or circulating within areas or territories occupied or controlled by armed forces. See also censorship.

civil damage assessment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An appraisal of damage to a nation's population, industry, utilities, communications, transportation, food, water, and medical resources to support planning for national recovery. See also damage assessment.

civil defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All those activities and measures designed or undertaken to:

l Minimize the effects upon the civilian population caused or which would be caused by an enemy attack on the United States.

l Deal with the immediate emergency conditions which would be created by any such attack.

l Effectuate emergency repairs to, or the emergency restoration of, vital utilities and facilities destroyed or damaged by any such attack.

civil defense emergency. See domestic emergencies.

civil defense intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The product resulting from the collection and evaluation of information concerning all aspects of the situation in the United States and its territories that are potential or actual targets of any enemy attack including, in the preattack phase, the emergency measures taken and estimates of the civil populations' preparedness. In the event of an actual attack, a description of conditions in the affected area with emphasis on the extent of damage, fallout levels, and casualty and resource estimates. The product is required by civil and military authorities for use in the formulation of decisions, the conduct of operations, and the continuation of the planning processes.

civil disturbance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Group acts of violence and disorder prejudicial to public law and order. See also domestic emergencies.

civil disturbance readiness conditions. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Required conditions of preparedness to be attained by military forces in preparation for deployment to an objective area in response to an actual or threatened civil disturbance.

civil disturbances. See domestic emergencies.

civil engineering. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those combat support and combat service support activities that identify, design, construct, lease, or provide facilities, and which operate, maintain, and perform war damage repair and other engineering functions in support of military operations. See also civil engineering support plan; combat service support; combat support.

civil engineering support plan (CESP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An appendix to the Logistics annex or separate annex of an operation plan that identifies the minimum essential engineering services and construction requirements required to support the commitment of military forces. See also civil engineering; operation plan.

civil nuclear power. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A nation which has potential to employ nuclear technology for development of nuclear weapons but has deliberately decided against doing so. See also nuclear power.

civil requirements. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The computed production and distribution of all types of services, supplies, and equipment during periods of armed conflict or occupation to ensure the productive efficiency of the civilian economy and to provide civilians the treatment and protection to which they are entitled under customary and conventional international law.

Civil Reserve Air Fleet (CRAF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A program in which the Department of Defense uses aircraft owned by a US entity or citizen. The aircraft are allocated by the Department of Transportation to augment the military airlift capability of the Department of Defense. These aircraft are allocated, in accordance with DoD requirements, to segments, according to their capabilities, such as International Long Range and Short Range Cargo and Passenger sections, National (Domesticand Alaskan sections) and Aeromedical Evacuation and other segments as may be mutually agreed upon by the Department of Defense and the Department of Transportation. See also reserve.

civil transportation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The movement of persons, property, or mail by civil facilities, and the resources (including storage, except that for agricultural and petroleum products) necessary to accomplish the movement. (Excludes transportation operated or controlled by the military, and petroleum and gas pipelines.)

civil-military operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Group of planned activities in support of military operations that enhance the relationship between the military forces and civilian authorities and population and which promote the development of favorable emotions, attitudes, or behavior in neutral, friendly, or hostile groups.

civil-military operations center (CMOC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An ad hoc organization, normally established by the geographic combatant commander or subordinate joint force commander, to assist in the coordination of activities of engaged military forces, and other United States Government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, private voluntary organizations, and regional and international organizations. There is no established structure, and its size and composition are situation dependent. See also civil-military operations; international organization; nongovernmental organizations; private voluntary organizations.

civilian internee. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A civilian who is interned during armed conflict or occupation for security reasons or for protection or because he has committed an offense against the detaining power.

l A term used to refer to persons interned and protected in accordance with the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, 12 August 1949 (Geneva Convention).

See also prisoner of war.

civilian internee camp. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An installation established for the internment and administration of civilian internees.

CJCS memorandum of policy. See Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Memorandum of Policy.

claim. [DSMC] Assertion by one of the contracting parties seeking adjustment or interpretation of an existing contract subject to the dispute clause on the contract.

clandestine operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An operation sponsored or conducted by governmental departments or agencies in such a way as to assure secrecy or concealment. A clandestine operation differs from a covert operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of the operation rather than on concealment of identity of sponsor. In special operations, an activity may be both covert and clandestine and may focus equally on operational considerations and intelligence-related activities. See also covert operation; overt operation.

clara. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Radar scope is clear of contacts other than those known to be friendly."

clarification. [DSMC] A government communication with an offeror on a competitively negotiated procurement for the sole purpose of eliminating minor irregularities, informalities, or apparent clerical mistakes in a proposal.

class frequency. [TR 350-70] The number of times a class is conducted during a fiscal year.

class schedule. [TR 350-70] Documentation of start and end dates for one iteration of a course.

class size. [TR 350-70] The number of students in a class.

class training schedule. [TR 350-70] The schedule of lessons and events for a class attending a resident course. The class training schedule must reflect mandatory lesson sequence established during course design.

classification. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The determination that official information requires, in the interests of national security, a specific degree of protection against unauthorized disclosure, coupled with a designation signifying that such a determination has been made. See also security classification.

classification of bridges and vehicles. See military load classification.

classified contract. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any contract that requires or will require access to classified information by the contractor or the employees in the performance of the contract. (A contract may be classified even though the contract document itself is not classified.)

classified information. Official information which has been determined to require, in the interests of national security, protection against unauthorized disclosure and which has been so designated.

classified matter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Official information or matter in any form or of any nature which requires protection in the interests of national security. See also unclassified matter.

Classroom XXI. [TR 350-70] The training environment in which the soldier of the 21stst Century will train. This environment is built by leveraging the technology of the information age to gain training efficiencies while maximizing training effectiveness. While successful implementation of Classroom XXI is dependent on the success of all Warriors XXI initiatives, it also requires technological modernization of the training institution.

clean aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l An aircraft in flight configuration, versus landing configuration, i.e., landing gear and flaps retracted, etc.

l An aircraft that does not have external stores.

cleansing station. See decontamination station.

clear. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l To approve or authorize, or to obtain approval or authorization for:

l A person or persons with regard to their actions, movements, duties, etc.;

l An object or group of objects, as equipment or supplies, with regard to quality, quantity, purpose, movement, disposition, etc.

l A request, with regard to correctness of form, validity, etc.

l To give one or more aircraft a clearance.

l To give a person a security clearance.

l To fly over an obstacle without touching it.

l To pass a designated point, line, or object. The end of a column must pass the designated feature before the latter is cleared.

l In weaponry:

l To operate a gun so as to unload it or make certain no ammunition remains.

l To free a gun of stoppages.

l To clear an engine; to open the throttle of an idling engine to free it from carbon.

l To clear the air to gain either temporary or permanent air superiority or control in a given sector.

clear weather air defense fighter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A fighter aircraft with equipment and weapons which enable it to engage airborne targets by day and by night, but in clear weather conditions only.

clearance capacity. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An estimate expressed in terms of measurement or weight tons per day of the cargo that may be transported inland from a beach or port over the available means of inland communication, including roads, railroads, and inland waterways. The estimate is based on an evaluation of the physical characteristics of the transportation facilities in the area. See also beach capacity; port capacity.

clearance diving. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The process involving the use of divers for locating, identifying and disposing of mines.

clearance rate. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The area which would be cleared per unit time with a stated minimum percentage clearance, using specific mine hunting and/or minesweeping procedures.

clearing operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An operation designed to clear or neutralize all mines and obstacles from a route or area.

clearway. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A defined rectangular area on the ground or water at the end of a runway in the direction of takeoff and under control of the competent authority, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aircraft may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height.

client/server. In a communications network, the client is the requesting machine and the server is the supplying machine. It implies that software is specialized at each end. For example, in a network-ready database system, the user interface would reside in the workstation, and the storage and retrieval functions would reside in the server. The gopher protocol is one implementation of a client/ server architecture

climb mode. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In a flight control system, a control mode in which aircraft climb is automatically controlled to a predetermined program.

clinic. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A medical treatment facility primarily intended and appropriately staffed and equipped to provide outpatient medical service for non-hospital type patients. Examination and treatment for emergency cases are types of services rendered. A clinic is also intended to perform certain non-therapeutic activities related to the health of the personnel served, such as physical examinations, immunizations, medical administration, and other preventive medical and sanitary measures necessary to support a primary military mission. A clinic will be equipped with the necessary supporting services to perform the assigned mission. A clinic may be equipped with beds (normally fewer than 25) for observation of patients awaiting transfer to a hospital and for care of cases which cannot be cared for on an outpatient status, but which do not require hospitalization. Patients whose expected duration of illness exceeds 72 hours will not normally occupy clinic beds for periods longer than necessary to arrange transfer to a hospital.

clock code position. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The position of a target in relation to an aircraft or ship with dead-ahead position considered as 12 o'clock.

close air support (CAS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Air action by fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft against hostile targets which are in close proximity to friendly forces and which require detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of those forces. See also air interdiction; air support; immediate mission request; preplanned mission request.

close operations. offensive or defensive operations where forces are in immediate contact with the enemy.

close support. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That action of the supporting force against targets or objectives which are sufficiently near the supported force as to require detailed integration or coordination of the supporting action with the fire, movement, or other actions of the supported force. See also direct support; general support; mutual support; support.

close support area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those parts of the ocean operating areas nearest to, but not necessarily in, the objective area. They are assigned to naval support carrier battle groups, surface action groups, surface action units, and certain logistic combat service support elements.

close supporting fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fire placed on enemy troops, weapons, or positions which, because of their proximity, present the most immediate and serious threat to the supported unit. See also supporting fire.

close-controlled air interception. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An interception in which the interceptor is continuously controlled to a position from which the target is within visual range or radar contact. See also air interception; broadcast-controlled air-interception.

close-hold plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operation plan with access to operation plan information extremely limited to specifically designated Worldwide Military Command and Control System user IDs and terminal IDs during initial course of action development before the involvement of outside commands, agencies, combatant commanders, services, or the Joint Staff. See also limited-access plan.

closed area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A designated area in or over which passage of any kind is prohibited. See also prohibited area.

closure. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In transportation, the process of a unit arriving at a specified location. It begins when the first element arrives at a designated location, e.g., port of entry/port of departure, intermediate stops, or final destination, and ends when the last element does likewise. For the purposes of studies and command post exercises, a unit is considered essentially closed after 95 percent of its movement requirements for personnel and equipment are completed.

closure minefield. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a minefield which is planned to present such a threat that waterborne shipping is prevented from moving.

closure shortfall. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The specified movement requirement or portion thereof that did not meet scheduling criteria and/or movement dates.

cloud amount. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The proportion of sky obscured by cloud, expressed as a fraction of sky covered.

cloud chamber effect. See condensation cloud.

cloud cover. See cloud amount.

cloud top height. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The maximal altitude to which a nuclear mushroom cloud rises.

cluster. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Fireworks signal in which a group of stars burns at the same time.

l Group of bombs released together. A cluster usually consists of fragmentation or incendiary bombs.

l Two or more parachutes for dropping light or heavy loads.

l In land mine warfare, a component of a pattern-laid minefield. It may be antitank, antipersonnel or mixed. It consists of one to five mines and no more than one antitank mine.

l Two or more engines coupled together so as to function as one power unit.

l In naval mine warfare, a number of mines laid in close proximity to each other as a pattern or coherent unit. They may be of mixed types.

l In minehunting, designates a group of mine-like contacts.

cluster bomb unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An aircraft store composed of a dispenser and submunitions.

clustering. [TR 350-70] A process of organizing many tasks or learning objectives into logical groups based on some criteria. Also pertains to sequencing groups of objectives within a course of instruction.

clutter. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Permanent echoes, cloud, or other atmospheric echo on radar scope; as contact has entered scope clutter. See also radar clutter.

co-development. [DSMC] Systems or subsystems cooperatively designed and developed in two or more countries. Shared responsibilities include design and engineering, and may be expanded to include applied research.

co-production. [DSMC] Production of a defense system in two or more countries. Involves the transfer of production technology and complex or sensitive subsystem components from the country of origin to countries producing the system. Recipient may expand production to include subsystems and components.

co-production programs. 1[DSMC] Co-production programs comprise those programs in which the U.S. government (USG) enables an eligible foreign government, international organization, or designated commercial producer to acquire the technical data and know-how to manufacture or assemble in whole or in part an item of U.S. defense equipment for use in the defense inventory of the foreign government. 2[DSMC] Coproduction programs so defined may be implemented through any one or a combination of international agreements, letters of offer and acceptance, and direct commercial agreements subject to USG export licenses.

coalition. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An ad hoc agreement between two or more nations for a common action.

coalition action. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Multinational action outside the bounds of established alliances, usually for single occasions or longer cooperation in a narrow sector of common interest. See also alliance; coalition.

coalition coordination communications integration center (C3IC). In the absence of a single commander or in-place alliance, to coordinate multi-national activities, C3IC provides unanimity of effort among coalition ground forces without the benefits of unity of command.

coalition force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A force composed of military elements of nations that have formed a temporary alliance for some specific purpose.

coarse mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a relatively insensitive influence mine.

coassembly. [JP 1-02] (DoD) With respect to exports, a cooperative arrangement (e.g., U.S. Government or company with foreign government or company) by which finished parts, components, assemblies, or subassemblies are provided to an eligible foreign government, international organization, or commercial producer for the assembly of an end-item or system. This is normally accomplished under the provisions of a manufacturing license agreement per the U.S. International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR) and could involve the implementation of a government-to-government memorandum of understanding.

coast-in point. The point of coastal penetration heading inbound to a target or objective.

coastal convoy. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A convoy whose voyage lies in general on the continental shelf and in coastal waters.

coastal frontier. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A geographic division of a coastal area, established for organization and command purposes in order to ensure the effective coordination of military forces employed in military operations within the coastal frontier area.

coastal frontier defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The organization of the forces and materiel of the armed forces assigned to provide security for the coastal frontiers of the continental United States and its overseas possessions.

coastal refraction. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The change of the direction of travel of a radio ground wave as it passes from land to sea or from sea to land. Also called land effect or shoreline effect.

coastal sea control. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The employment of forces to ensure the unimpeded use of an offshore coastal area by friendly forces and, as appropriate, to deny the use of the area to enemy forces.

coastwise traffic. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Sea traffic between continental United States ports on the Atlantic coast, Gulf coast, and Great Lakes, or between continental United States ports on the Pacific coast.

Cobra Ball. Boeing RC-135S.

Cobra Eye. Boeing RC-135X

COBRA JUDY. Phased-array radar system – shipborne

cocking circuit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In mine warfare, a subsidiary circuit which requires actuation before the main circuits become alive.

cockpit familiarization trainer (CFT). A device that looks like the aircrew station(s) of a specific aircraft.

cockpit procedures trainer (CPT). A device used to train normal, emergency, and instrument procedures.

code. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Any system of communication in which arbitrary groups of symbols represent units of plain text of varying length. Codes may be used for brevity or for security.

l A cryptosystem in which the cryptographic equivalents (usually called "code groups") typically consisting of letters or digits (or both) in otherwise meaningless combinations are substituted for plain text elements which are primarily words, phrases, or sentences. See also cryptosystem.

code word. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A word that has been assigned a classification and a classified meaning to safeguard intentions and information regarding a classified plan or operation.

l A cryptonym used to identify sensitive intelligence data.

cognitive domain. A classification of educational objectives characterized by their dependence upon the manipulation of language symbols (thinking) mental process.

cognitive learning. [TR 350-70] A domain of learning that is concerned with knowledge and the various mental activities and processes by which the learner acquires knowledge and mental skills.

cohesion. I[TR 350-70] n units, the bonding together of soldiers and leaders in such a way as to sustain their will and commitment to each other, their unit, and the mission.

Cold Chuck. RB-57F mission.

Cold Dome. RB-57F mission.

Cold Flare. Study of solar flare activity at high altitude, in preparation for polar or high-altitude supersonic flights.

Cold Rap. NASA earth resources study.

Cold Speck. RB-57F mission.

cold war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A state of international tension wherein political, economic, technological, sociological, psychological, paramilitary, and military measures short of overt armed conflict involving regular military forces are employed to achieve national objectives.

collaborative purchase. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A method of purchase whereby, in buying similar commodities, buyers for two or more departments exchange information concerning planned purchases in order to minimize competition between them for commodities in the same market. See also purchase.

collapse depth. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The design depth, referenced to the axis of the pressure hull, beyond which the hull structure or hull penetrations are presumed to suffer catastrophic failure to the point of total collapse.

collate. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The grouping together of related items to provide a record of events and facilitate further processing.

l To compare critically two or more items or documents concerning the same general subject; normally accomplished in the processing phase in the intelligence cycle.

collateral mission. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mission other than those for which a force is primarily organized, trained, and equipped, that the force can accomplish by virtue of the inherent capabilities of that force.

collecting point. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A point designated for the assembly of personnel casualties, stragglers, disabled materiel, salvage, etc., for further movement to collecting stations or rear installations.

collection. See intelligence cycle.

collection (acquisition). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The obtaining of information in any manner, including direct observation, liaison with official agencies, or solicitation from official, unofficial, or public sources.

collection agency. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any individual, organization, or unit that has access to sources of information and the capability of collecting information from them. See also agency.

collection coordination facility line number. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An arbitrary number assigned to contingency intelligence reconnaissance objectives by the Defense Intelligence Agency collection coordination facility to facilitate all-source collection.

collection intelligence cycle. Acquisition of information and the provision of the information to processing or production elements.

collection management. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In intelligence usage, the process of converting intelligence requirements into collection requirements, establishing, tasking or coordseeinating with appropriate collection sources or agencies, monitoring results and retasking, as required. See also intelligence; intelligence cycle.

collection management authority (CMA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Constitutes the authority to establish, prioritize and validate theater collection requirements, establish sensor tasking guidance and develop theater collection plans. See also collection manager; collection plan; collection requirement.

collection manager (CM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An individual with responsibility for the timely and efficient tasking of organic collection resources and the development of requirements for theater and national assets that could satisfy specific information needs in support of the mission. See also collection management authority; intelligence cycle.

collection operations management (COM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The authoritative direction, scheduling, and control of specific collection operations and associated processing, exploitation, and reporting resources. See also collection management; collection requirements management.

collection plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A plan for collecting information from all available sources to meet intelligence requirements and for transforming those requirements into orders and requests to appropriate agencies. See also information; information requirements; intelligence cycle.

collection requirement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An established intelligence need considered in the allocation of intelligence resources to fulfill the essential elements of information and other intelligence needs of a commander.

collection requirements management (CRM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The authoritative development and control of collection, processing, exploitation, and/or reporting requirements that normally result in either the direct tasking of assets over which the collection manager has authority, or the generation of single-discipline tasking requests to collection management authorities at a higher, lower, or lateral echelon to accomplish the collection mission. See also collection management; collection operations management.

collection resource. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A collection system, platform, or capability that is not assigned or attached to a specific unit or echelon which must be requested and coordinated through the chain of command. See also collection management.

collective call sign. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any call sign which represents two or more facilities, commands, authorities, or units. The collective call sign for any of these includes the commander thereof and all subordinate commanders therein. See also call sign.

collective exercises. Multi-echelon training events used to evaluate and sustain the skills of individuals, leaders, teams, staffs, and units.

collective nuclear, biological and chemical protection. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Protection provided to a group of individuals in a nuclear, biological and chemical environment which permits relaxation of individual nuclear, biological and chemical protection.

collective task. A task that requires more than one individual to complete. It has identifiable start and end points and results in a measurable, observable product or accomplishment. See task.

collective task analysis. The initial part of performance requirements analysis that examines missions, identifies collective tasks, and analyzes the critical collective tasks.

collective training. [TR 350-70] Training, either in institutions or units, that prepares cohesive teams and units to accomplish their missions in the full continuum of military operations.

collective training matrices. Graphic portrayals of relationships between missions, collective tasks, leader tasks, and individual tasks.

