Index Military Definitions

Eagle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A twin-engine supersonic, turbofan, all-weather tactical fighter, capable of employing a variety of air-launched weapons in the air-to-air role. The Eagle is air refuelable and is also capable of long-range air superiority missions. Designated as F-15.

earliest anticipated launch time (EALT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The earliest time expected for a special operations tactical element and its supporting platform to depart the staging or marshalling area together en route to the operations area.

earliest arrival date (EAD). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A day, relative to C-day, that is specified by a planner as the earliest date when a unit, a resupply shipment, or replacement personnel can be accepted at a port of debarkation during a deployment. Used with the latest arrival data, it defines a delivery window for transportation planning. See also latest arrival date.

early comparability analysis (ECA). An analysis tool to identify costly tasks by comparing predecessor systems to the one being developed. ECA identifies those manpower, personnel, and training high driver tasks that can be limited or eliminated in the design of new or improved systems. ECA also helps develop preliminary manpower, personnel, and training constraints and/or guidelines.

early entry operations. [TP 525-5] Operations involving the initial deploying forces; they occur whenever the missions require the projection of U.S. forces from CONUS or elsewhere.

early operational assessment (EOA). [DSMC] An operational assessment conducted prior to, or in support of, Milestone II.

early reinforcement forces. Primarily AC divisions (CONUS- and OCONUS-based) and associated EAD and EAC support elements (both AC and RC); RC round-out and round-up brigades are available to add combat power to AC divisions designated as early reinforcement forces.

Early Spring. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An antireconnaissance satellite weapon system.

early time. See span of detonation (atomic demolition munition employment).

early warning. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Early notification of the launch or approach of unknown weapons or weapon carriers. See also attack assessment; tactical warning.

early-on. [DSMC] An action should be taken at the beginning of an evolution (i.e., planning early-on in system development for adequate support.)

earmarking of stocks. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The arrangement whereby nations agree, normally in peacetime, to identify a proportion of selected items of their war reserve stocks to be called for by specified NATO commanders.

earned hours. [DSMC] The time in standard hours credited to a worker or group of workers as a result of their completion of a given task or group of tasks.

earned value management standard (EVMS). [DSMC] Industry developed standard for evaluation of contractor management systems. May be used vice cost/schedule control systems criteria.

earthing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The process of making a satisfactory electrical connection between the structure, including the metal skin, of an object or vehicle, and the mass of the Earth, to ensure a common potential with the Earth. See also bonding; grounding.

ease turn. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Decrease rate of turn.

echelon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A