College Level Examination Program (CLEP). [TR 350-70] A series of tests designed to evaluate knowledge gained in nontraditional ways. The College Level Examination Program general examinations test for knowledge which is usually acquired in the first two years of college. The College Level Examination Program subject examinations are comparable to end-of-course examinations and are used to grant exemption from or credit for specific courses.

collision course interception. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An interception which is accomplished by the constant heading of both aircraft.

collocated school or course. [TR 350-70] A school or course that is used by one or more services on another service's installation and shares classroom facilities and equipment. Training policies, directives, and materials will be determined by mutual agreement between the services.

collocation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The physical placement of two or more detachments, units, organizations, or facilities at a specifically defined location.

color bars. A color standard used by the television industry for the alignment of cameras and video-tape recordings.

colored beach. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of usable coastline sufficient for the assault landing of a regimental landing team or similar sized unit. In the event that the landing force consists of a single battalion landing team, a colored beach will be used and no further subdivision of the beach is required. See also numbered beach.

column cover. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Cover of a column by aircraft in radio contact therewith, providing for its protection by reconnaissance and/or attack of air or ground targets which threaten the column.

column formation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A formation in which elements are placed one behind the other.

column gap. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The space between two consecutive elements proceeding on the same route. It can be calculated in units of length or in units of time measured from the rear of one element to the front of the following element.

column length. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The length of the roadway occupied by a column or a convoy in movement. See also road space.

combat air patrol. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An aircraft patrol provided over an objective area, over the force protected, over the critical area of a combat zone, or over an air defense area, for the purpose of intercepting and destroying hostile aircraft before they reach their target. See also airborne alert; barrier combat air patrol; force combat air patrol; patrol; rescue combat air patrol; target combat air patrol.

combat airspace control. See airspace control in the combat zone.

Combat Angel. Program that used the Ryan AQM-34G, J and H RPVs.

Combat Apple. Boeing RC-135M, SIGINT aircraft.

combat area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A restricted area (air, land, or sea) which is established to prevent or minimize mutual interference between friendly forces engaged in combat operations. See also combat zone.

combat assessment (CA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The determination of the overall effectiveness of force employment during military operations. Combat assessment is composed of three major components, (a) battle damage assessment, (b) munitions effects assessment, and (c) reattack recommendation. The objective of combat assessment is to identify recommendations for the course of military operations. The J-3 is normally the single point of contact for combat assessment at the joint force level, assisted by the joint force J-2. See also battle damage assessment.

combat camera (COMCAM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Visual information documentation covering air, sea, and ground actions of the Armed Forces of the United States in combat or combat support operations and in related peacetime training activities such as exercises, war games, and operations. See also visual information; visual information documentation.

combat cargo officer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An embarkation officer assigned to major amphibious ships or naval staffs, functioning primarily as an adviser to and representative of the naval commander in matters pertaining to embarkation and debarkation of troops and their supplies and equipment. See also embarkation officer.

combat chart. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A special naval chart, at a scale of 1:50,000, designed for naval fire support and close air support during coastal or amphibious operations and showing detailed hydrography and topography in the coastal belt. See also amphibious chart.

combat control team (CCT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A small task organized team of Air Force parachute and combat diver qualified personnel trained and equipped to rapidly establish and control drop, landing, and extraction zone air traffic in austere or hostile conditions. They survey and establish terminal airheads as well as provide guidance to aircraft for airlift operations. They provide command and control, and conduct reconnaissance, surveillance, and survey assessments of potential objective airfields or assault zones. They also can perform limited weather observations and removal of obstacles or unexploded ordinance with demolitions.

combat developer (CD). 1[TR 350-70] An individual or agency responsible for developing concepts and organizational and equipment requirements. 2[AMC] A command, agency, organization, or individual who commands, directs, manages, or accomplishes the combat developments work The CD represents the user community in the materiel acquisition process. 3[DSMC] Command or agency that formulates doctrine, concepts, organization, materiel requirements, and objectives. May be used generically to represent the user community role in the materiel acquisition process. (Army and Marine Corps) 4[TP 71] A command, agency, organization, or individual who commands, directs, manages, or accomplishes the combat developments work.

combat development. [DSMC] Covers research, development, and testing of new doctrines, organizations, and materiel for early integration into the structure. (Army and Marine Corps)

combat development item. A new item of equipment developed or procured in response to a DA approved materiel requirements document. It is intended mainly to be used in a theater of operations.

combat developments. [TP 71] The processes of analyzing, determining, documenting, and obtaining approval of warfighting concepts, future operational capabilities, organizational requirements, and materiel requirements; leading the Army community in determining solutions for needed future operational capabilities fostering development of requirements in all DTLOMS domains; providing user considerations to and influence on the Army’s S&T program; and integrating the efforts and representing the user across the DTLOMS during the acquisition of materiel and development of organizational products to fill those requirements.

Combat Developments Home Page. World Wide Web site containing CD information. Its address is

www.tradoc.army.mil/dcscd/index.htm

combat drill. [TR 350-70] A collective task done at platoon level and below that is critical to the unit’s success in combat.

combat engineer vehicle, full-tracked 165mm gun. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An armored, tracked vehicle that provides engineer support to other combat elements. Vehicle is equipped with a heavy-duty boom and winch, dozer blade, and 165mm demolition gun. It is also armed with a 7.62mm machine gun and a 50-caliber machine gun.

combat forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those forces whose primary missions are to participate in combat. See also operating forces.

combat information. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Unevaluated data, gathered by or provided directly to the tactical commander which, due to its highly perishable nature or the criticality of the situation, cannot be processed into tactical intelligence in time to satisfy the user's tactical intelligence requirements. See also information.

combat information center (CIC). [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The agency in a ship or aircraft manned and equipped to collect, display, evaluate, and disseminate tactical information for the use of the embarked flag officer, commanding officer, and certain control agencies. Certain control, assistance, and coordination functions may be delegated by command to the combat information center. Also called action information center. See also air defense control center.

combat information ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A designated ship charged with the coordination of the intership combat information center functions of the various ships in a task force so that the overall combat information available to commands will increase. This ship is normally the flagship of the task force commander. See also fighter direction aircraft; fighter direction ship.

combat intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That knowledge of the enemy, weather, and geographical features required by a commander in the planning and conduct of combat operations.

Combat Lightning. Boeing KC-135A

combat loading. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The arrangement of personnel and the stowage of equipment and supplies in a manner designed to conform to the anticipated tactical operation of the organization embarked. Each individual item is stowed so that it can be unloaded at the required time. See also loading.

Combat Pink. Boeing RC-135U, SIGINT aircraft.

combat power. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The total means of destructive and/or disruptive force which a military unit/ formation can apply against the opponent at a given time.

combat range complex. [TR 350-70] A group of multipurpose firing ranges.

combat readiness. 1[TR 350-70] A unit's ability to perform in combat. Includes the status of personnel, logistics, morale, and training. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) Synonymous with operational readiness, with respect to missions or functions performed in combat.

combat ready. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Synonymous with operationally ready, with respect to missions or functions performed in combat.

Combat Scent. Boeing RC-135U, SIGINT aircraft.

combat search and rescue (CSAR). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A specific task performed by rescue forces to effect the recovery of distressed personnel during wartime or contingency operations.

combat search and rescue mission coordinator. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The designated person or organization selected to direct and coordinate support for a specific combat search and rescue mission. Also called CSAR mission coordinator. See also combat search and rescue; component search and rescue controller; search and rescue; search and rescue mission coordinator.

combat search and rescue task force (CSARTF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) All forces committed to a specific combat search and rescue operation to search for, locate, identify, and recover isolated personnel during wartime or contingency operations. This includes those elements assigned to provide command and control and protect the rescue vehicle from enemy air or ground attack. See also combat search and rescue; search; search and rescue.

combat service support (CSS). 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) The essential capabilities, functions, activities, and tasks necessary to sustain all elements of operating forces in theater at all levels of war. Within the national and theater logistic systems, it includes but is not limited to that support rendered by service forces in ensuring the aspects of supply, maintenance, transportation, health services, and other services required by aviation and ground combat troops to permit those units to accomplish their missions in combat. Combat service support encompasses those activities at all levels of war that produce sustainment to all operating forces on the battlefield. See also logistics; support. 2[TP 525-5] The essential logistics functions, activities, and tasks necessary to sustain all elements of an operating force in an area of operations.

l The National Training Center

l The Combat Maneuver Training Center

l The Joint Readiness Training Center

l The Battle Command Training Program

combat service support areas. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An area ashore that is organized to contain the necessary supplies, equipment, installations, and elements to provide the landing force with combat service support throughout the operation.

combat service support element. See Marine air-ground task force.

combat service support elements. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those elements whose primary missions are to provide service support to combat forces and which are a part, or prepared to become a part, of a theater, command, or task force formed for combat operations. See also operating forces; service troops; troops.

combat support. Fire support and operational assistance provided to combat elements. Combat support includes artillery, air defense artillery, engineer, military police, signal, and military intelligence support.

combat support elements. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those elements whose primary missions are to provide combat support to the combat forces and which are a part, or prepared to become a part, of a theater, command, or task force formed for combat operations. See also operating forces.

combat support troops. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those units or organizations whose primary mission is to furnish operational assistance for the combat elements. See also troops.

combat surveillance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A continuous, all-weather, day-and-night, systematic watch over the battle area to provide timely information for tactical combat operations.

combat surveillance radar. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Radar with the normal function of maintaining continuous watch over a combat area.

combat survival. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those measures to be taken by service personnel when involuntarily separated from friendly forces in combat, including procedures relating to individual survival, evasion, escape, and conduct after capture.

Combat Talon. Versions of the C-130 for the Special Forces, equipped for low-altitude deep-penetration missions.

combat trail. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Interceptors in trail formation. Each interceptor behind the leader maintains position visually or with airborne radar.

Combat Training Center (CTC) Program. An Army program established to provide realistic joint service and combined arms training in accordance with Army doctrine. It is designed to provide training units opportunities to increase collective proficiency on the most realistic battlefield available during peacetime. The four components of the CTC Program are: the National Training Center, the Combat Maneuver Training Center, the Joint Readiness Training Center, and the Battle Command Training Program.

combat troops. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those units or organizations whose primary mission is destruction of enemy forces and/or installations. See also troops.

combat vehicle. A vehicle, with or without armor, designed for a specific fighting function. Armor protection or armament mounted as supplemental equipment on non-combat vehicles will not change the classification of such vehicles to combat vehicles. See also vehicle.

combat visual information support center (CVISC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A visual information support facility established at a base of operations during wartime or contingency to provide limited visual information support to the base and its supported elements.

combat zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l That area required by combat forces for the conduct of operations.

l The territory forward of the Army rear area boundary.

See also combat area; communications zone

combatant command. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A unified or specified command with a broad continuing mission under a single commander established and so designated by the President, through the Secretary of Defense and with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Combatant commands typically have geographic or functional responsibilities. See also specified command; unified command.

combatant command (command authority) (COCOM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Nontranstransferable command authority established by title 10, United States Code, section 164, exercised only by commanders of unified or specified combatant commands unless otherwise directed by the President or the Secretary of Defense. COCOM is the authority of a combatant commander to perform those functions of command over assigned forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics necessary to accomplish the missions assigned to the command. COCOM should be exercised through the commanders of subordinate organizations; normally this authority is exercised through the service or functional component commander. COCOM provides full authority to organize and employ commands and forces as the combatant commander considers necessary to accomplish assigned missions. See also combatant command; combatant commander; operational control; tactical control.

combatant commander. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A commander-in-chief of one of the unified or specified commands established by the President. See also combatant command; combatant command (command authority); operational control.

combating terrorism. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Actions, including antiterrorism (defensive measures taken to reduce vulnerability to terrorist acts) and counterterrorism (offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism), taken to oppose terrorism throughout the entire threat spectrum.

combination circuit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In mine warfare, a firing circuit which requires actuation by two or more influences, either simultaneously or at a preordained interval, before the circuit can function. Also called combined circuit.

combination firing circuit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An assembly comprising two independent firing systems, one non-electric and one electric, so that the firing of either system will detonate all charges. See also dual-firing circuit.

combination influence mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mine designed to actuate only when two or more different influences are received either simultaneously or in a predetermined order. Also called combined influence mine.

combination mission/level of effort-oriented items. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Items for which requirement computations are based on the criteria used for both level of effort-oriented and mission-oriented items.

combined. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Between two or more forces or agencies of two or more allies. (When all allies or services are not involved, the participating nations and services shall be identified; e.g., combined navies.) See also joint.

combined airspeed indicator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An instrument which displays both indicated airspeed and mach number.

combined arms. Application of several arms, such as infantry, armor, artillery, and aviation.

combined arms integration. [TR 350-70] The process of ensuring that a lower level's training strategies support the next higher level's training strategies (i.e., battalion supports brigade), and a unit's maneuver training strategies are supported by other unit strategies.

combined arms live fire exercises. [TR 350-70] High-cost, resource-intensive exercises in which player units move or maneuver and employ organic and supporting weapons systems using full service ammunition with attendant integration of all combat, CS, and CSS functions.

combined arms publications. [TR 350-70] The third level of the doctrinal publications hierarchy. They describe tactics and techniques of combined arms forces. These publications focus on sequencing, synchronizing, and coordinating various capabilities to successfully execute assigned operations. Leaders and soldiers look to combined arms publications for information on the integrated application of varied military forces to execute combat operations.

combined arms training. [TR 350-70] Training which focuses on the integration of combat, combat support, and combat service support elements to produce units capable of mission accomplishment on the battlefield.

Combined Arms Training Strategy (CATS). [TR 350-70] The CATS is the Army's overarching strategy for the current and future training of the force. These training strategies –

l Describe how the Army will train the total force to standard.

l Consist of unit, individual, and self-development training strategies.

l Identifies, quantifies, and justifies the training resources required to execute the training.

combined circuit. See combination circuit.

combined doctrine. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Fundamental principles that guide the employment of forces of two or more nations in coordinated action toward a common objective. It is ratified by participating nations. See also doctrine; joint doctrine; multi-service doctrine.

combined force. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A military force composed of elements of two or more allied nations. See also force.

combined influence mine. See combination influence mine.

combined interface. [CJCSI 6212.01A] Any interface that passes information between one or more US C4I/AIS systems and one or more allied C4I/AIS systems.

combined joint special operations task force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A task force composed of special operations units from one or more foreign countries and more than one US Military Department formed to carry out a specific special operation or prosecute special operations in support of a theater campaign or other operations. The combined joint special operations task force may have conventional nonspecial operations units assigned or attached to support the conduct of specific missions. See also joint special operations task force; special operations; task force.

combined operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An operation conducted by forces of two or more allied nations acting together for the accomplishment of a single mission.

combined rescue coordination center. See rescue coordination center.

combined staff. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A staff composed of personnel of two or more allied nations. See also integrated staff; joint staff; parallel staff.

combined training exercise. [TR 350-70] A training exercise that is conducted by military forces of more than one nation. Sometimes called multinational training.

combined warfare. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Warfare conducted by forces of two or more allied nations in coordinated action toward common objectives.

combustor. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A name generally assigned to the combination of flame holder or stabilizer, igniter, combustion chamber, and injection system of a ramjet or gas turbine.

command. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The authority that a commander in the Armed Forces lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment. Command includes the authority and responsibility for effectively using available resources and for planning the employment of, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling military forces for the accomplishment of assigned missions. It also includes responsibility for health, welfare, morale, and discipline of assigned personnel.

l An order given by a commander; that is, the will of the commander expressed for the purpose of bringing about a particular action.

l A unit or units, an organization, or an area under the command of one individual.

See also air command; area command; base command; combatant command; combatant command (command authority).

command altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Altitude that must be assumed and/or maintained by the interceptor.

command and control. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communication, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in accomplishment of the mission.

Command, Control, Communications, and Computers Requirements Definition Program (C4RDP). [TP 71] The C4RDP is the Army’s only validated source of battle command, combat service, and combat service support information exchanges. The database is used to develop integrated architectures which can be shared and used by communications architects, program managers, systems integrators, and communication modelers.

command and control system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The facilities, equipment, communications, procedures, and personnel essential to a commander for planning, directing, and controlling operations of assigned forces pursuant to the missions assigned.

command and control warfare (C2W). 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) The integrated use of operations security, military deception, psychological operations, electronic warfare, and physical destruction, mutually supported by intelligence, to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy adversary command and control capabilities, while protecting friendly command and control capabilities against such actions. Command and control warfare is an application of information operations in military operations. C2W is both offensive and defensive:

l C2-attack. Prevent effective C2 of adversary forces by denying information to, influencing, degrading, or destroying the adversary C2 system.

l C2-protect. Maintain effective command and control of own forces by turning to friendly advantage or negating adversary efforts to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy the friendly C2 system.

See also command and control; electronic warfare; information operations; intelligence; military deception; operations security; psychological operations. 2[TP 525-5] C2W applies across the full range of military operations and all levels of war.

command axis. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A line along which a headquarters will move.

command center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A facility from which a commander and his or her representatives direct operations and control forces. It is organized to gather, process, analyze, display, and disseminate planning and operational data and perform other related tasks.

command channel. See chain of command.

command chaplain. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The senior chaplain assigned to or designated by a commander of a staff, command, or unit. See also command chaplain of the combatant command; lay leader or lay reader; religious ministry support; religious ministry support plan; religious ministry support team; Service component command chaplain.

command chaplain of the combatant command. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The senior chaplain assigned to the staff of, or designated by, the combatant commander to provide advice on religion, ethics, and morale of assigned personnel and coordinate religious ministries within the commander's area of responsibility. The command chaplain of the combatant command may be supported by a staff of chaplains and enlisted religious support personnel. See also command chaplain; lay leader or lay reader; religious ministry support; religious ministry support plan; religious ministry support team; Service component command chaplain.

command, control, communications, and computer systems. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Integrated systems of doctrine, procedures, organizational structures, personnel, equipment, facilities, and communications designed to support a commander's exercise of command and control across the range of military operations. Also called C4 systems. See also command and control; tactical command, control, communications, and computer system(s).

command controlled stocks. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Stocks which are placed at the disposal of a designated NATO commander in order to provide him with a flexibility with which to influence the battle logistically. Placed at the disposal of implies responsibility for storage, maintenance, accounting, rotation or turnover, physical security, and subsequent transportation to a particular battle area.

command destruct signal. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A signal used to operate intentionally the destruction signal in a missile.

command detonated mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mine detonated by remotely controlled means.

command ejection system. See ejection systems.

command element. See Marine air-ground task force.

command field exercise (CFX). [TR 350-70] An FTX with reduced unit and vehicle density but with full C2, CS, and CSS elements (e.g., the platoon leader in his vehicle represents the entire platoon). CFXs are excellent vehicles for training leaders and staff with full command, control, communications, and logistical systems. (FM 25-101) See exercise.

command guidance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A guidance system wherein intelligence transmitted to the missile from an outside source causes the missile to traverse a directed flight path.

command heading. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Heading that the controlled aircraft is directed to assume by the control station.

command information. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Communication by a military organization with Service members, civilian employees, retirees, and family members of the organization that creates an awareness of the organization's goals, informs them of significant developments affecting them and the organization, increases their effectiveness as ambassadors of the organization, and keeps them informed about what is going on in the organization. Also called external information. See also command; information; public affairs.

command net. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A communications network which connects an echelon of command with some or all of its subordinate echelons for the purpose of command and control.

command operating budget (COB). [TR 350-70] The budget for the current budget year. It also contains needed outyear data.

command post. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A unit's or subunit's headquarters where the commander and the staff perform their activities. In combat, a unit's or subunit's headquarters is often divided into echelons; the echelon in which the unit or subunit commander is located or from which such commander operates is called a command post.

command post exercise (CPX). [TR 350-70] An expanded map exercise for staff and all commanders to lead and control tactical operations by using tactical communications systems. Often the CPX is driven by a simulation or is part of a larger exercise. (FM 25-101) See exercise.

command relationships. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The interrelated responsibilities between commanders, as well as the authority of commanders in the chain of command.

command select ejection system. See ejection systems.

command speed. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The speed at which the controlled aircraft is directed to fly.

command, control, communications, and computer (C4) systems. Integrated systems of doctrine, procedures, organizational structures, personnel, equipment, facilities, and communications designed to support a commander's exercise of command and control, through all phases of the operational continuum.

command-sponsored dependent. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A dependent entitled to travel to overseas commands at Government expense and endorsed by the appropriate military commander to be present in a dependent's status.

commandant's time. [TR 350-70] Administrative time included in a program of instruction to provide additional training, to correct training deficiencies, or provide time for other requirements.

commander, amphibious task force (CATF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The U.S. Navy officer designated in the initiating directive as commander of the amphibious task force.

commander, landing force (CLF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The officer designated in the initiating directive for an amphibious operation to command the landing force.

commander. See executing commander (nuclear weapons); releasing commander (nuclear weapons).

commander's concept. See concept of operations.

commander's critical information requirements (CCIR). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A comprehensive list of information requirements identified by the commander as being critical in facilitating timely information management and the decision making process that affect successful mission accomplishment. The two key subcomponents are critical friendly force information and priority intelligence requirements. See also critical information; information; information requirements; intelligence; priority intelligence requirements.

commander's estimate of the situation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A logical process of reasoning by which a commander considers all the circumstances affecting the military situation and arrives at a decision as to a course of action to be taken to accomplish the mission. A commander's estimate which considers a military situation so far in the future as to require major assumptions is called a commander's long-range estimate of the situation.

commander’s intent. A concise expression of the purpose of an operation, a description of the desired end state, and the way in which the posture of that goal facilitates transition into future operations.

commander’s training assessment. [TR 350-70] An assessment of a unit’s current mission essential task list (METL) proficiency focusing on training deficiencies that impact on the unit’s ability to perform its wartime mission (or to accomplish military operations). (FM 25-101)

commanding officer of troops (COT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) On a ship that has embarked units, a designated officer, usually the senior embarking unit commander, who is responsible for the administration, discipline, and training of all embarked units.

Commerce Business Daily (CBD). [DSMC] Publication of the Department of Commerce in which the government publicizes a potential buy (a synopsis) to notify interested vendors.

commercial component. Commercial component means any component that is a commercial item.

commercial item. 1Any item, other than real property, that is of a type customarily used for nongovernmental purposes and that:

l Has been sold, leased, or licensed to the general public; or,

l Has been offered for sale, lease, or license to the general public.

2Any item that evolved from an item described above through advances in technology or performance and that is not yet available in the commercial marketplace, but will be available in the commercial marketplace in time to satisfy the delivery requirements under a Government solicitation. 3Any item that would satisfy a criterion expressed above, but for -

l Modifications of a type customarily available in the commercial marketplace; or

l Minor modifications of a type not customarily available in the commercial marketplace made to meet Federal Government requirements. Minor modifications means modifications that do not significantly alter the nongovernmental function or essential physical characteristics of an item or component, or change the purpose of a process. Factors to be considered in determining whether a modification is minor include the value and size of the modification and the comparative value and size of the final product. Dollar values and percentages may be used as guideposts, but are not conclusive evidence that a modification is minor.

4Articles of supply readily available from established commercial distribution sources which the Department of Defense or inventory managers in the military services have designated to be obtained directly or indirectly from such sources. 5Installation services, maintenance services, repair services, training services, and other services if such services are procured for support of an item referred to in parts 1, 2, 3, or 4 of this definition, and if the source of such services -

l Offers such services to the general public and the Federal Government contemporaneously and under similar terms and conditions.

l Offers to use the same work force for providing the Federal Government with such services as the source uses for providing such services to the general public.

6Services of a type offered and sold competitively in substantial quantities in the commercial marketplace based on established catalog or market prices for specific tasks performed under standard commercial terms and conditions. This does not include services that are sold based on hourly rates without an established catalog or market price for a specific service performed. 7Any item, combination of items, or service referred to above not-withstanding the fact that the item, combination of items, or service is transferred between or among separate divisions, subsidiaries, or affiliates of a contractor. 8A nondevelopmental item, if the procuring agency determines the item was developed exclusively at private expense and sold in substantial quantities, on a competitive basis, to multiple State and local governments.

commercial items. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Articles of supply readily available from established commercial distribution sources which the Department of Defense or inventory managers in the Military Services have designated to be obtained directly or indirectly from such sources.

commercial loading. See administrative loading.

commercial off-the-shelf (COTS). [DSMC] Commercial items that require no unique government modifications or maintenance over the life cycle of the product to meet the needs of the procuring agency.

commercial products or items. Products or items in regular production sold in substantial quantities to the general public and industry at established market or catalog prices.

commercial training device requirement (CTDR). This documents a device created from COTS components. A CTDR initiates acquisition or modification of training devices that are commercially available without expenditure of research, development, testing, and evaluation funds.

commercial vehicle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A vehicle which has evolved in the commercial market to meet civilian requirements and which is selected from existing production lines for military use.

commission. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l To put in or make ready for service or use, as to commission an aircraft or a ship.

l A written order giving a person rank and authority as an officer in the armed forces.

l The rank and the authority given by such an order. See also activate; constitute.

commit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process of committing one or more air interceptors or surface-to-air missiles for interception against a target track.

commitment. An administrative reservation of funds by the comptroller in anticipation of their obligation. Based upon firm procurement directives, orders, requisitions, authorizations to issue travel orders, or requests.

Committee on Imagery Requirements and Exploitation (COMIREX). Sets specifications for spy satellites and the like.

commodity. A group or range of items which possess similar characteristics, have similar applications, or are susceptible to similar supply management methods.

commodity loading. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A method of loading in which various types of cargoes are loaded together, such as ammunition, rations, or boxed vehicles, in order that each commodity can be discharged without disturbing the others. See also combat loading; loading.

commodity manager. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An individual within the organization of an inventory control point or other such organization assigned management responsibility for homogeneous grouping of materiel items.

common business-oriented language (COBOL). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A specific language by which business data-processing procedures may be precisely described in a standard form. The language is intended not only as a means for directly presenting any business program to any suitable computer for which a compiler exists, but also as a means of communicating such procedures among individuals.

common collective task. See task.

common control (artillery). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Horizontal and vertical map or chart location of points in the target area and position area, tied in with the horizontal and vertical control in use by two or more units. May be established by firing, survey, or combination of both, or by assumption. See also control point; field control; ground control.

common core. The consolidation of common leader, common military, and directed/mandated training subjects prescribed by law, Army regulations, and competent authority. It consists of tasks leaders are expected to perform successfully at specific grade/organizational levels regardless of branch or career management field. Formal training of common soldier, common skill level, or shared (i.e., common skill level task shared with one or more other skill levels) critical tasks or their supporting skills and knowledges. See task.

common core training. [TR 350-70] Directed training requirements for specific courses, grade/skill levels, or organizational levels. It consists of tasks performed by individuals at specific grade levels, regardless of military occupational specialty (MOS) or career field. Common core includes primarily organizational level tasks and may include some common soldier and common skill level tasks. The result is soldiers, leaders, and civilians who are prepared to perform new and more complex leadership related duties in operational units and organizations.

common factor learning objectives. Refers to learning objectives that are identical, or that have identical action words and similar objects of the action in the learning objective statement.

Common Imagery Ground/Surface System (CIGSS). The next generation JSIPS — a ground system that receives, processes, exploits, and disseminates IMINT from all airborne platforms.

common infrastructure. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)Infrastructure essential to the training of NATO forces or to the implementation of NATO operational plans which, owing to its degree of common use or interest and its compliance with criteria laid down from time to time by the North Atlantic Council, is commonly financed by NATO members. See also infrastructure.

common item. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Any item of materiel which is required for use by more than one activity.

l Sometimes loosely used to denote any consumable item except repair parts or other technical items.

l Any item of materiel which is procured for, owned by (Service stock), or used by any Military Department of the Department of Defense and is also required to be furnished to a recipient country under the grant-aid Military Assistance Program.

l Readily available commercial items.

l Items used by two or more Military Services of similar manufacture or fabrication that may vary between the Services as to color or shape (as vehicles or clothing).

l Any part or component which is required in the assembly of two or more complete end-items.

common learning objective. A learning objective written for a task element (supporting skill or knowledge) that is common to two or more tasks.

common operating environment (COE). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The common operating environment provides a familiar look, touch, sound, and feel to the commander, no matter where the commander is deployed. Information presentation and command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence system interfaces are maintained consistently from platform to platform, enabling the commander to focus attention on the crisis at hand. See also global grid; node/command, control, communications, and computers node.

common relevant enemy picture. [TP 525-75] The aggregate of data that is shared among all friendly forces on the disposition of enemy forces. This data is used to build a tailored relevant graphic display for the warfighter that increases in detail shown as the echelon served gets closer to the soldier. Commonly called the enemy portion of situation awareness.

common servicing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That function performed by one military service in support of another military service for which reimbursement is not required from the service receiving support. See also servicing.

common skill level task. See task.

common soldier task. See task.

common supplies. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those supplies common to two or more services.

common table of allowances (CTA). An authorization document for items needed for common usage by individuals and by MTOE, TDA, or joint table of allowance (JTA) units and activities Armywide.

common task. A task that may be common to more than one job, skill level, or specialty. See task.

common task management. [TR 350-70] The umbrella process used to manage needs analysis, job and task analysis, and development of training products for common tasks: common core, common soldier, common skill level and common organizational level tasks. It ensures the identification of common critical tasks as well as horizontal and vertical alignment of these tasks resulting in progressive, sequential, and standardized training. Many common tasks become part of common core training.

common task test (CTT). [TR 350-70] A formal hands-on test administered by the unit that measures a soldier's proficiency on common critical tasks from the soldier's manual of common tasks.

common use. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Services, materials, or facilities provided by a Department of Defense agency or a military department on a common basis for two or more Department of Defense agencies.

common use alternatives. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Systems, subsystems, devices, components, and materials, already developed or under development, which could be used to reduce the cost of new systems acquisition and support by reducing duplication of research and development effort and by limiting the addition of support base.

common use M&S (modeling and simulation). [TR 5-11] Modeling and simulation applications, services, or materials provided by a DoD component to two or more DoD components.

common user airlift service. The airlift service provided on a common basis for all DoD agencies and, as authorized, for other agencies of the U.S. Government.

common user item. An item of an interchangeable nature which is in common use by two or more nations or services of a nation. See also interchangeability.

common user network. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A system of circuits or channels allocated to furnish communication paths between switching centers to provide communication service on a common basis to all connected stations or subscribers. It is sometimes described as a general purpose network.

common-use container. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any Department of Defense-owned, leased, or controlled 20 or 40 foot International Organization for Standardization container managed by US Transportation Command as an element of the Department of Defense common-use container system. See also component-owned container; Service-unique container.

Common-user lift. U.S. Transportation Command-controlled lift - the pool of strategic transportation assets either government owned or chartered that are under the operational control of Air Mobility Command, Military Sealift Command, or Military Traffic Management Command for the purpose of providing common-user transportation to the Department of Defense across the range of military operations. These assets range from common-user organic or chartered pool of common-user assets available day-to-day to a larger pool of common-user assets phased in from other sources.

common-user military land transportation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Point-to-point land transportation service operated by a single Service for common use by two or more Services.

common-user ocean terminals. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A military installation, part of a military installation, or a commercial facility operated under contract or arrangement by the Military Traffic Management Command which regularly provides for two or more services terminal functions of receipt, transit storage or staging, processing, and loading and unloading of passengers or cargo aboard ships.

common-user sealift. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The sealift services provided on a common basis for all Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, for other agencies of the US Government. The Military Sealift Command, a transportation component command of the US Transportation Command, provides common-user sealift for which users reimburse the transportation accounts of the Defense Business Operations Fund. See also Military Sealift Command; transportation component command.

common-user transportation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Transportation and transportation services provided on a common basis for two or more Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, non-DoD agencies. Common-user assets are under the combatant command (command authority) of USCINCTRANS, excluding Service-unique or theater-assigned transportation assets. See common use.

commonality. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A quality that applies to materiel or systems:

l Possessing like and interchangeable characteristics enabling each to be utilized, or operated and maintained, by personnel trained on the others without additional specialized training.

l Having interchangeable repair parts and/or components.

l Applying to consumable items interchangeably equivalent without adjustment.

communicate. [JP 1-02] (DoD) To use any means or method to convey information of any kind from one person or place to another.

communication deception. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Use of devices, operations, and techniques with the intent of confusing or misleading the user of a communications link or a navigation system.

communication operation instructions. See signal operation instructions.

communications. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A method or means of conveying information of any kind from one person or place to another. See also telecommunication.

communications center. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An agency charged with the responsibility for handling and controlling communications traffic. The center normally includes message center, transmitting, and receiving facilities. See also telecommunications center.

communications intelligence (COMINT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Technical and intelligence information derived from foreign communications by other than the intended recipients.

communications intelligence data base. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The aggregate of technical and intelligence information derived from the interception and analysis of foreign communications (excluding press, propaganda, and public broadcast) used in the direction and redirection of communications intelligence intercept, analysis, and reporting activities.

communications mark. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An electronic indicator used for directing attention to a particular object or position of mutual interest within or between command and control systems.

communications net. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An organization of stations capable of direct communications on a common channel or frequency.

communications network. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An organization of stations capable of intercommunications, but not necessarily on the same channel.

communications program. A program used to transmit and receive digital data.

communications protocol. In a data communication network, the code standard that governs the priority and sequencing of data transmission. The rules governing the exchange of information between devices on a data link.

communications satellite. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An orbiting vehicle, which relays signals between communications stations. There are two types:

l active communications satellite - A satellite that receives, regenerates, and retransmits signals between stations.

l passive communications satellite - A satellite which reflects communications signals between stations.

communications security (COMSEC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value which might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such possession and study. Communications security includes:

l cryptosecurity - The component of communications security that results from the provision of technically sound cryptosystems and their proper use.

l transmission security - The component of communications security that results from all measures designed to protect transmissions from interception and exploitation by means other than cryptanalysis.

l emission security - The component of communications security that results from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from intercept and analysis of compromising emanations from crypto-equipment and telecommunications systems.

l physical security of communications security materials and information - The component of communications security that results from all physical measures necessary to safeguard classified equipment, material, and documents from access thereto or observation thereof by unauthorized persons.

communications security equipment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Equipment designed to provide security to telecommunications by converting information to a form unintelligible to an unauthorized interceptor and by reconverting such information to its original form for authorized recipients, as well as equipment designed specifically to aid in, or as an essential element of, the conversion process. Communications security equipment is cryptoequipment, crypto-ancillary equipment, cryptoproduction equipment, and authentication equipment.

communications security material. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All documents, devices, equipment, or apparatus, including cryptomaterial, used in establishing or maintaining secure communications.

communications security monitoring. The act of listening to, copying, or recording transmissions of one's own circuits (or when specially agreed, e.g., in allied exercises, those of friendly forces) to provide material for communications security analysis in order to determine the degree of security being provided to those transmissions. In particular, the purposes include providing a basis for advising commanders on the security risks resulting from their transmissions, improving the security of communications, and planning and conducting manipulative communications deception operations.

communications terminal. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Terminus of a communications circuit at which data can be either entered or received; located with the originator or ultimate addressee.

communications zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The rear part of the theater of war or theater of operations that contains the lines of communications, theater logistics bases, forward operating bases, and other agencies required for the immediate support and maintenance of the field forces. It extends back to the CONUS base. See also combat zone; rear area.

community relations. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The relationship between military and civilian communities.

l Those public affairs programs which address issues of interest to the general public, business, academia, veterans and Service organizations, military-related associations, and other non-news media entities. These programs are usually associated with the interaction between US military installations and their surrounding or nearby civilian communities. Interaction with overseas non-news media civilians in a wartime or contingency theater will be handled by civil-military operations with public affairs support as required. See also public affairs.

community relations program. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That command function which evaluates public attitudes, identifies the mission of a military organization with the public interest, and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance. Community relations programs are conducted at all levels of command, both in the United States and overseas, by military organizations having a community relations area of responsibility. Community relations programs include, but are not limited to, such activities as liaison and cooperation with associations and organizations and their local affiliates at all levels; armed forces participation in international, national, regional, state, and local public events; installation open houses and tours; embarkations in naval ships; orientation tours for distinguished civilians; people-to-people and humanitarian acts; cooperation with government officials and community leaders; and encouragement of armed forces personnel and their dependents to participate in activities of local schools, churches, fraternal, social, and civic organizations, sports, and recreation programs, and other aspects of community life to the extent feasible and appropriate, regardless of where they are located.

comparability analysis. [DSMC] An examination of two or more systems and their relationships to discover similarities or differences.

comparative cover. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Coverage of the same area or object taken at different times, to show any changes in details. See also cover.

comparative sequence. Sequencing which starts with familiar topics and goes to unfamiliar ones.

compartmentation. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Establishment and management of an organization so that information about the personnel, internal organization, or activities of one component is made available to any other component only to the extent required for the performance of assigned duties.

l Effects of relief and drainage upon avenues of approach so as to produce areas bounded on at least two sides by terrain features such as woods, ridges, or ravines that limit observation or observed fire into the area from points outside the area.

Compass Arrow. Ryan AQM-91A, a high-flying reconnaissance drone.

Compass Call. Lockheed EC-103E and EC-130H electronic warfare aircraft.

Compass Cookie. Program to gather data on the SA-2 Guideline SAM missile by unmanned reconnaissance drones.

Compass Cope. A high-altitude long-range reconnaissance RPV program. Boeing QM-94 and Ryan QM-98.

Compass Dawn. Program to locate ground-based enemy radars. Used the Ryan 147TE RPV.

compass direction. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The horizontal direction expressed as an angular distance measured clockwise from compass north.

Compass Dwell. Program to locate ground-based enemy radars. Used the Ryan 147TE drone.

Compass Jade. Air Force SIGINT

compass north. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The uncorrected direction indicated by the north seeking end of a compass needle. See also magnetic north.

compass rose. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A graduated circle, usually marked in degrees, indicating directions and printed or inscribed on an appropriate medium.

compatibility. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Capability of two or more items or components of equipment or material to exist or function in the same system or environment without mutual interference. See also interchangeability; nuclear, biological, and chemical compatibility.

competency. [TR 350-70] Ability to perform tasks and supporting skills and knowledge to the required standard.

competency-based instruction. Training organized around an agreed upon set of competencies which provides learning experiences designed to lead the attainment of these competencies. Competencies for soldiers are the critical tasks identified for their specific job.

competent parties. The parties to the contract must have sufficient ability and authority to enter a contractual relationship. The [U.S.] Government and private corporations act through agents whose authority is limited.

competition. [DSMC] An acquisition strategy whereby more than one contractor is sought to bid on a service or function; the winner is selected on the basis of criteria established by the activity for whom the work is to be performed. The law and DoD policy require maximum competition throughout the acquisition life cycle.

competitive proposals. [DSMC] A procedure used in negotiated procurement which concludes with awarding of a contract to the offeror whose offer is most advantageous to the government (usually includes discussions of a best and final offer).

competitive prototyping strategy (CPS). [DSMC] Prototype competition between two or more contractors in a comparative side-by-side test.

complaint-type investigation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A counterintelligence investigation in which sabotage, espionage, treason, sedition, subversive activity, or disaffection is suspected.

complete round. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A term applied to an assemblage of explosive and nonexplosive components designed to perform a specific function at the time and under the conditions desired. Examples of complete rounds of ammunition are:

l separate loading - consisting of a primer, propelling charge, and, except for blank ammunition, a projectile and a fuse.

l fixed or semifixed - consisting of a primer, propelling charge, cartridge case, a projectile, and, except when solid projectiles are used, a fuse.

l bomb - consisting of all component parts required to drop and function the bomb once.

l missile - consisting of a complete warhead section and a missile body with its associated components and propellants.

l rocket - consisting of all components necessary to function.

completeness. Operation plan review criterion. The determination that each course of action must be complete and answer the questions: who, what, when, where, and how. See also acceptability; feasibility; suitability.

completion item. A test component requiring the completion of a statement, phrase, or concept.

complexity criterion. In media selection, the degree of complexity required of instructional materials in order to adequately train students to meet learning objectives.

component. 1[DSMC]

l Subsystem, assembly, subassembly or other major element of an end item. See also assembly; subassembly.

l Military department, or agency of DoD.

2[JP 1-02] (DoD)

l One of the subordinate organizations that constitute a joint force. Normally a joint force is organized with a combination of Service and functional components.

l In logistics, a part or combination of parts having a specific function, which can be installed or replaced only as an entity.

See also functional component command; Service component command.

component (materiel). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An assembly or any combination of parts, subassemblies, and assemblies mounted together in manufacture, assembly, maintenance, or rebuild.

component acquisition executive (CAE). [DSMC] See DoD component acquisition executive.

component breakout. [DSMC] See breakout.

component cost analysis (CCA). [DSMC] A cost estimate prepared by an office or other entity of a military department that is outside the chain of command of that military department's authority responsible for developing or acquiring the program.

component program. [DSMC] A major defense acquisition program (MDAP) (acquisition category (ACAT) 1C) or major automated information system acquisition program (MAIS) (ACAT IAC) delegated to the military department or defense agency for management.

component search and rescue controller. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The designated search and rescue representative of a component commander of a unified command who is responsible in the name of the component commander for the control of component search and rescue forces committed to joint search and rescue operations. See also search and rescue coordinator.

component video. A video signal in red-green-blue (RGB) format which is a type of computer display output signal comprised of separately controllable red, green, and blue signals.

component-owned container. [JP 1-02] (DoD) 20- or 40-foot International Organization for Standardization container procured and owned by a single Department of Defense component. May be either on an individual unit property book or contained within a component pool (e.g., USMC Maritime Pre-positioning Force containers). May be temporarily assigned to the Department of Defense common-use container system. Also called a Service-unique container. See also common-use container; Service-unique container.

composed SMPTE. The Society for Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) number for each frame of video made of character-generated text, video, and special effects.

composite air photography. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Air photographs made with a camera having one principal lens and two or more surrounding and oblique lenses. The several resulting photographs are corrected or transformed in printing to permit assembly as verticals with the same scale.

composite video. The complete visual wave form of the color video signal composed of chromatic and luminance picture information; blanking pedestal; field, line, color sync pulses; and field equalizing pulses.

composite warfare commander. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The officer in tactical command is normally the composite warfare commander. However the composite warfare commander concept allows an officer in tactical command to delegate tactical command to the composite warfare commander. The composite warfare commander wages combat operations to counter threats to the force and to maintain tactical sea control with assets assigned; while the officer in tactical command retains close control of power projection and strategic sea control operations.

compound helicopter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A helicopter with an auxiliary propulsion system which provides thrust in excess of that which the rotor(s) alone could produce, thereby permitting increased forward speeds; wings may or may not be provided to reduce the lift required from the rotor system.

compounding. [DSMC] The process of increasing the future worth of a present amount. An application of the principle that future worth is greater than present worth when viewed from the future due to the payment of interest.

comprehension verification. A technique whereby the student's understanding of what has been presented is tested before the student may proceed through the courseware.

comprehensive plan for training devices (CPTD). A projection of TADSS to be procured from the present year through the POM. The plan includes information on the program title, proponent and materiel developer POCs, definition, status, CATS priority, BOI, quantities to be procured, and training strategy. The CPTD is maintained in an interactive database by the Commander, USATSC (ATIC-DMR) and published and distributed to the Army community at least annually.

compression chamber. See hyperbaric chamber.

compromise. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The known or suspected exposure of clandestine personnel, installations, or other assets or of classified information or material, to an unauthorized person.

compromised. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A term applied to classified matter, knowledge of which has, in whole or in part, passed to an unauthorized person or persons, or which has been subject to risk of such passing. See also classified matter.

compromising emanations. Unintentional intelligence-bearing signals, which, if intercepted and analyzed, disclose national security information transmitted, received, handled, or otherwise processed by an information-processing system.

comptroller. [DSMC] The chief financial officer for the activity to which assigned. At the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) level, the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) is responsible for all budgetary matters.

computed air release point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A computed air position where the first paratroop or cargo item is released to land on a specified impact point.

computer aided instruction (CAI). The use of computers to aid in the delivery of instruction. CAI exploits computer technology to provide for the storage and retrieval of information for both the instructor and student.

computer based courseware portability. The capability to transfer courseware across various computer hardware or operating systems and have the courseware correctly function without modifications. See portability.

computer mark-up. The computer capability to write marks on the screen, indicating incorrect or unacceptable student responses to a question.

computer modeling. See accreditation; configuration management; independent review; validation; verification.

computer modeling technique. A procedure employed during the simulation of an operational system; involves computer simulation of the major operations of the system under a variety of conditions.

computer models technique. Occurs during the simulation of an operational system; involves having a computer simulate the major operations of the system, under a variety of conditions.

computer network attack (CNA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operations to disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy information resident in computers and computer networks, or the computers and networks themselves. See also offensive information operations.

computer resource management plan (CRMP). The primary program management document that describes the development, acquisition, test, and support plans for computer resources integral to, or used it, direct support of Army materiel systems.

computer resources. 1[DSMC] The totality of computer hardware, firmware, software, personnel, documentation, supplies, services, and support services applied to a given effort. 2[CJCSI 6212.01A] Components physically part of, dedicated to, or essential in real time to mission performance; used for weapon system specialized training, simulation, diagnostic test and maintenance or calibration; or used for research and development of weapon systems.

computer resources life cycle management plan (CRLCMP). [DSMC] A program management document that describes the development, acquisition, test, and support plans over the life cycle of computer resources integral to, or used in, direct support of systems.

computer resources support. [DSMC] Includes the facilities, hardware, software, documentation, manpower, and personnel needed to operate and support computer systems. One of the traditional elements of logistics support.

computer security (COMPSEC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The protection resulting from all measures to deny unauthorized access and exploitation of friendly computer systems. See also communications security.

computer simulation. See accreditation; configuration management; independent review; validation; verification.

computer software (or software). [DSMC] A combination of associated computer instructions and computer data definitions required to enable the computer hardware to perform computational or control functions.

computer software documentation. [DSMC] Technical data information, including computer listings and printouts, which documents the requirements, design, or details of computer software, explains the capabilities and limitations of the software, or provides operation instructions for using or supporting computer software during the software's operational life.

computer supported instruction (CSI). [TR 350-70] A sub-set of computer based instruction. Computers used to develop or enhance classroom training, e.g., conducting task analysis with a database, creating Vu-graphs, projecting computer images while conducting a conference type lesson.

computer-aided instruction (CAI). [TR 350-70] A type of interactive multimedia instruction. computer-aided instruction (CAI), also referred to as "computer-assisted instruction," involves use of computers to aid in the delivery of instruction. CAI exploits computer technology to provide for the storage and retrieval of information for both the instructor and student. CAI usually refers to the use of computers to support instructor-led classroom instruction. Using computers as a presentation media for slides, audio, or motion pictures which support large or small group instruction is an example of CAI.

computer-assisted instruction (CAI). A type of interactive multimedia instruction (IMI). Involves use of computers to aid in the delivery of instruction. CAI exploits computer technology to provide for the storage and retrieval of information for both the instructor and student. CAI usually refers to the use of computers to support instructor-led classroom instruction. Using computers as a presentation media for slides, audio, or motion pictures which support large or small group instruction is an example of CAI.

computer-assisted survey (CAS). [TR 350-70] A survey administered in various ADP media (e.g., floppy disk) or electronic media (e.g., e-mail) designed to collect detailed military personnel and training information from respondents. Uses stand-alone computers, the Internet, and/or other electronic networks.

computer-based instruction (CBI). 1[TR 350-70] A type of interactive multimedia instruction. CBI usually refers to course materials presented or controlled by a computer and which use multiple requirements for student responses as a primary means of facilitating learning. 2[DoD] A means of delivery by which a computer is used to enhance, deliver, develop, or manage instruction. CAI, computer assisted instruction; CMI, computer managed instruction; and CSI, computer supported instruction; are subsets of CBI. The DoD accepted term for CBI is interactive courseware (ICW). See interactive courseware.

computer-based training (CBT). [TR 350-70] A type of interactive multimedia instruction. CBT usually refers to course materials presented or controlled by a computer and which use multiple requirements for student responses as a primary means of facilitating mastery of a skill or task.

computer-managed instruction (CMI). [TR 350-70] A type of interactive multimedia instruction. CMI involves the use of computers and software to manage the instructional process. Functions of CMI can include a management administration system designed to track student performance over time, provide information concerning performance trends, record individual and group performance data, schedule training, and provide support for other training management functions. CMI functions may be used with CBT,CBI, CAI, or interactive multimedia instruction based on need.

concealment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The protection from observation or surveillance. See also camouflage; cover; screen.

concentration area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l An area, usually in the theater of operations, where troops are assembled before beginning active operations.

l A limited area on which a volume of gunfire is placed within a limited time.

concept. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A notion or statement of an idea, expressing how something might be done or accomplished, that may lead to an accepted procedure.

Concept Analysis Agency (CAA). The CAA provides an analytical capability for studies required by the CSA and the heads of Army staff agencies. These studies include the integration of strategy, Army force design, operational plans and concepts, and tradeoff and cost-effectiveness.

Concept Based Requirement System (CBRS). The CBRS is the TRADOC process that analyzes warfighting concepts and identifies doctrine, training, leader development, organization, and materiel for soldiers (DTLOMS) to meet battlefield deficiencies. These initiatives serve as triggers for the needs analysis process.

concept evaluation program. Innovative tests conducted with command-controlled funds, personnel, and equipment to provide information on the operational feasibility of a concept or system.

concept exploration (CE). [DSMC] Beginning after Milestone 0 approval, the initial phase of the system acquisition process. During this phase, the acquisition strategy is developed, system alternatives are proposed and examined, and the systems program requirements document is expanded to support subsequent phases.

concept formulation package (CFP). The documentary evidence that the concept formulation effort has satisfied the objectives. A CFP normally consists of the trade-off determination (TOD), trade-off analysis (TOA), best technical approach (BTA), and cost and operational effectiveness analysis (COEA).

concept of intelligence operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A verbal or graphic statement, in broad outline, of a J2's assumptions or intent in regard to intelligence support of an operation or series of operations. The concept of intelligence operations, which complements the commander's concept of operations, is contained in the intelligence annex of operation plans. The concept of intelligence operations is designed to give an overall picture of intelligence support for joint operations. It is included primarily for additional clarity of purpose. See also concept of operations.

concept of logistic support. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A verbal or graphic statement, in a broad outline, of how a commander intends to support and integrate with a concept of operations in an operation or campaign.

concept of operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A verbal or graphic statement, in broad outline, of a commander's assumptions or intent in regard to an operation or series of operations. The concept of operations frequently is embodied in campaign plans and operation plans; in the latter case, particularly when the plans cover a series of connected operations to be carried out simultaneously or in succession. The concept is designed to give an overall picture of the operation. It is included primarily for additional clarity of purpose. Also called commander's concept.

concept plan (CONPLAN). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An operation plan in concept format. See also concept summary; operation plan.

concept summary. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A concept of operations in Joint Operation Planning and Execution System, Volume II. Used to address Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan or other Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff planning tasks in a broader sense than required by a more detailed operation plan in concept format or operation plan. See also concept plan; operation plan.

concern.An issue identified within one or more of the MANPRINT domains, which is expected to result in one or more of the following problems: bodily injury to friendly personnel; reduced mission performance or effectiveness; system damage; or a negative impact on the ability of the MPT community to support fielding with trained and available personnel. Concerns should be resolved if time an resource permit. A concern may become a major issue over time. See critical issue and major issue.

conclusion. [DSMC] The act of signing, initialing, responding, or otherwise indicating the acceptance of an international agreement by the United States.

concurrency. [DSMC] Part of an acquisition strategy which would combine or overlap life cycle phases (such as engineering and manufacturing development, and production), or activities (such as development and operational testing).

concurrent budget resolution (CBR). [DSMC] Resolution passed by both Houses of Congress, but not requiring the signature of the President, setting forth or revising the congressional budget for the United States Government. Scheduled to be adopted by the Congress on or before April 15 of each year (Title 2 U.S.C.632).

concurrent engineering. [DSMC] A systematic approach to the integrated, concurrent design of products and their related processes, including manufacture and support. Intended to cause developers, from the beginning, to consider all elements of the system life cycle from requirements development through disposal, including cost, schedule, and performance.

condensation cloud. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mist or fog of minute water droplets that temporarily surrounds the fireball following a nuclear (or atomic) detonation in a comparatively humid atmosphere. The expansion of the air in the negative phase of the blast wave from the explosion results in a lowering of the temperature, so that condensation of water vapor present in the air occurs and a cloud forms. The cloud is soon dispelled when the pressure returns to normal and the air warms up again. The phenomenon is similar to that used by physicists in the Wilson cloud chamber and is sometimes called the cloud chamber effect.

condensation trail. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A visible cloud streak, usually brilliantly white in color, which trails behind a missile or other vehicle in flight under certain conditions. Also called contrail.

condition. [TR 350-70]

l learning objective condition. The learning objective condition describes the training situation or environment under which the student must perform the learning action statement. It includes any pertinent influence on learning objective performance, including identification of materials, facilities, and equipment the student must have to perform the objective.

l task condition. The task condition describes the field conditions under which the task will be performed. The condition expands on the information in the task title by identifying when, where, and why the soldier performs the task and what materials, personnel, and equipment the soldier must have to perform the task.

l special condition. A performance condition which occasionally occurs and affects soldier ability to perform the critical task to the established standard. These special conditions include, but are not limited to, wearing of MOPP4, NVD, or SCUBA when performing the task.

condition statement. Part of a task or learning objective that describes the environment for performing the task. Conditions to be included in an accurate and complete statement of task conditions are tools and equipment, job aids, manuals, supervision, special physical demands, environmental conditions, and location of performance.

conditional branching. Branching which occurs when a specified condition or set of conditions is satisfied.

Condor. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An air-to-surface guided missile which provides standoff launch capability for attack aircraft. Designated as AGM-53.

conducting staff. See exercise; directing staff.

cone of silence. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An inverted cone-shaped space directly over the aerial towers of some forms of radio beacons in which signals are unheard or greatly reduced in volume. See also Z marker beacon.

conference. [TR 350-70] A method of instruction that develops the training material through an instructor-guided discussion.

conference action. A function of members of both the House and the Senate in joint session, to reconcile their differences so that a single bill can be recommended which will gain the approval of both.

Conference of NATO Armaments Directors (CNAD). [DSMC] The CNAD and its subordinate bodies, including the main groups, cadre groups, ad hoc groups, and project steering committees, and any other bodies that may be established by the CNAD.

configuration. [DSMC] A collection of an item's descriptive and governing characteristics, which can be expressed in functional terms, i.e., what performance the item is expected to achieve; and in physical terms, i.e., what the item should look like and consist of when it is built.

configuration control board (CCB). [TR 5-11] A board composed of technical and administrative representatives who recommend approval or disapproval of proposed engineering changes, waivers and deviations from a configuration item’s current approved configuration documentation.

configuration identification. [DSMC] The process of establishing and describing the contractual baselines; e.g., identification of configuration items.

configuration item (CI). An aggregation of hardware, firmware, or computer software, or any of their discrete portions, which satisfies an end use function and is designated by the [U.S.] Government for separate configuration management. Configuration items may vary widely in complexity, size, and type; from an aircraft, electronic, or ship system to a test meter or round of ammunition. Any item required for logistic support and designated for separate procurement is a configuration item.

configuration management. 1A systems management process used to ensure that modifications made in either hardware or software are in accordance with system standards and are compatible with the operation of other system components. 2[DSMC] The technical and administrative direction and surveillance actions taken to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item (CI), to control changes to a CI and its characteristics, and to record and report change processing and implementation status. It provides a complete audit trail of decisions and design modifications. 3[JP 1-02] (DoD) In computer modeling and simulation, a discipline applying technical and administrative oversight and control to identify and document the functional requirements and capabilities of a model or simulation and its supporting databases, control changes to those capabilities, and document and report the changes. See also accreditation; independent review; validation; verification. 4[TR 5-11] The application of technical and administrative direction and surveillance to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a modeling and simulation, control changes, and record and report change processing and implementation status.

configuration management plan (CMP). [TR 5-11] The document defining how configuration management will be implemented (including policies and procedures) for a particular acquisition or program.

confirmation. [TR 350-70] The knowledge of results provided students as they learn. The principle underlying confirmation is reinforcement or rewarding of student achievement.

confirmation of information (intelligence). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An information item is said to be confirmed when it is reported for the second time, preferably by another independent source whose reliability is considered when confirming information.

conflict. [TP 525-5] the period characterized by confrontation and the need to engage in hostilities other than to secure objectives.

conflict termination. The process and period during which military forces transition from active combat operations to post-conflict activities and from post-conflict activities to redeployment.

confused. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a term meaning, "Individual contacts not identifiable."

confusion agent. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An individual who is dispatched by the sponsor for the primary purpose of confounding the intelligence or counterintelligence apparatus of another country rather than for the purpose of collecting and transmitting information.

confusion reflector. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A reflector of electromagnetic radiations used to create echoes for confusion purposes. Radar confusion reflectors include such devices as chaff, rope and corner reflectors.

connecting route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A route connecting axial and/or lateral routes. See also route.

consecutive voyage charter. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A contract by which a commercial ship is chartered by the Military Sealift Command for a series of specified voyages.

consequences of inadequate performance. [TR 350-70] A criterion in selecting critical tasks. The consequences of inadequate performance on certain tasks could result in injury of personnel, loss of life, or damage to equipment.

consideration. Often called mutuality of obligation, which implies that both parties to a contract must be bound to act in some way. There must be consideration passing from each party to the other. In [U.S.] Government contracting, the contractor normally promises to provide supplies or services and the [U.S.] Government promises to pay a specific dollar amount.

consol. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A long-range radio aid to navigation, the emissions of which, by means of their radio frequency modulation characteristics, enable bearings to be determined.

console. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A grouping of controls, indicators, and similar electronic or mechanical equipment, used to monitor readiness of, and/or control specific functions of, a system, such as missile checkout, countdown, or launch operations.

consolidated Army Correspondence Course Program (ACCP). [TR 350-70] That part of the ACCP which is administered by the Army Institute for Professional Development, consisting of distance learning courseware developed by TRADOC, DA, and DoD schools and agencies as described in DA Pam 351-20, The Army Correspondence Course Program (ACCP) Catalog, Chapters 2, 3, and 5.

consolidated course. [TR 350-70] An Interservice Training Review Organization (ITRO) consolidated course consists of a curriculum developed by two or more services. The course faculty is normally multi-service. The curriculum may be common throughout or consist of a common core plus Service-unique tracks.

consolidated vehicle table. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A summary of all vehicles loaded on a ship, listed by types, and showing the units to which they belong.

consolidation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The combining or merging of elements to perform a common or related function.

consolidation of position. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Organizing and strengthening a newly captured position so that it can be used against the enemy.

consolidation psychological operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Psychological operations conducted in foreign areas inhabited by an enemy or potentially hostile populace and occupied by United States forces, or in which United States forces are based, designed to produce behaviors by the foreign populace that support United States objectives in the area. See also overt peacetime psychological operations programs; psychological operations.

constant angular velocity (CAV). A mode of video disk playback where a disk rotates at a constant speed, regardless of the position of the reading head or stylus, making each frame separately addressable. A video disk with information configured in concentric circles in order to provide rapid and discrete access. Individual frames can be identified and retrieved quickly and easily - the rapid, random access that is a basic requirement for an Interactive Video disk (IVD). A CAV videodisk revolves at a continuous speed of 1,800 rotations per minute, contains 54,000 frames per side, and assigns a variable track length to each frame. One revolution generates one video frame.

constant dollars. [DSMC] A method of relating dollars in several years by removing the effects of inflation and showing all dollars at the value they would have in a selected base year. Constant dollar series are derived by dividing current dollar estimates by appropriate price indices, a process generally known as deflating. The result is a time series as it would presumably exist if prices were the same throughout as in the BY — in other words, as if the dollar had constant purchasing power. Any changes in such a series would reflect only changes in the real (physical) volume of output. Constant dollar figures are commonly used for gross domestic product and its components.

constant linear velocity (CLV). An extended-play video disk with information configured in a spiral, similar to a record, to provide continuous, linear play. A consistent length for each frame is maintained, thus enabling longer playing time per side. CLV video disks assign a fixed track length to each frame and spin at a speed that gradually decreases as the disk plays. CLV discs allow twice as much playing time per side than CAV discs, but many user control capabilities of the CAV format are forfeited. The CLV disk can be read in linear play only, but can provide chapter search capability. A CAV video disk contains 108,000 frames per side but restricts access in terms of chronological time. They are usually used for entertainment such as movies.

constant year dollars. A method of relating dollars to several years by removing the effects of inflation and showing all dollars at the value they would have in a selected base year. See constant dollars.

constitute. [JP 1-02] (DoD) To provide the legal authority for the existence of a new unit of the Armed services. The new unit is designated and listed, but it has no specific existence until it is activated. See also activate; commission.

constraints. [TR 350-70] Limiting or constraining conditions or factors such as policy considerations, time limitations, environmental factors, and budget and resource limitations.

constructed response. [TR 350-70]An answer requiring recall or completion as opposed to recognition (e.g., drawing a diagram, filling in a form, and labeling the parts of a piece of equipment).

constructed response test item. An examination item requiring recall or completion as opposed to recognition (e.g., drawing a diagram; filling in a form; labeling the parts of a piece of equipment; writing a sentence, paragraph, or essay).

constructive change. [DSMC] A contract change without formal written authority.

constructive M&S (models and simulations). [TR 350-70] Models, Simulators and/or Simulations that involve real people making inputs into an M&S entity that carries out those inputs by simulated personnel operating simulated systems (e.g., Battle Command Training Program (BCTP) Warfighter exercise [WFX]).

constructive training. [TR 350-70] The use of computer modes and simulations to exercise the command and staff functions of units from platoons through echelons above corps.

consumable. [DSMC] Administrative or housekeeping items, general purpose hardware, common tolls, or any item not specifically identified as controlled equipage or spare parts.

consumable supplies and material. See expendable supplies and material.

consumer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Person or agency that uses information or intelligence produced by either its own staff or other agencies.

consumer logistics. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That part of logistics concerning reception of the initial product, storage, inspection, distribution, transport, maintenance (including repair and the serviceability), and disposal of materiel, and the provision of support and services. In consequence, consumer logistics includes: materiel requirements determination, follow-on support, stock control, provision or construction of facilities (excluding any materiel element and those facilities needed to support production logistics activities), movement control, codification, reliability and defect reporting, storage, transport and handling safety standards, and related training.

Consumer Price Index (CPI). [DSMC] A measure of change over time in the buying power of the dollar, derived by comparing the price of like items during different time periods. Published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

consumption rate. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The average quantity of an item consumed or expended during a given time interval, expressed in quantities by the most appropriate unit of measurement per applicable stated basis.

contact. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In air intercept, a term meaning, "Unit has an unevaluated target."

l In health services, an unevaluated individual who is known to have been sufficiently near an infected individual to have been exposed to the transfer of infectious material.

contact burst preclusion. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A fusing arrangement which prevents an unwanted surface burst in the event of failure of the air burst fuse.

contact lost. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A target tracking term used to signify that a target believed to be still within the area of visual, sonar or radar coverage is temporarily lost but the termination of track plotting is not warranted.

contact mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mine detonated by physical contact. See also mine.

contact point. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In land warfare, a point on the terrain, easily identifiable, where two or more units are required to make contact.

l In air operations, the position at which a mission leader makes radio contact with an air control agency.

2[JP 1-02] (DoD) In evasion and recovery operations, a location where an evader can establish contact with friendly forces.

See also checkpoint; control point; coordinating point.

contact print. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A print made from a negative or a diapositive in direct contact with sensitized material.

contact procedure. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those predesignated actions taken by evaders and recovery forces that permit link-up between the two parties in hostile territory and facilitate the return of evaders to friendly control. See also evader; hostile; recovery force.

contact reconnaissance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Locating isolated units out of contact with the main force.

contact report. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A report indicating any detection of the enemy.

contain. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) To stop, hold, or surround the forces of the enemy or to cause the enemy to center activity on a given front and to prevent his withdrawing any part of his forces for use elsewhere.

container. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An article of transport equipment that meets American National Standards Institute/International Organization for Standardization standards designed to be transported by various modes of transportation; designed to facilitate and optimize the carriage of goods by one or more modes of transportation without intermediate handling of the contents and equipped with features permitting its ready handling and transfer from one mode to another. Containers may be fully enclosed with one or more doors, open top, refrigerated, tank, open rack, gondola, flatrack, and other designs. See also containerization.

container anchorage terminal. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A sheltered anchorage (not a port) with the appropriate facilities for the trans-shipment of containerized cargo from container ships to other vessels.

Container Control Officer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A designated official (E6 or above or civilian equivalent) within a command, installation, or activity who is responsible for control, reporting, use, and maintenance of all Department of Defense-owned and controlled intermodal containers and equipment. This officer has custodial responsibility for containers from time received until dispatched.

Container Fleet Division (CFD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Subordinate element of Military Traffic Management Command responsible for administration of all Army containerized ammunition distribution system and United States Transportation Command common-use containers. See also Military Traffic Management Command; United States Transportation Command.

containership. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A ship specially constructed and equipped to carry only containers without associated equipment, in all available cargo spaces, either below or above deck. Container ships are usually non-self-sustaining and do not have built-in capability to load or off-load containers, and require port crane service. A container ship with shipboard-installed cranes capable of loading and off-loading containers without assistance of port crane service is considered self-sustaining. See also non-self-sustaining containership; self-sustaining containership.

containership cargo stowage adapter. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Serves as the bottom-most SEASHED and precludes the necessity of strengthening of tank tops or the installation of hard points on decks, thereby accelerating containership readiness. See also containership; stowage.

containerization. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The use of containers to unitize cargo for transportation, supply and storage. Containerization incorporates supply, transportation, packaging, storage and security together with visibility of container and its contents into a distribution system from source to user. See also cargo.

contamination. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The deposit, absorption, or adsorption of radioactive material, or of biological or chemical agents on or by structures, areas, personnel, or objects. See also fallout; induced radiation; residual radiation. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) Food and/or water made unfit for consumption by humans or animals because of the presence of environmental chemicals, radioactive elements, bacteria or organisms, the byproduct of the growth of bacteria or organisms, the decomposing material (to include the food substance itself), or waste in the food or water.

contamination control. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Procedures to avoid, reduce, remove, or render harmless, temporarily or permanently, nuclear, biological, and chemical contamination for the purpose of maintaining or enhancing the efficient conduct of militaryoperations. See also biological agent; biological ammunition; biological defense; biological environment; biological threat; chemical agent; chemical ammunition; chemical, biological, and radiological operation; chemical defense; chemical environment; contamination.

content validity. 1[TRADOC] Tests are intended to measure the extent to which students learn the content of instruction and the extent to which students learn to content of the job. The extent to which the test measures this intent is referred to as content validity. If a test has content validity, it will answer the question: "Did the student learn the content of the instruction/the job?" 2[DoD] An assessment that compares objectives, tests, and materials to ensure that they track with each other.

contiguity. Refers, in learning, to the principle that events which occur closely together become associated by the learner.

continental United States (CONUS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) United States territory, including the adjacent territorial waters, located within North America between Canada and Mexico.

continental United States replacement center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The processing centers at selected Army installations through which individual personnel will be processed to ensure Soldier Readiness Processing actions have been completed prior to reporting to the aerial port of embarkation for deployment to a theater of operations. See also continental United States; deployment.

contingency. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An emergency involving military forces caused by natural disasters, terrorists, subversives, or by required military operations. Due to the uncertainty of the situation, contingencies require plans, rapid response, and special procedures to ensure the safety and readiness of personnel, installations, and equipment. See also contingency contracting; contingency planning.

Contingency Airborne Reconnaissance System (CARS). A USAF U-2 COMINT/IMINT ground station.

contingency contracting. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Contracting performed in support of a peacetime contingency in an overseas location pursuant to the policies and procedures of the Federal Acquisition Regulatory System. See also contingency.

contingency management. The establishment of a set of procedures by which trainees are required to perform a certain amount of work or to achieve certain objectives before engaging in activities that are preferred by the trainee (e.g., recreation, a break, or a more desirable training event). Also, described as reward stimulus procedures (i.e., systematically scheduling the consequences of behavior).

contingency operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A military operation that is either designated by the Secretary of Defense as a contingency operation or becomes a contingency operation as a matter of law (10 USC 101(a)(13)). It is a military operation that

l Is designated by the Secretary of Defense as an operation in which members of the Armed Forces are or may become involved in military actions, operations, or hostilities against an enemy of the United States or against an opposing force; or

l Is created by definition of law. Under 10 USC 101 (a)(13)(B), a contingency operation exists if a military operation results in the

l Callup to (or retention on) active duty of members of the uniformed Services under certain Enumerated Statutes (10 USC Sections 688, 12301(a), 12302, 12304, 12305, 12406, or 331-335).

l The callup to (or retention on) active duty of members of the uniformed Services under other (non-enumerated) statutes during war or national emergency declared by the President or Congress.

See also contingency; operation

contingency plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A plan for major contingencies that can reasonably be anticipated in the principal geographic subareas of the command. See also joint operation planning.

contingency planning. The development of plans for potential crisis involving military requirements that can reasonably be expected in an area of responsibility. Contingency planning can occur anywhere within the range of military operations and may be performed deliberately or under crisis action conditions. Contingency planning for joint operations is coordinated at the national level by assigning planning tasks and relationships among the combatant commanders and apportioning or allocating them the forces and resources available to accomplish those tasks. Commanders throughout the unified chain of command may task their staffs and subordinate commands with additional contingency planning tasks beyond those specified at the national level to provide broader contingency coverage. See also joint operation planning.

Contingency Planning Facilities List Program. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A joint Defense Intelligence Agency/unified and specified command program for the production and maintenance of current target documentation of all countries of contingency planning interest to U.S. military planners.

Contingency Response Program (CORE). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Transportation emergency preparedness program designed to ensure that the Department of Defense receives priority commercial transportation services during defense contingencies prior to the declaration of national emergency and during mobilization. See also contingency; transportation emergency.

contingency retention stock. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of the quantity of an item excess to the approved force retention level for which there is no predictable demand or quantifiable requirement, and which normally would be allocated as potential DoD excess stock, except for a determination that the quantity will be retained for possible contingencies for United States forces. (Category C ships, aircraft, and other items being retained as contingency reserve are included in this stratum.)

contingency testing. [DSMC] Additional testing required to support a decision to commit added resources to a program, when significant test objectives have not been met during planned tests.

contingency ZIP Code. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A ZIP Code assigned by Military Postal Service Agency to a contingency post office for the tactical use of the Armed Forces on a temporary basis. The number consists of a five digit base with a four digit add-on to assist in routing and sorting.

contingent effects. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The effects, both desirable and undesirable, which are in addition to the primary effects associated with a nuclear detonation.

contingent zone of fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An area within which a designated ground unit or fire support ship may be called upon to deliver fire. See also zone of fire.

continue port/starboard. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a term meaning, "Continue turning port/starboard at present rate of turn to magnetic heading indicated," (3 figures) or "Continue turning port/starboard for number of degrees indicated."

continuing appropriation. Appropriated funds which remain available for obligation and expenditure until the project(s) are completed and/or the funds are expended.

continuing resolution. An authorization by the Congress establishing prior year rates of expenditure only on a short-term basis. This is a stop-gap measure taken only when an appropriation is delayed past the beginning of the fiscal year.

Continuing Resolution Authority (CRA). [DSMC] Legislation enacted by Congress to provide budget authority for specific ongoing activities in cases where the regular fiscal year (FY) appropriation has not been enacted by the beginning of the FY. A CRA usually specifies a designated period and maximum rate at which the agency may incur obligations, based on the rate of the prior year, the President's budget request, or an appropriation bill passed by either or both Houses of the Congress. Normally, new programs cannot be started under a CRA.

continuity of command. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The degree or state of being continuous in the exercise of the authority vested in an individual of the armed forces for the direction, coordination, and control of military forces.

continuity of operations. 1The measures or procedures, manual or automated, established and applied throughout the life cycle of a battlefield automated system. Data are made available with timely transfer during the system’s operational periods in all environments. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD)The degree or state of being continuous in the conduct of functions, tasks, or duties necessary to accomplish a military action or mission in carrying out the national military strategy. It includes the functions and duties of the commander, as well as the supporting functions and duties performed by the staff and others acting under the authority and direction of the commander.

continuous acquisition and life-cycle support (CALS). [DSMC] A core strategy to share integrated digital product data through a set of standards to achieve efficiencies in business and operational mission areas.

continuous comprehensive evaluation (C2E). A continuous process extending from concept definition through deployment, which evaluates the operational effectiveness and suitability of a system by analyses of all available data.

continuous fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Fire conducted at a normal rate without interruption for application of adjustment corrections or for other causes.

l In field artillery and naval gunfire support, loading and firing at a specified rate or as rapidly as possible consistent with accuracy within the prescribed rate of fire for the weapon. Firing will continue until terminated by the command end of mission or temporarily suspended by the command cease loading or check firing.

continuous illumination fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A type of fire in which illuminating projectiles are fired at specified time intervals to provide uninterrupted lighting on the target or specified area.

continuous strip camera. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A camera in which the film moves continuously past a slit in the focal plane, producing a photograph in one unbroken length by virtue of the continuous forward motion of the aircraft.

continuous strip imagery. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Imagery of a strip of terrain in which the image remains unbroken throughout its length, along the line of flight.

contour flight. See terrain flight.

contour interval. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Difference in elevation between two adjacent contour lines.

contour line. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A line on a map or chart connecting points of equal elevation.

contract. 1[TR 350-70] A promise or set of promises for the breach of which the law gives a remedy or the performance of which the law in some way recognizes as a duty. Its necessary elements are an offer, acceptance, and consideration. 2[DSMC] An agreement between two or more legally competent parties, in the proper form, on a legal subject matter or purpose and for legal consideration.

contract, cost-plus-fixed fee (CPFF). [DSMC] A cost reimbursement type contract which provides for the payment of a fixed fee to the contractor. The fixed fee once negotiated, does not vary with actual cost, but may be adjusted as result of any subsequent changes in the scope of work or services to be performed under the contract.

contract, cost-plus-incentive-fee (CPIF). [DSMC] A cost reimbursement type contract with provision for a fee which is adjusted by formula in accordance with the relationship which total allowable costs bear to target costs. The provision for increase or decrease in the fee, depending upon allowable costs of contract performance, is designed as an incentive to the contractor to increase the efficiency of performance.

contract, cost-plus-percentage-of-cost. [DSMC] A form of contract formerly used but now illegal for use by DoD which provided for a fee or profit as a specified percentage of the contractor's actual cost of accomplishing the work to be performed. Sometimes referred to as a cost-plus or percentage-of-cost contract.

contract, cost-reimbursement type. [DSMC] A type of contract which provides for payment to the contractor of allowable costs incurred in the performance of the contract, to the extent prescribed in the contract. This type of contract establishes an estimate of total cost for the purpose of obligation of funds and establishing a ceiling which the contract may not exceed (except at his own risk) without prior approval or subsequent ratification of the contracting officers. See contract, cost-plus-fixed-fee and contract, cost-plus-incentive-fee .

contract, firm fixed price (FFP). [DSMC] Provides for a price that is not subject to any adjustment on the basis of the contractor's cost experience in performing the contract. This type of contract places upon the contractor maximum risk and full responsibility for all costs and resulting profit or loss. Provides maximum incentive for the contractor to control costs, and imposes a minimum administrative burden on the government.

contract, fixed price incentive firm (FPIF). [DSMC] Uses an incentive whereby the contractor's profit is increased or decreased by a predetermined share of an overrun or underrun. A firm target is established from which to later compute the overrun or underrun. A ceiling price is set as the maximum amount the government will pay. Necessary elements for this type of contract are: target cost — best estimate of expected cost; target profit — fair profit at target cost; share ratio(s) — to adjust profit after actual costs are documented; and, ceiling price — limit the government will pay.

contract, fixed price type. [DSMC] A type of contract which provides for a firm price to the government, or in appropriate cases, an adjustable price. See contract, firm fixed price and contract, fixed price incentive firm.

contract, fixed price with economic price adjustment (FPEPA). [DSMC] A type of contract providing for upward or downward revision of the stated contract price upon the occurrence of a specified contingency. Adjustments may reflect increases/decreases in actual costs of labor or material, or in specific indices of labor or material costs.

contract action. [DSMC] An action resulting in a contract or a modification to a contract.

contract adjustment board. [DSMC] A department board (for example, Army Contract Adjustment Board) at the Secretarial level which deals with disputes and requests for extraordinary relief under Public Law 85-804.

contract administration. [DSMC] All the activities associated with the performance of a contract from award to close-out.

contract administration office (CAO). [DSMC] The activity identified in the DoD Directory of Contract Administration Services Components assigned to perform contract administration responsibilities.

contract administration services (CAS). [DSMC] All those actions accomplished in or near a contractor's plant for the benefit of the Government, which are necessary to the performance of a contract or in support of the buying offices, system/project managers, and other organizations, including quality assurance, engineering support, production surveillance, preaward surveys, mobilization planning, contract administration, property administration, industrial security, and safety.

contract authority. [DSMC] A type of budget authority that permits a federal agency to incur obligations before appropriations have been passed or in excess of the amount of money in a revolving fund. Contract authority must be funded subsequently by an appropriation so that the commitments entered into can be paid.

contract award. [DSMC] Occurs when the contracting officer has signed and distributed the contract to the contractor.

contract budget base. [DSMC] The negotiated contract cost plus the estimated cost of authorized unpriced work.

contract categories. [DSMC] Two categories, sometimes called families:

l Cost-reimbursement (where government pays the cost, subject to limitations).

l Fixed-price (where government pays a price, subject to a maximum ceiling amount if a sharing incentive is used.)

contract cost overrun/underrun. [DSMC] A net change in the contractual amount over/under that contemplated by a contract target price, estimated cost plus fee (any type cost reimbursement contract), or redeterminable price, due to the contractor's actual contract costs being over/under target or anticipated contracts costs but not attributable to any other cause of cost growth previously defined.

Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL), DD Form 1423. A list of the data requirements that are authorized to be acquired for a specific acquisition, which is made a part of the contract.

contract definition. [DSMC] A funded effort, normally by two or more competing contractors, to establish specifications, to select technical approaches, to identify high-risk areas, and to make cost and production time estimates for developing large weapons systems.

contract line item(s) (CLIN(S)). Items listed in a contract and priced individually. Some may be options.

contract maintenance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The maintenance of materiel performed under contract by commercial organizations (including prime contractors) on a one-time or continuing basis, without distinction as to the level of maintenance accomplished.

contract requirements. [DSMC] In addition to specified performance requirements, contract requirements include those defined in the statement of work; specifications, standards, and related documents; the contract data requirements list; management systems; and contract terms and conditions.

contract termination. [JP 1-02] (DoD) As used in Defense procurement, refers to the cessation or cancellation, in whole or in part, of work under a prime contract, or a subcontract thereunder, for the convenience of, or at the option of, the government, or due to failure of the contractor to perform in accordance with the terms of the contract (default).

contracting. Contracting means purchasing, renting, leasing, or otherwise obtaining supplies or services from nonfederal sources. Contracting includes description (but not determination) of supplies and services required, selection and solicitation of sources, preparation and award of contracts, and all phases of contract administration. It doesn’t include making grants or cooperative agreements.

contracting activity. [DSMC] Certain commands designated by the services as contracting activities. Also, the subordinate command in which the principal contracting office is located. It may include the program office, related functional support offices, and contracting offices. The DoD Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) lists the contracting activities. Examples are Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) and Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC). Contracting activity is synonymous with procuring activity. The head of contracting activity (HCA) has certain approval and authority responsibilities.

contracting office. Contracting office means an office that awards or executes a contract for supplies or services and performs postaward functions not assigned to a contract administration office.

contracting officer (CO). Contracting officer means a person with the authority to enter into, administer, and/or terminate contracts and make related determinations and findings. The term includes certain authorized representatives of the contracting officer acting within the limits of their authority as delegated by the contracting officer.

l Administrative contracting officer (ACO) refers to a contracting officer who is administering contracts.

l Termination contracting officer (TCO) refers to a contracting officer who is settling terminated contracts.

A single contracting officer may be responsible for duties in any or all of these areas. Reference in this regulation to administrative contracting officer or termination contracting officer does not:

l Require that a duty be performed at a particular office or activity.

l Restrict in any way a contracting officer in the performance of any duty properly assigned.

contractor. [DSMC] An entity in private industry which enters into contracts with the government to provide goods or services. The word also applies to government-operated activities which perform work on acquisition defense programs.

contractor acquired property. [DSMC] Property procured or otherwise provided by the contractor for the performance of a contract, title to which is vested in the government.

contractor furnished equipment (CFE). Items provided by the contractor for inclusion in or support of contract work.

contractor logistics support (CLS). [DSMC] The performance of maintenance and/or material management functions for a DoD system by a commercial activity. Historically done on an interim basis until systems support could be transitioned to a DoD organic capability. Current policy now allows for the provision of system support by contractors on a long-term basis. Also called long-term contractor logistics support.

contractor performance reporting. [DSMC] Method requiring periodic accounting and reporting by the contractor on performance under contract to date.

contractor support. [DSMC] See interim contractor support.

contractor-owned, contractor-operated (COCO). [DSMC] A manufacturing facility owned and operated by a private contractor performing a service, under contract, for the government.

contractual data requirement. A requirement, identified in a solicitation and imposed in a contract or order, that addresses any aspect of data (i.e., that portion of contractual tasking requirement associated with the development, generation, preparation, modification, maintenance, storage, retrieval, and/or delivery of data).

contrail. See condensation trail.

control. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Authority which may be less than full command exercised by a commander over part of the activities of subordinate or other organizations.

l In mapping, charting,and photogrammetry, a collective term for a system of marks or objects on the Earth or on a map or a photograph, whose positions or elevations, or both, have been or will be determined.

l Physical or psychological pressures exerted with the intent to assure that an agent or group will respond as directed.

l An indicator governing the distribution and use of documents, information, or material. Such indicators are the subject of intelligence community agreement and are specifically defined in appropriate regulations.

See also administrative control; operational control; tactical control.

control (intelligence). See control, parts 3 and 4.

control and reporting center (CRC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mobile command, control, and communications radar element of the US Air Force theater air control system subordinate to the air operations center. The control and reporting center possesses four Modular Control Equipment operations modules and integrates a comprehensive air picture via multiple data links from air-,sea-, and land-based sensors as well as from its surveillance and control radars. It performs decentralized command and control of joint operations by conducting threat warning, battle management, theater missile defense, weapons control, combat identification, and strategic communications.

control and reporting post. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An element of the U.S. Air Force tactical air control system, subordinate to the control and reporting center, which provides radar control and surveillance within its area of responsibility.

control area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A controlled airspace extending upwards from a specified limit above the Earth. See also airway; controlled airspace; control zone; terminal control area.

control group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Personnel, ships, and craft designated to control the waterborne ship-to-shore movement.

control number. [TP 25-71] A Government Information Locator Service data element that is used to distinguish a locator record from all other Government Information Locator Service core locator records. The control number should be distinguished with the record source agency acronym as provided in the U.S. Government Manual.

control of electromagnetic radiation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A national operational plan to minimize the use of electromagnetic radiation in the United States and its possessions and the Panama Canal Zone in the event of attack or imminent threat thereof, as an aid to the navigation of hostile aircraft, guided missiles, or other devices. See also emission control orders.

control point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A position along a route of march at which men are stationed to give information and instructions for the regulation of supply or traffic.

l A position marked by a buoy, boat, aircraft, electronic device, conspicuous terrain feature, or other identifiable object which is given a name or number and used as an aid to navigation or control of ships, boats, or aircraft.

l In making mosaics, a point located by ground survey with which a corresponding point on a photograph is matched as a check.

control track. A defined area that runs along a narrow band on the bottom edge of videotape, where the field sync pulse is recorded and replayed by a separate audio head. It acts as a reference that controls the heads to accurately trace the recorded information.

control zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A controlled airspace extending upwards from the surface of the Earth to a specified upper limit. See also airway; control area; controlled airspace; terminal control area.

controllable mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mine which after laying can be controlled by the user, to the extent of making the mine safe or live, or to fire the mine. See also mine.

controlled airspace. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to controlled flights.

controlled dangerous air cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Cargo which is regarded as highly dangerous and which may only be carried by cargo aircraft operating within specific safety regulations.

controlled effects nuclear weapons. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Nuclear weapons designed to achieve variation in the intensity of specific effects other than normal blast effect.

controlled exercise. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An exercise characterized by the imposition of constraints on some or all of the participating units by planning authorities with the principal intention of provoking types of interaction. See also free play exercise, exercise.

controlled firing area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An area in which ordnance firing is conducted under controlled conditions so as to eliminate hazard to aircraft in flight. See also restricted area.

controlled forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Military or paramilitary forces under effective and sustained political and military direction.

controlled information. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Information conveyed to an adversary in a deception operation to evoke desired appreciations.

l Information and indicators deliberately conveyed or denied to foreign targets to evoke invalid official estimates that result in foreign official actions advantageous to US interests and objectives.

controlled item. See regulated item.

controlled map. JP 1-02] (DoD) A map with precise horizontal and vertical ground control as a basis. Scale, azimuth, and elevation are accurate. See also map.

controlled mosaic. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mosaic corrected for scale, rectified and laid to ground control to provide an accurate representation of distances and direction. See also mosaic; rectification; uncontrolled mosaic.

controlled passing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A traffic movement procedure whereby two lines of traffic traveling in opposite directions are enabled to traverse alternately a point or section of route which can take only one line of traffic at a time.

controlled port. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A harbor or anchorage at which entry and departure, assignment of berths, and traffic within the harbor or anchorage are controlled by military authorities.

controlled reprisal. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Not to be used. See controlled response.

controlled response. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The selection from a wide variety of feasible options of the one which will provide the specific military response most advantageous in the circumstances.

controlled route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A route, the use of which is subject to traffic or movement restrictions which may be supervised. See also route.

controlled shipping. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Shipping that is controlled by the Military Sealift Command. Included in this category are Military Sealift Command ships (United States Naval Ships), government-owned ships operated under a general agency agreement, and commercial ships under charter to the Military Sealift Command. See also Military Sealift Command; United States Naval ship.

controlled substance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A drug or other substance, or immediate precursor included in Schedule I, II, III, IV, or V of the Controlled Substances Act.

controlled testing. A controlled study to test or evaluate an item or subject, used for such things as obtaining validation data.

controlled vocabulary. [TP 25-71] A Government Information Locator Service data element that is a grouping of descriptive terms that describe the resource and aids users in locating entries of potential interest.

controlled war.[JP 1-02] (DoD) Not to be used. See limited war.

convention. A guideline, rule, or practice based on general consent or acceptance.

conventional forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those forces capable of conducting operations using non-nuclear weapons.

conventional mines. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Land mines, other than nuclear or chemical, which are not designed to self-destruct. They are designed to be emplaced by hand or mechanical means. Conventional mines can be buried or surface laid and are normally emplaced in a pattern to aid in recording. See also mine.

conventional planning and execution. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Worldwide Military Command and Control System command and control application software and data bases that are designed to support requirements relating to joint planning mobilization and deployment, including plan development, course of action development, execution planning, execution, movement monitoring, sustainment, and redeployment from origin to destination.

conventional recovery operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Evader recovery operations conducted by conventional forces. See also conventional forces; evader; recovery; recovery operations.

conventional weapon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A weapon which is neither nuclear, biological, nor chemical.

converge. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A request or command used in a call for fire to indicate that the observer or spotter desires a sheaf in which the planes of fire intersect at a point.

converged sheaf. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The lateral distribution of fire of two or more pieces so that the planes of fire intersect at a given point. See also open sheaf; parallel sheaf; sheaf; special sheaf.

convergence. See convergence factor; map convergence; true convergence.

convergence factor. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The ratio of the angle between any two meridians on the chart to their actual change of longitude. See also convergence.

convergence zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That region in the deep ocean where sound rays, refractured from the depths, return to the surface.

conversion angle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The angle between a great circle (orthodromic) bearing and a rhumb line (loxodromic) bearing of a point, measured at a common origin.

conversion scale. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A scale indicating the relationship between two different units of measurement. See also scale.

convoy. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A number of merchant ships or naval auxiliaries, or both, usually escorted by warships and/or aircraft, or a single merchant ship or naval auxiliary under surface escort, assembled and organized for the purpose of passage together.

l A group of vehicles organized for the purpose of control and orderly movement with or without escort protection.

See also coastal convoy; evacuation convoy; ocean convoy.

convoy commodore. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A naval officer, or master of one of the ships in a convoy, designated to command the convoy, subject to the orders of the officer in tactical command. If no surface escort is present, he takes entire command.

convoy dispersal point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The position at sea where a convoy breaks up, each ship proceeding independently thereafter.

convoy escort. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A naval ship(s) or aircraft in company with a convoy and responsible for its protection.

l An escort to protect a convoy of vehicles from being scattered, destroyed, or captured.

See also escort.

convoy joiner. See joiner. See also joiner convoy; joiner section.

convoy leaver. See leaver. See also leaver convoy; leaver section.

convoy loading. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The loading of troop units with their equipment and supplies in vessels of the same movement group, but not necessarily in the same vessel. See also loading.

convoy route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The specific route assigned to each convoy by the appropriate routing authority.

convoy schedule. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Planned convoy sailings showing the shipping lanes, assembly and terminal areas, scheduled speed, and sailing interval.

convoy speed. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) For ships, the speed which the convoy commodore orders the guide of the convoy to make good through the water.

convoy terminal area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A geographical area, designated by the name of a port or anchorage on which it is centered, at which convoys or sections of convoys arrive and from which they will be dispersed to coastal convoy systems or as independents to their final destination.

convoy through escort. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Those ships of the close escort which normally remain with the convoy from its port of assembly to its port of arrival.

convoy title. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A combination of letters and numbers that gives the port of departure and arrival, speed, and serial number of each convoy.

Cook-Craigie Plan. The Cook-Craigie Production Plan intended to hasten service entry of new aircraft by building the prototypes on actual production lines, and incorporating any modifications while the production was already running. It was troublesome because a large number of unsuitable aircraft were delivered, and very costly if the aircraft had to be completely redesigned, as was the case with the F-102 and F-105.

cooperative logistic supply support. [DSMC] The logistic support provided a foreign government or agency through participating in the U.S. DoD logistics system under security assistance procedures with reimbursement to the U.S. for support provided.

cooperative logistics. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) The logistic support provided a foreign government/agency through its participation in the US Department of Defense logistic system with reimbursement to the United States for support provided. 2[[DSMC] This term is used to refer to any international cooperation between the United States and one or more allied or friendly nations or international organizations in the logistical support of weapons or other defense systems and equipment used in the armed forces of the cooperating partners.

cooperative logistics support arrangements. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The combining term for procedural arrangements (cooperative logistics arrangements) and implementing procedures (supplementary procedures) which together support, define, or implement cooperative logistic understandings between the United States and a friendly foreign government under peacetime conditions.

cooperative opportunities. [DSMC] In accordance with Title 10 U.S.C.2350a, the acquisition strategies for major defense acquisition programs must ensure that opportunities to conduct international, cooperative projects are considered at an early point during the formal review process of the DoD.

cooperative programs. 1[DSMC] Cooperative programs comprise of one or more specific cooperative projects that are conducted under an international agreement and that are implemented under:

l Title 22 U.S.C. (Arms Export Control Act), to include the specific provisions of, Title 22 U.S.C.2767, regarding cooperative projects with friendly foreign countries.

l Title 10 U.S.C. (Armed Forces), to include the specific provisions of, Title 10 U.S.C.2350a, regarding cooperative research and development programs with allied countries.

2[DSMC] Cooperative programs so defined exclude programs that entail acquisition for solely foreign military requirements, as distinct from joint U.S./foreign military requirements. Acquisition for solely foreign military requirements will be satisfied through either foreign military sales or direct commercial transactions with U.S. contractors. Government-to-government agreements relating to acquisition for foreign military requirements may include procurement from U.S. production, foreign coproduction, or licensed production of a wholly U.S.-developed weapon system. See cooperative project and Foreign Comparative Testing Program. 3[DSMC] Programs that comprise one or more specific cooperative projects whose arrangements are defined in a written agreement between the parties and which are conducted in the following general areas:

l Research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDTE) of defense articles (including cooperative upgrade or other modification of a U.S.– developed system), joint production (including follow-on support) of a defense article that was developed by one or more of the participants, and procurement by the United States of a foreign defense article (including software), technology (including manufacturing rights), or service (including logistics support) that are implemented under Title 22 U.S.C.2767, reference (c), to promote the rationalization, standardization, and interoperability (RSI) of NATO armed forces or to enhance the ongoing efforts of non-NATO countries to improve their conventional defense capabilities.

l Cooperative research and development program (R&D) with NATO and major non-NATO allies implemented under Title 10 U.S.C.2350a, to improve the conventional defense capabilities of NATO and enhance rationalization, standardization, and interoperability (RSI).

l Data, information, and personnel exchange activities conducted under approved DoD programs.

l Testing and evaluation (T&E) of conventional defense equipment, munitions, and technologies developed by allied and friendly nations to meet valid existing U.S. military requirements.

cooperative project. 1[DSMC] A cooperative project is a jointly planned undertaking, with a finite beginning and finite ending, of something to be accomplished, produced, or constructed by the participants on the basis of:

l A bilateral or multilateral written agreement between the participants.

l An equitable contribution by the participants to the full costs of the undertaking.

2[DSMC] A project involving joint participation by the U.S. and one or more allied or friendly nations under a memorandum of understanding (MOU) (or other formal agreement) to carry out a cooperative research, development, test, and evaluation, production, or procurement project (including follow-on support). 3See cooperative programs.

cooperative project memorandum of understanding (MOU). [DSMC] A government-to-government (or international organization) international agreement setting forth the terms and conditions under which the signatories agree to cooperate in the performance of a specific research, development, test, and evaluation, exchange, standardization, or production effort (including follow-on and logistical support).

coordinated draft plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A plan for which a draft plan has been coordinated with the nations involved. It may be used for future planning and exercises and may be implemented during an emergency. See also draft plan; final plan; initial draft plan; operation plan.

coordinated fire line (CFL). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The coordinated fire line (CFL) is a line beyond which conventional, indirect, surface fire support means may fire at any time within the boundaries of the establishing headquarters without additional coordination. The purpose of the CFL is to expedite the surface-to-surface attack of targets beyond the CFL without coordination with the ground commander in whose area the targets are located. See also fire support.

coordinated procurement assignee. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The agency or military service assigned purchase responsibility for all Department of Defense requirements of a particular federal supply group/class, commodity, or item.

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An atomic time scale that is the basis for broadcast time signals. UTC differs from International Atomic Time by an integral number of seconds; it is maintained within 0.9 seconds of UT1 (see Universal Time) by introduction of Leap Seconds. The rotational orientation of the Earth, specified by UT1, may be obtained to an accuracy of a tenth of a second by applying the UTC to the increment DUT1 (where DUT1 = UT1 - UTC) that is broadcast in code with the time signals. See also International Atomic Time; Leap Second; ZULU Time.

coordinates. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Linear or angular quantities which designate the position that a point occupies in a given reference frame or system. Also used as a general term to designate the particular kind of reference frame or system such as plane rectangular coordinates or spherical coordinates. See also geographic coordinates; georef; grid coordinates.

coordinating altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A procedural airspace control method to separate fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft by determining an altitude below which fixed-wing aircraft will normally not fly and above which rotary-wing aircraft normally will not fly. The coordinating altitude is normally specified in the airspace control plan and may include a buffer zone for small altitude deviations.

coordinating authority. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A commander or individual assigned responsibility for coordinating specific functions or activities involving forces of two or more Military Departments or two or more forces of the same Service. The commander or individual has the authority to require consultation between the agencies involved, but does not have the authority to compel agreement. In the event that essential agreement cannot be obtained, the matter shall be referred to the appointing authority. Coordinating authority is a consultation relationship, not an authority through which command may be exercised. Coordinating authority is more applicable to planning and similar activities than to operations.

coordinating point. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Designated point at which, in all types of combat, adjacent units/formations must make contact for purposes of control and coordination.

coordinating review authority. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An agency appointed by a service or combatant command to coordinate with and assist the primary review authority in doctrine development, evaluation, and maintenance efforts. Each service or combatant command must assign a coordinating review authority. If so authorized by the appointing service or combatant command, coordinating review authority comments provided to designated primary review authorities should represent the position of the appointing service or combatant command with regard to the publication under development. See also joint doctrine; joint publication; joint tactics, techniques, and procedures; lead agent; joint test publication; primary review authority.

Copper Canyon. Research program into hypersonic aircraft.

coproduction. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l With respect to exports, a cooperative manufacturing arrangement (e.g., US Government or company with foreign government or company) providing for the transfer of production information that enables an eligible foreign government, international organization, or commercial producer to manufacture, in whole or in part, an item of US defense equipment. Such an arrangement would include the functions of production engineering, controlling, quality assurance, and determination of resource requirements. This is normally accomplished under the provisions of a manufacturing license agreement per the US International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR) and could involve the implementation of a government-to-government memorandum of understanding.

l A cooperative manufacturing arrangement (US Government or company with foreign government or company) providing for the transfer of production information which enables the receiving government, international organization, or commercial producer to manufacture, in whole or in part, an item of defense equipment. The receiving party could be an eligible foreign government, international organization, or foreign producer; or the US Government or a US producer, depending on which direction the information is to flow. A typical coproduction arrangement would include the functions of production engineering, controlling, quality assurance and determining of resource requirements. It may or may not include design engineering information and critical materials production and design information.

copy negative.[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A negative produced from an original not necessarily at the same scale.

core curriculum. The central part of the total educational program involving the development of essential skills required for desired student performance.

corner reflector. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A device, normally consisting of three metallic surfaces or screens perpendicular to one another, designed to act as a radar target or marker.

l In radar interpretation, an object which, by means of multiple reflections from smooth surfaces, produces a radar return of greater magnitude than might be expected from the physical size of the object.

corps support command. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Provides corps logistic support and command and control of water supply battalions.

corps troops. Troops assigned or attached to a corps, but not a part of one of the divisions that make up the corps.

correction. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In fire control, any change in firing data to bring the mean point of impact or burst closer to the target.

l A communication proword to indicate that an error in data has been announced and that corrected data will follow.

corrective maintenance. The actions performed, as a result of failure, to restore an item to a specified condition.

correlation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In air defense, the determination that an aircraft appearing on a detection or display device, or visually, is the same as that on which information is being received from another source.

l In intelligence usage, the process which associates and combines data on a single entity or subject from independent observations, in order to improve the reliability or credibility of the information.

correlation factor. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The ratio of a ground dose rate reading to a reading taken at approximately the same time at survey height over the same point on the ground.

correspondence course. 1[TR 350-70] A formal, centrally managed, series of self-study, self-paced instruction material prepared by a TRADOC service school. It is identified by a course title and number and administered to nonresident students. A course may include phases, but usually consists of subcourses progressively sequenced, and directed towards specific learning objectives. See Army Correspondence Course Program (ACCP). 2[DoD] A self-study course consisting of instructional material and an assignment booklet (or lessons) for administration to nonresident students. See distance learning and extension training.

correspondence subcourse. [TR 350-70] The basic element of an Army correspondence course. A subcourse is a self-paced, self-contained module of nonresident instruction consisting of one or more lessons that teach a part of a critical individual task, a single critical task, or a group of related tasks. It includes a practice exercise with feedback for each lesson and an end-of-subcourse test. The subcourse may contain material extracted from Armed Forces publications or other adjunctive materials to support the training. See module.

Corsair II. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A single-seat, single turbofan engine, all-weather light attack aircraft designed to operate from aircraft carriers, armed with cannon and capable of carrying a wide assortment of nuclear and/or conventional ordnance and advanced air-to-air and air-to-ground missiles. Designated as A-7.

cost analysis. [DSMC] An analysis and evaluation of each element of cost in a contractor's proposal to determine reasonableness.

Cost Analysis Improvement Group (CAIG). [DSMC] Organization within the office of the Director, Program Analysis and Evaluation which advises the Defense Acquisition Board on matters concerning the estimation, review, and presentation of cost analysis of future weapon systems. The CAIG also develops common cost estimating procedures for DoD.

cost analysis requirements description (CARD). [DSMC] A description of the salient features of the acquisition program and of the system itself. It is the common description of the technical and programmatic features of the program that is used by the teams preparing the program office, component cost analysis, and independent life cycle cost estimates.

cost and operational effectiveness analysis (COEA). A documented investigation of:

l Comparative effectiveness of alternate means for eliminating or reducing a force or mission deficiency.

l Validity of the requirement in an approved scenario.

l Cost of developing, producing, distributing, and sustaining each alternative for a time proceeding the combat application.

Obsolete – see analysis of alternatives.

cost and training effectiveness analysis (CTEA). [TR 350-70] An analysis which compares costs and effectiveness among training alternatives in support of a cost and operational effectiveness analysis. In addition, the cost and training effectiveness analysis is used to support development of systems training devices.

cost as an independent variable (CAIV). [DSMC] Methodologies used to acquire and operate affordable DoD systems by setting aggressive, achievable life cycle cost objectives, and managing achievement of these objectives by trading off performance and schedule, as necessary. Cost objectives balance mission needs with projected out-year resources, taking into account anticipated process improvements in both DoD and industry. CAIV has brought attention to the government's responsibilities for setting/adjusting life-cycle cost objectives and for evaluating requirements in terms of overall cost consequences.

cost avoidance. [DSMC] An action taken in the immediate time frame that will decrease costs in the future. For example, an engineering improvement that increases the mean time between failures and thereby decreases operating support costs can be described as a cost avoidance action. It is possible for the engineering change to incur higher costs in the immediate time frame, however, if the net total life cycle costs are less, it is a cost avoidance action. The amount of the cost avoidance is determined as the difference between two estimated cost patterns, one before the change and the one after.

cost baseline. A validated and formally approved listing of aggregate program costs that reflects a program directive document (PDD) delineated efforts. The cost baseline is a part of the Program Management Control System (PMCS) documentation.

cost breakdown structure. [DSMC] A system for subdividing a program into hardware elements and sub-elements; functions and sub-functions; and cost categories to provide for more effective management and control of the program.

cost cap. [DSMC] The maximum total dollar amount the DoD is willing to commit for acquiring a given capability. A cost cap consists of program acquisition costs only and is maintained in constant dollars. Cost caps are applied to selected baseline programs.

cost center. [DSMC] A field activity subdivision or a responsibility center, for which costs identification is desired and which is amenable to cost control through one responsible supervisor.

cost contract. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A contract which provides for payment to the contractor of allowable costs, to the extent prescribed in the contract, incurred in performance of the contract.

l A cost-reimbursement type contract under which the contractor receives no fee.

cost effective. Economical in terms of goods or services received for the money spent.

cost effectiveness. [DSMC] A measure of the operational capability added by a system as a function of its life cycle cost.

cost estimate. [DSMC] A judgment or opinion regarding the cost of an object, commodity, or service. A result or product of an estimating procedure which specifies the expected dollar cost required to perform a stipulated task or to acquire an item. A cost estimate may constitute a single value or a range of values.

cost estimate control data center (CECDC). The official point of registration and control for cost submissions. A CECDC is located within the cost analysis activity at each AMC major subordinate command. A CECDC reviews and validates cost estimates and data before release to higher headquarters or outside AMC.

cost estimating methodologies. [DSMC] There are four methodologies:

l Comparison/analogy.

l Parametric/top-down.

l Detailed engineering/bottoms-up.

l Extrapolation from actuals.

cost estimating relationship (CER). [DSMC] A mathematical relationship that defines cost as a function of one or more parameters such as performance, operating characteristics, physical characteristics, etc.

cost growth. [DSMC] A term related to the net change of an estimated or actual amount over a base figure previously established. The base must be relatable to a program, project, or contract and be clearly identified including source, approval authority, specific items included, specific assumptions made, date, and the amount.

cost incurred. [DSMC] A cost identified through the use of the accrual method of accounting.

cost model. [DSMC] A compilation of cost estimating logic that aggregates cost estimating details into a total cost estimate.

cost objective. [DSMC] A function, organizational subdivision, contract, or other work unit for which cost data are desired and for which provision is made to accumulate and measure the cost of processes, products, jobs, capitalized projects, and so forth.

cost overrun. [DSMC] The amount by which a contractor exceeds the estimated cost and/or the final limitation (ceiling) of the contract.

cost performance. [DSMC] A monthly report procured by the program manager (PM) from the contractor to obtain report data from the contractor's management system. A standard format used in the PM's decision-making process.

cost performance integrated product team (CPIPT). [DSMC] An integrated product team established to perform cost performance trade-offs.

cost performance report. A monthly contractor report on major acquisition contracts. It provides status and projections of contract costs and explanations of significant variances and problems.

cost reimbursement contracts. [DSMC] In general, a category of contracts whose use is based on payment by the government to a contractor of allowable costs as prescribed by the contract. Normally only best efforts of the contractor are involved, such as cost, cost sharing, cost-plus-fixed fee, cost-plus-incentive fee, and cost-plus award fee contracts.

cost risk. [DSMC] The risk that a program will not meet its acquisition strategy cost objectives that were developed using cost as an independent variable or cost objectives established by the acquisition authority.

cost savings. [DSMC] An action that will result in a smaller than projected level of costs to achieve a specific objective. Incentive contracts where the contractor and government share in any difference in cost below the estimated target cost incurred by the contractor to achieve the objective of the contract is a cost savings. It differs from a cost avoidance in that a cost target has been set from which the amount of savings can be measured. In a cost avoidance, the amount is determined as the difference between two estimated cost patterns.

cost sharing contract. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A cost reimbursement type contract under which the contractor receives no fee but is reimbursed only for an agreed portion of its allowable costs.

cost/benefit tradeoff analysis. An analytic approach to solving problems of choice. It requires the definition of objectives, identification of alternative ways of achieving each objective and the identification, for each objective, of that alternative that yields the greatest benefit for a given cost or produces the required level of benefits at the lowest cost.

cost/control system criteria (C/SCSC). The set of standards (criteria) used to determine the adequacy of a contractor’s cost/schedule control system and the manner in which it is used.

cost/pricing data. [DSMC] Used by the contractor to respond to a government request for proposal. The Truth-in-Negotiations Act requires the bidding contractors certify that the data are complete, current, and accurate as of the date the contractor and the government agree on a price.

cost/schedule control systems criteria (C/SCSC). [DSMC] Standards used to evaluate the effectiveness of a contractor's internal systems. The C/SCSC does not require any data to be reported to the government, but do provide for access to data needed to evaluate the system and monitor its operation during the life of the contract.

cost-based budget. [DSMC] A budget based on the cost of goods and services to be received during a given period whether paid for or not before the end of the period. Not to be confused with an expenditure-based budget, which is based on the cost paid for goods and services received.

cost-benefit analysis. [DSMC] An analytic technique that compares the costs and benefits of investments, programs, or policy actions in order to determine which alternative or alternatives maximize net profits. Net benefits of an alternative are determined by subtracting the present value of costs from the present value of benefits.

cost-effectiveness analysis. [TR 350-70] An analysis which compares costs and effectiveness among training alternatives (actions, methods, approaches, equipment, weapon systems, support systems, force combinations, and the like) to accomplish a specific mission or objective.

cost-plus a fixed-fee contract. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A cost reimbursement type contract which provides for the payment of a fixed fee to the contractor. The fixed fee, once negotiated, does not vary with actual cost but may be adjusted as a result of any subsequent changes in the scope of work or services to be performed under the contract.

Cotton Candy. Boeing RC-135D.

could cost. [DSMC] A technique designed to achieve the best quality and price for goods purchased, based on what a program could cost if both the government and contractor eliminate all non-value-added work done or required by either party.

counseling. [TR 350-70] A means of assisting and developing students and subordinates. A leader/ instructor counsels subordinates: to praise and reward good performance, to develop teamwork, to inform soldiers on how well or how poorly they are performing, to assist soldiers in reaching required standards, to cause soldiers to set personal and professional goals, and to help soldiers resolve personal problems.

countdown. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The step-by-step process leading to initiation of missile testing, launching, and firing. It is performed in accordance with a predesignated time schedule.

counter. [TR 350-70] To act in opposition to; nullify.

counter air. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A U.S. Air Force term for air operations conducted to attain and maintain a desired degree of air superiority by the destruction or neutralization of enemy forces. Both air offensive and air defensive actions are involved. The former range throughout enemy territory and are generally conducted at the initiative of the friendly forces. The latter are conducted near or over friendly territory and are generally reactive to the initiative of the enemy air forces. See also antiair warfare.

counter-C2. See command and control warfare.

counter-signals intelligence (C-SIGINT). Those actions taken to determine enemy SIGINT capabilities and activities, the assessment of friendly operations to identify patterns and signatures, and the resulting vulnerabilities for subsequent development and recommendation of countermeasures. Recommendations to counter the FSC and EW threat are provided to the G3 by the G2. They can include offensive measures such as electronic countermeasures, to include jamming or deception; or targeting for fire or maneuver.

counterattack. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Attack by part or all of a defending force against an enemy attacking force, for such specific purposes as regaining ground lost or cutting off or destroying enemy advance units, and with the general objective of denying to the enemy the attainment of his purpose in attacking. In sustained defensive operations, it is undertaken to restore the battle position and is directed at limited objectives. See also countermove; counteroffensive.

counterbattery fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fire delivered for the purpose of destroying or neutralizing indirect fire weapon systems.

counterdeception. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Efforts to negate, neutralize, diminish the effects of, or gain advantage from, a foreign deception operation. Counterdeception does not include the intelligence function of identifying foreign deception operations. See also deception.

counterdrug (CD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those active measures taken to detect, monitor, and counter the production, trafficking, and use of illegal drugs.

counterdrug nonoperational support. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Support provided to law enforcement agencies/host nations which includes loan or lease of equipment without operators, use of facilities (such as buildings, training areas, and ranges), training conducted in formal schools, transfer of excess equipment, or other support provided by the Services from forces not assigned or made available to the combatant commanders. See also counterdrug operational support; counterdrug operations.

counterdrug operational support. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Support to host nations and drug law enforcement agencies involving military personnel and their associated equipment, and provided by the geographic combatant commanders from forces assigned to them or made available to them by the Services for this purpose. Operations support does not include support in the form of equipment alone, nor the conduct of joint law enforcement investigations with cooperating civilian law enforcement agencies. See also counterdrug nonoperational support; counterdrug operations.

counterdrug operations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Civil or military actions taken to reduce or eliminate illicit drug trafficking. See also counterdrug nonoperational support; counterdrug operational support.

Counterdrug Support Office (CDSO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In counterdrug operations, offices under the office of the Department of Defense Coordinator for Drug Enforcement Policy and Support responsible for processing, tracking, and coordinating all nonoperational support requests from drug law enforcement officials. See also counterdrug; counterdrug operations.

counterespionage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That aspect of counterintelligence designed to detect, destroy, neutralize, exploit, or prevent espionage activities through identification, penetration, manipulation, deception, and repression of individuals, groups, or organizations conducting or suspected of conducting espionage activities.

counterfire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fire intended to destroy or neutralize enemy weapons. Includes counterbattery, counter-bombardment, and countermortar fire. See also fire.

counterforce. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The employment of strategic air and missile forces in an effort to destroy, or render impotent, selected military capabilities of an enemy force under any of the circumstances by which hostilities may be initiated.

counterguerrilla warfare. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Operations and activities conducted by armed forces, paramilitary forces, or nonmilitary agencies against guerrillas.

counterinsurgency. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions taken by a government to defeat insurgency.

counterintelligence (CI). 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) IInformation gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage; other intelligence activities; sabotage or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, or international terrorist activities; but not including personnel, physical, document, or communications security programs. Synonymous with foreign counterintelligence. 2(IAW DoD, NATO) Those activities which are concerned with identifying and counteracting the threat to security posed by hostile intelligence services or organizations, or by individuals engaged in espionage, sabotage, subversion, or terrorism. 3(IAW the Inter-American Defense Board) That phase of intelligence covering all activity devoted to destroying the effectiveness of inimical foreign intelligence activities and to the protection of information against espionage, personnel against subversion, and installations or materiel against sabotage. See also counterespionage; countersabotage; countersubversion; security; security intelligence.

counterintelligence activities. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The four functions of counterintelligence: operations; investigations; collection and reporting; and analysis, production, and dissemination. See also counterintelligence.

counterintelligence collection. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The systematic acquisition of information (through investigations, operations, or liaison) concerning espionage, sabotage, terrorism, other intelligence activities or assassinations conducted by or on behalf of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons which are directed against or threaten Department of Defense interests. See also counterintelligence.

counterintelligence investigations. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Counterintelligence investigations establish the elements of proof for prosecution or administrative action. Counterintelligence investigations can provide a basis for or be developed from conducting counterintelligence operations. Counterintelligence investigations are conducted against individuals or groups suspected of committing acts of espionage, sabotage, sedition, subversion, terrorism, and other major security violations as well as failure to follow Defense agency and military Service directives governing reporting of contacts with foreign citizens and "out-of-channel" requests for defense information. Counterintelligence investigations provide military commanders and policymakers with information used to eliminate security vulnerabilities and otherwise to improve the security posture of threatened interests. See also counterintelligence.

counterintelligence production. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process of analyzing all-source information concerning espionage, or other multidiscipline intelligence collection threats, sabotage, terrorism, and other related threats to US military commanders, the Department of Defense, and the US Intelligence Community and developing it into a final product which is disseminated. Counterintelligence production is used in formulating security policy, plans, and operations. See also counterintelligence.

counterintelligence support. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Conducting counterintelligence activities to protect against espionage and other foreign intelligence activities, sabotage, international terrorist activities, or assassinations conducted for, or on behalf of, foreign powers, organizations, or persons. See also counterintelligence.

countermeasures. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The form of military science that by the employment of devices or techniques, has as its objective the impairment of the operational effectiveness of enemy activity.

countermilitary. See counterforce.

countermine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) To explode the main charge in a mine by the shock of a nearby explosion of another mine or independent explosive charge. The explosion of the main charge may be caused either by sympathetic detonation or through the explosive train and/or firing mechanism of the mine.

countermine operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In land mine warfare, an operation to reduce or eliminate the effects of mines or minefields. See also countermine; countermining; mine warfare.

countermining. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Land mine warfare--Tactics and techniques used to detect, avoid, breach, and/or neutralize enemy mines and the use of available resources to deny the enemy the opportunity to employ mines.

l Naval mine warfare--The detonation of mines by nearby explosions, either accidental or deliberate.

countermove. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An operation undertaken in reaction to or in anticipation of moves by the enemy. See counterattack.

counteroffensive. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A large scale offensive undertaken by a defending force to seize the initiative from the attacking force. See also counterattack.

counterpreparation fire. [JP 1-02]

l (DoD, NATO) Intensive prearranged fire delivered when the imminence of the enemy attack is discovered.

l (DoD) It is designed to: break up enemy formations; disorganize the enemy's systems of command, communications, and observation; decrease the effectiveness of artillery preparation; and impair the enemy's offensive spirit.

See also fire.

counterreconnaissance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All measures taken to prevent hostile observation of a force, area, or place.

countersabotage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That aspect of counterintelligence designed to detect, destroy, neutralize, or prevent sabotage activities through identification, penetration, manipulation, deception, and repression of individuals, groups, or organizations conducting or suspected of conducting sabotage activities.

countersign. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A secret challenge and its reply. See also challenge; password; reply.

countersubversion. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That aspect of counterintelligence designed to detect, destroy, neutralize, or prevent subversive activities through the identification, exploitation, penetration, manipulation, deception, and repression of individuals, groups, or organizations conducting or suspected of conducting subversive activities.

counterterrorism (CT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism. See also antiterrorism; combating terrorism; terrorism.

country cover diagram. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A small scale index, by country, depicting the existence of air photography for planning purposes only.

Country Team. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The senior, in-country, United States coordinating and supervising body, headed by the Chief of the United States diplomatic mission, and composed of the senior member of each represented United States department or agency, as desired by the Chief of the US diplomatic mission.

coup de main. A offensive operation that capitalizes on surprise and simultaneous execution of supporting operations to achieve success in one swift stroke.

coupled mode. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A flight control state in which an aircraft is controlled through the automatic flight control system by signals from guidance equipment.

courier. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A messenger (usually a commissioned or warrant officer) responsible for the secure physical transmission and delivery of documents and material. Generally referred to as a command or local courier. See also armed forces courier.

Courier. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A delayed repeater communication satellite which had the capability of storing and relaying communications using microwave frequencies. This satellite gave a limited demonstration of instantaneous microwave communications.

course. 1[TR 350-70] A complete series of instructional units (phases, modules and lessons) identified by a common title or number. It trains critical tasks required for qualification of a specific job. See job (or duty position). 2[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The intended direction of movement in the horizontal plane. See instructional unit, lesson, and module.

course accreditation. [TR 350-70] Certifies that instruction is conducted IAW proponent guidance and that students graduating from the course are trained to the same standard as students graduating from the same course taught at the proponent service school. Only a subject matter expert (SME) designated by the respective proponent service school, is authorized to evaluate and recommend accreditation of a course. Additionally, a course cannot be accredited unless the institution is accredited.

course administrative data (CAD). [TR 350-70] A resident course document that provides critical planning information used to determine student input requirements for new and revised courses.

course chart. A qualitative course control document that states the course identity, length, and security classification, lists major items of training equipment, and summarizes the subject matter covered.

course development plan. See training development project management plan.

course documentation. [TR 350-70] Consists of the documents that show the current content of a course (instructional materials, tests, student evaluation plan, etc,) and its developmental history (job analysis, task performance specifications, training strategy, course design, etc.).

course evaluation. An assessment of the course to include course effectiveness, instructor effectiveness, technical documentation effectiveness, and effectiveness of training media.

course identification. Alphanumeric designator used to identify a training course.

course identification number (CIN). Alphanumeric number assigned to a course of instruction.

course management plan (CMP). [TR 350-70] A document which tells the course manager and instructors how to manage the course. It is part of a training course training support package (TSP).

course map. [TR 350-70] A chart that depicts the designed sequence for events of a given course, established during course design.

course mission. A description of the ultimate purpose of the course including a statement of who and what is to be trained, the degree of qualification brought about by the training, and where and under what general conditions the graduate will perform on the job.

course of action (COA). [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A plan that would accomplish, or is related to, the accomplishment of a mission.

l The scheme adopted to accomplish a task or mission. It is a product of the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System concept development phase. The supported commander will include a recommended course of action in the commander's estimate. The recommended course of action will include the concept of operations, evaluation of supportability estimates of supporting organizations, and an integrated time-phased data base of combat, combat support, and combat service support forces and sustainment. Refinement of this data base will be contingent on the time available for course of action development. When approved, the course of action becomes the basis for the development of an operation plan or operation order.

course of action development. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The phase of the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System within the crisis action planning process that provides for the development of military responses and includes, within the limits of the time allowed: establishing force and sustainment requirements with actual units; evaluating force, logistic, and transportation feasibility; identifying and resolving resource shortfalls; recommending resource allocations; and producing a course of action via a commander's estimate that contains a concept of operations, employment concept, risk assessments, prioritized courses of action, and supporting data bases. See also course of action; crisis action planning.

course prerequisite. A requirement the student must possess before being able to attend a training course or lesson.

course proponency. See training proponent.

course proponent. See training proponent.

course start date. [TR 350-70] Latest start date for implementing a course.

course training standards. Set forth the tasks and proficiency required of students. Establish overall course objectives. Contain performance, standards, and conditions.

course trials. A full length course conducted in a target environment (facilities, instructors and students) using the curriculum and supporting training material prepared for that course. It has as its purpose the shaking down or validating of the curriculum and materials in a classroom situation to determine their effectiveness in attaining the approved learning objectives or training goals. Also called pilot course.

courseware. [TR 350-70] An actual instructional package (including content and technique) loaded in a computer, training device, or other instructional delivery system.

courseware logic flow diagram. A graphic representation of actions/events required in accomplishment of the presentation of a course.

courseware maintenance. Repairing, changing, replacing, or otherwise manipulating implemented courseware.

courseware management systems (CMS). CMS involves the use of computers to provide data storage and management of information collected during the analysis, design, development, and evaluation of training. CMS also provides an audit trail among task, learning objectives, learning activities, lessons, courses, and media. Its primary purpose is the management curriculum data.

cover. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The action by land, air, or sea forces to protect by offense, defense, or threat of either or both.

l Those measures necessary to give protection to a person, plan, operation, formation, or installation from the enemy intelligence effort and leakage of information.

l The act of maintaining a continuous receiver watch with transmitter calibrated and available, but not necessarily available for immediate use.

l Shelter or protection, either natural or artificial.

2[JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Photographs or other recorded images which show a particular area of ground.

l A code meaning, "Keep fighters between force/base and contact designated at distance stated from force/base" (e.g., "cover bogey twenty-seven to thirty miles").

cover (intelligence). See cover, Part 6.

cover (military). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Actions to conceal actual friendly intentions, capabilities, operations, and other activities by providing a plausible, yet erroneous, explanation of the observable.

Cover All. Boeing EC-135A and EC-135L, ALCC and ABNCP aircraft.

cover search. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air photographic reconnaissance, the process of selection of the most suitable existing cover for a specific requirement.

cover shot. A wide-angle shot giving basic orientation of place and action.

coverage. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The ground area represented on imagery, photomaps, mosaics, maps, and other geographical presentation systems. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Cover or protection, as the coverage of troops by supporting fire.

l The extent to which intelligence information is available in respect to any specified area of interest.

l The summation of the geographical areas and volumes of aerospace under surveillance.

See also comparative cover.

coverage index. [JP 1-02] (DoD) One of a series of overlays showing all photographic reconnaissance missions covering the map sheet to which the overlays refer. See also covertrace.

covering fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Fire used to protect troops when they are within range of enemy small arms.

l In amphibious usage, fire delivered prior to the landing to cover preparatory operations such as underwater demolition or minesweeping.

See also fire

covering force. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A force operating apart from the main force for the purpose of intercepting, engaging, delaying, disorganizing, and deceiving the enemy before he can attack the force covered.

l Any body or detachment of troops which provides security for a larger force by observation, reconnaissance, attack, or defense, or by any combination of these methods.

See also force.

covering force area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The area forward of the forward edge of the battle area out to the forward positions initially assigned to the covering forces. It is here that the covering forces execute assigned tasks.

covering troops. See covering force.

covert behavior. [TR 350-70] Behavior that is not directly observable, but may be inferred from overt behavior which is observable.

covert operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor. A covert operation differs from a clandestine operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of identity of sponsor rather than on concealment of the operation. See also clandestine operation; overt operation.

covertrace. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) One of a series of overlays showing all air reconnaissance sorties covering the map sheet to which the overlays refer.

coxswain. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A person in charge of a small craft (in the Army, a Class B or smaller craft) who often functions as the helmsman. For a causeway ferry, the pilot is in charge, with the coxswain performing helmsman functions. See causeway.

crab angle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The angle between the aircraft track or flight line and the fore and aft axis of a vertical camera, which is in line with the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.

cradle-to-grave. [DSMC] Total life cycle of a given system, from concept through development, acquisition, operations phases, and final disposition. Also called womb-to-tomb.

CRAF (Civil Reserve Air Fleet) Stage I. This stage involves DoD use of civil air resources that air carriers will furnish to the Department of Defense to support substantially expanded peacetime military airlift requirements. The Commander, Air Mobility Command, may authorize activation of this stage and assume mission control of those airlift assets committed to CRAF Stage I.

CRAF (Civil Reserve Air Fleet) Stage II. This stage involves DoD use of civil air resources that the air carriers will furnish to Department of Defense in a time of defense airlift emergency. The Secretary of Defense, or designee, may authorize activation of this stage permitting the Commander, Air Mobility Command, to assume mission control of those airlift assets committed to CRAF Stage II.

CRAF (Civil Reserve Air Fleet) Stage III. This stage involves DoD use of civil air resources owned by a U.S. entity or citizen that the air carriers will furnish to the Department of Defense in a time of declared national defense-oriented emergency or war, or when otherwise necessary for the national defense. The aircraft in this stage are allocated by the Secretary of Transportation to the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary of Defense may authorize activation of this stage permitting the Commander, Air Mobility Command, to assume mission control of those airlift assets committed to CRAF Stage III.

crash locator beacon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An automatic emergency radio locator beacon to help searching forces locate a crashed aircraft. See also emergency locator beacon; personal locator beacon.

crash position indicator. See crash locator beacon.

crash rescue and fire suppression. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Extraction of aircrew members from crashed or burning aircraft and the control and extinguishing of aircraft and structural fires.

crater. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The pit, depression, or cavity formed in the surface of the Earth by an explosion. It may range from saucer shaped to conical, depending largely on the depth of burst. In the case of a deep underground burst, no rupture of the surface may occur. The resulting cavity is termed a camouflet.

crater depth. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The maximum depth of the crater measured from the deepest point of the pit to the original ground level.

crater radius. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The average radius of the crater measured at the level corresponding to the original surface of the ground.

cratering charge. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A charge placed at an adequate depth to produce a crater.

Credible Chase. Development program of the AU-23 and AU-24 small gunships.

credit hour. [TR 350-70] The measurement unit of correspondence course work. The number of credit hours assigned to a subcourse (module) is the estimated time required for an average student to complete the material.

creeping barrage. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A barrage in which the fire of all units participating remains in the same relative position throughout and which advances in steps of one line at a time.

creeping mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a buoyant mine held below the surface by a weight, usually in the form of a chain, which is free to creep along the seabed under the influence of stream or current.

crest. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A terrain feature of such altitude that it restricts fire or observation in an area beyond, resulting in dead space, or limiting the minimum elevation, or both.

crested. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A report which indicates that engagement of a target or observation of an area is not possible because of an obstacle or intervening crest.

crew drill. A collective action that a crew of a weapon or piece of equipment must perform to use the weapon or equipment successfully in combat or to preserve life. This action is a trained response to a given stimulus such as a simple order or the status of the weapon or equipment. It requires minimal orders to accomplish. See drill.

crew load. [DSMC] Number of workers assigned to complete work on a defined production component.

CREWCUT. A human performance modeling from the Human Research Engineering Directorate.

crisis action planning (CAP). [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The Joint Operation Planning and Execution System process involving the time-sensitive development of joint operation plans and orders in response to an imminent crisis. Crisis action planning follows prescribed crisis action procedures to formulate and implement an effective response within the time frame permitted by the crisis.

l The time-sensitive planning for the deployment, employment, and sustainment of assigned and allocated forces and resources that occurs in response to a situation that may result in actual military operations. Crisis action planners base their plan on the circumstances that exist at the time planning occurs.

See also Joint Operation Planning and Execution System.

crises response forces. AC and RC CONUS-based, including forward-presence units, trained and configured to deploy anywhere in the world, based on the unit’s deployability posture.

criterion. [TR 350-70] The standard by which something is measured. In Army training the task or learning objective standard is the criterion used to measure student performance. In test validation the criterion is the standard against which test instruments are measured to indicate the accuracy with which they predict student performance. In evaluation the criterion is the measure used to determine the adequacy of a product, process, or behavior.

criterion behavior. [TR 350-70] Performance required of the course graduate, which is described by the terminal objective(s) and measured by the criterion test.

criterion-referenced grading. [TR 350-70] A way of grading students in relation to a predetermined standard (go or no-go) based on job requirements.

criterion-referenced instruction (CRI). [TR 350-70] The instruction aimed at training students to perform established learning objectives (performance criteria) to the prescribed standard. CRI is the selected instructional methodology for training within the Army

criterion-referenced measurement. The process of determining, as objectively as possible, a student's achievement in relation to a fixed standard that is based on objectives.

criterion-referenced objective. An objective with prescribed levels of performance. Each criterion-referenced objective contains a behavior (task statement), condition (available equipment, checklists, and governing directives, or the situation requiring the task), and a standard (regulation, operating instruction) for the task.

criterion-referenced test. [TR 350-70] A test that establishes whether or not a unit or soldier performs the learning objective to the established standard. Performance is measured as a go or no-go against a prescribed criterion or set of criteria - the learning objective standard. It is scored based upon absolute standards, such as job competency, rather than upon relative standards, such as class standings. See test.

critic report. See critical intelligence.

critical acquisition processes. [DSMC] The following is included in industrial and program critical acquisition processes; design, test, production, facilities, logistics, and management.

critical altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The altitude beyond which an aircraft or airbreathing guided missile ceases to perform satisfactorily. See also altitude.

critical collective task. See task and collective task.

critical comments. [CJCSI 6212.01A] Critical comments will cause nonconcurrence with the document if comment is not satisfactorily resolved.

critical cue. Cue which must be correctly interpreted by the student before he/she can correctly perform the associated task.

critical design review (CDR). A review conducted to determine that the detailed design satisfies the performance and engineering requirements of the development specification; to establish the detailed design compatibility among the item and other items of equipment, facilities, computer programs, and personnel; to assess producibility and risk areas; and to review the preliminary product specifications. Conducted during Phase I, Demonstration and Validation (for prototypes) and Phase II, Engineering and Manufacturing Development.

critical individual task. See task.

critical information. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Specific facts about friendly intentions, capabilities, and activities vitally needed by adversaries for them to plan and act effectively so as to guarantee failure or unacceptable consequences for friendly mission accomplishment.

critical intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Intelligence which is crucial and requires the immediate attention of the commander. It is required to enable the commander to make decisions that will provide a timely and appropriate response to actions by the potential/actual enemy. It includes but is not limited to the following:

l Strong indications of the imminent outbreak of hostilities of any type (warning of attack).

l Aggression of any nature against a friendly country.

l Indications or use of nuclear-biological-chemical weapons (targets).

l Significant events within potential enemy countries that may lead to modification of nuclear strike plans.

critical intelligence parameter (CIP). [DSMC] A threat capability or threshold established by the program manager changes to which could critically impact on the effectiveness and survivability of the proposed system.

critical Issue. An issue identified within one or more of the MANPRINT domains, which if uncorrected is expected to result in one or more of the following problems:

l System cannot be started or uncontrollably fails (e.g., engine quits).

l Catastrophic injury or death to the crew or other friendly personnel.

l Seriously degraded mission performance or effectiveness.

l Requires major unprogrammed MPT resources.

l Jeopardizes the ability of the MPT community (TRADOC, PERSCOM, etc.) to support fielding with trained and available personnel.

Critical issues which remain unresolved through the IPT process will be included in the IPT’s report to the MDA, or in a separate MANPRINT report to the MDA. Critical issues must be resolved before proceeding to the next acquisition phase.

critical issues. [DSMC] Those aspects of a system's capability, either operational, technical, or other, that must be questioned before a system's overall suitability can be known. Critical issues are of primary importance to the decision authority in reaching a decision to allow the system to advance into the next phase of development.

critical item. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An essential item which is in short supply or expected to be in short supply for an extended period. See also critical supplies and materiel; regulated item.

critical item list. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Prioritized list, compiled from the commanders' composite critical item lists, identifying items and weapon systems that assist services and Defense Logistics Agency in selecting systems for production surge planning.

critical joint duty assignment billet. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A joint duty assignment position for which, considering the duties and responsibilities of the position, it is highly important that the assigned officer be particularly trained in, and oriented toward, joint matters. Critical billets are selected by heads of joint organizations, approved by the Secretary of Defense and documented in the Joint Duty Assignment List.

critical mass. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The minimum amount of fissionable material capable of supporting a chain reaction under precisely specified conditions.

critical material. [DSMC] Material that has been classified as being essential to the U.S. economy. There are approximately 40 items in this category. The U.S. is more than 50 percent dependent on foreign sources for over half of these.

critical node. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An element, position, or communications entity whose disruption or destruction immediately degrades the ability of a force to command, control, or effectively conduct combat operations. See also target critical damage point.

critical operational issue (COI). [DSMC] Operational effectiveness and operational suitability issues (not parameters, objectives, or thresholds) that must be examined in operational test and evaluation to determine the system's capability to perform its mission. A COI is normally phrased as a question that must be answered in order to properly evaluate operational effectiveness (e.g., "Will the system detect the threat in a combat environment at adequate range to allow successful engagement?") or operational suitability (e.g., "Will the system be safe to operate in a combat environment?").

critical operational issues and criteria (COIC). [TP 71] Those decision maker key operational concerns with bottom line standards of performance, which if satisfied, signify the system is operationally ready to proceed into full production (Milestone III, or an engineering change proposal or modification work order authorization decision for modifications). COICs are prepared in sets which include the issues, and for each issue, a scope, appropriate criteria, and rationale.

critical occupational specialty (COS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A military occupational specialty selected from among the combat arms in the Army or equivalent military specialties in the Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps. Equivalent military specialties are those engaged in the operational art to attain strategic goals in a theater of conflict through the design, organization, and conduct of campaigns and major operations. Critical occupational specialties are designated by the Secretary of Defense.

critical path method (CPM). [DSMC] A technique that aids dependency of other activities and the time required to complete them. Activities which, when delayed, have an impact on the total project schedule are critical and said to be on the critical path.

critical point. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A key geographical point or position important to the success of an operation.

l In point of time, a crisis or a turning point in an operation.

l A selected point along a line of march used for reference in giving instructions.

l A point where there is a change of direction or change in slope in a ridge or stream.

l Any point along a route of march where interference with a troop movement may occur.

critical safety item (CSI). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A part, assembly, installation, or production system with one or more essential characteristics that, if not conforming to the design data or quality requirements, would result in an unsafe condition that could cause loss or serious damage to the end item or major components, loss of control, or serious injury to personnel.

critical sequence. In training development, sequencing of topics or objectives according to their importance.

critical speed. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A speed or range of speeds which a ship cannot sustain due to vibration or other similar phenomena.

critical supplies and materiel. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Those supplies vital to the support of operations, which owing to various causes are in short supply or are expected to be in short supply. See also critical item; regulated item.

critical sustainability items. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Items described at National Stock Number level of detail, by Federal Supply Class, as part of the Logistic Factors File, that significantly affect the commander's ability to execute an operation plan.

critical task. A collective or individual task that, if not accomplished to the specified standard by a unit or individual, results in a serious adverse effect upon mission accomplishment, survivability, or safety. Critical tasks must be trained. See task: collective task.

critical task selection board (CTSB). [TR 350-70] A management device which serves a quality control function in critical task selection. The board reviews the total task inventory and job performance data and recommends tasks for approval to the proper authority as critical tasks.

critical task site selection board (CTSSB). The authority that approves critical tasks decides where they should be trained.

critical technology. [DSMC] Technologies that consist of:

l Arrays of design and manufacturing know-how (including technical data).

l Keystone manufacturing, inspection, and test equipment.

l Keystone materials.

l Goods accompanied by sophisticated operation, application, or maintenance know-how that would make a significant contribution to the military potential of any country or combination of countries and that may prove detrimental to the security of the United States. (Also referred to as militarily critical technology.)

critical training gates. [TR 350-70] Training events that soldiers and units must perform to standard prior to performing subsequent tasks or events.

critical weakness reliability test. [DSMC] Determines the mode of failure when equipment is exposed to environments in excess of the anticipated environments. By this testing, critical levels can be determined for parameters such as vibration, temperature, and voltage which will adversely affect the component.

critical zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The area over which a bombing plane engaged in horizontal or glide bombing must maintain straight flight so that the bomb sight can be operated properly and bombs dropped accurately.

criticality standard. A standard that reflects the importance of a task or learning objective.

cross talk. The unwanted transmission of a signal on a channel that interferes with another adjacent channel.

cross tell. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The transfer of information between facilities at the same operational level. See also track telling.

cross training. [TR 350-70] The systematic training of soldiers on tasks related to other duty positions.

cross-loading (personnel). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A system of loading troops so that they may be disembarked or dropped at two or more landing or drop zones, thereby achieving unit integrity upon delivery. See also loading.

cross-reference. A Government Information Locator Service data element that is a grouping of subelements that together identify another locator record likely to be of interest. It is a listing of related information resources.

cross-servicing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That function performed by one military service in support of another military service for which reimbursement is required from the service receiving support. See also servicing.

crossing. In air intercept, a term meaning, passing from to .

crossing area. A number of adjacent crossing sites under the control of one commander.

crossover point. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That range in the air warfare area at which a target ceases to be an air intercept target and becomes a surface-to-air missile target.

crosswalking tracking [MANPRINT] information between or among requirements

cruise missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Guided missile, the major portion of whose flight path to its target is conducted at approximately constant velocity; depends on the dynamic reaction of air for lift and upon propulsion forces to balance drag.

cruising altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A level determined by vertical measurement from mean sea level, maintained during a flight or portion thereof.

cruising level. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A level maintained during a significant portion of a flight. See also altitude.

cryogenic liquid. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Liquefied gas at very low temperature, such as liquid oxygen, nitrogen, argon.

cryptanalysis. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The steps and operations performed in converting encrypted messages into plain text without initial knowledge of the key employed in the encryption.

crypto security. The component of COMSEC which results from the provision of technically sound crypto systems and their proper use.

cryptochannel. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A complete system of crypto-communications between two or more holders. The basic unit for naval cryptographic communication. A cryptochannel is analogous to a radio circuit. It includes:

l The cryptographic aids prescribed.

l The holders thereof.

l The indicators or other means of identification.

l The area or areas in which effective.

l The special purpose, if any, for which provided.

l Pertinent notes as to distribution, usage, etc.

A cryptochannel is analogous to a radio circuit.

cryptographic information. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All information significantly descriptive of cryptographic techniques and processes or of cryptographic systems and equipment, or their functions and capabilities, and all cryptomaterial.

cryptologic. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Of or pertaining to cryptology.

cryptology. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The science which deals with hidden, disguised, or encrypted communications. It includes communications security and communications intelligence.

cryptomaterial. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All material, including documents, devices, equipment, and apparatus, essential to the encryption, decryption, or authentication of telecommunications. When classified, it is designated CRYPTO and subject to special safeguards.

cryptopart. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A division of a message as prescribed for security reasons. The operating instructions for certain cryptosystems prescribe the number of groups which may be encrypted in the systems, using a single message indicator. Cryptoparts are identified in plain language. They are not to be confused with message parts.

cryptosecurity. See communications security.

cryptosystem. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The associated items of cryptomaterial that are used as a unit and provide a single means of encryption and decryption. See also cipher; code; decrypt; encipher; encrypt.

cue. [TR 350-70] A word, situation, or other signal for action. An initiating cue is a signal to begin performing a task or task performance step. An internal cue is a signal to go from one element of a task to another. A terminating cue indicates task completion.

cue inserter. The device that places cues on lines of the vertical interval of the master tape.

cue track. A narrow area, along a narrow band on the outer edge of videotape, which records signals, codes, and verbal memoranda used in editing.

cueing. [TR 350-70] Cueing describes a deficiency in a test question where the correct answer can be found or implied from information found elsewhere in the test.

culmination. The point in time and space when the attacker’s combat power no longer exceeds that of the defender or when the defender no longer has the capability to defend successfully.

cultivation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A deliberate and calculated association with a person for the purpose of recruitment, obtaining information, or gaining control for these or other purposes.

culture. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A feature of the terrain that has been constructed by man. Included are such items as roads, buildings, and canals; boundary lines, and, in a broad sense, all names and legends on a map.

cumulative average curve. [DSMC] A plot of the average cost of N units at any quantity N or the total cost divided by the total quantity.

curb weight. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Weight of a ground vehicle including fuel, lubricants, coolant and on-vehicle materiel, excluding cargo and operating personnel.

current estimate. [DSMC]

l A DoD Component's latest selected acquisition report (SAR) estimate of program acquisition cost, quantity, schedule milestone dates, and performance characteristics of the approved program, as reflected in the currently approved acquisition program baseline (APB), acquisition decision memorandum (ADM), or in any other document reflecting a more current decision of the milestone decision authority or any other appropriate approval authority.

l Program manager's current estimate of achieving APB parameters (reported in the Defense Acquisition Executive Summary for acquisition category (ACAT) I programs).

Current Force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The force that exists today. The Current Force represents actual force structure and/or manning available to meet present contingencies. It is the basis for operations and contingency plans and orders. See also force; intermediate force planning level; programmed forces.

current intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Intelligence of all types and forms of immediate interest which is usually disseminated without the delays necessary to complete evaluation or interpretation. See also intelligence; intelligence cycle.

current level. [DSMC] The amounts provided or required by law as a result of permanent appropriations, advance appropriations, existing entitlement authority, and previous year outlays from discretionary appropriations. Credit authority provided by any of these laws is also considered to be part of the current level, as are direct loans that result from defaults on guaranteed loans.

current services. [DSMC] An estimate, provided each year by the Office of Management and Budget, of the budget authority and outlays that would be needed in the next fiscal year to continue federal programs at their current levels. These estimates reflect the anticipated costs of continuing these programs at their present spending levels without any policy changes, that is, ignoring all new presidential and congressional initiatives that have not yet been enacted into law.

current year (CY). [DSMC] The fiscal year in progress. Also called the execution year. See budget year.

current-year dollars, then-year dollars. [DSMC] Dollars that include the effects of inflation or escalation and or reflect the price levels expected to prevail during the year at issue. (See escalated dollars.)

curriculum. 1[TR 350-70] A course of study. An Army school curriculum consists of the course design, lesson plans, student evaluation plan, tests, course map, all other associated training material, and the program of instruction. 2[DoD] A set of courses constituting an area of specialization. All training conducted within a school, outlined into specific topics, along with detailed training objectives, to include behavior, conditions, and standards.

curriculum materials. All materials required for the presentation of information and the development of skills in formal training.

curriculum outline. A detailed chronological listing of units/modules and lesson topics with estimated times of coverage in sequential order with the learning objectives they support.

curve of pursuit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The curved path described by a fighter plane making an attack on a moving target while holding the proper aiming allowance.

cusps. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Ridges of beach material extending seaward from the beach face with intervening troughs.

custody. The responsibility for the control of, transfer and movement of, and access to, weapons and components. Custody also includes the maintenance of accountability for weapons and components.

customer ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The ship in a replenishment unit that receives the transferred personnel and/or supplies.

Customs Over-The-Horizon Enforcement Network (COTHEN). [JP 1-02] (DoD) US Customs Service long-range voice communications system.

cut-off. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The deliberate shutting off of a reaction engine.

cut-off score. Minimum passing score.

cut-off velocity. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The velocity attained by a missile at the point of cutoff.

cutoff. [TP 25-71] The termination or closing of files to permit their retirement, transfer, or destruction. After cutoff, no new records may be added to the file, nothing may be deleted or amended. Termination may be at regular intervals or conditional upon the occurrence of an event or condition. After a file is closed, a new file is established for records filed under the same subject or case.

cutoff attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An attack that provides a direct vector from the interceptor's position to an intercept point with the target track.

cutout. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An intermediary or device used to obviate direct contact between members of a clandestine organization.

cutter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a device fitted to a sweep wire to cut or part the moorings of mines or obstructors; it may also be fitted in the mooring of a mine or obstructor to part a sweep.

cutting charge. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A charge which produces a cutting effect in line with its plane of symmetry.

cycle. [DSMC]

l The time required to complete a predetermined number of article(s) of production.

l Also refers to the resource allocation process occurring on a calendar basis.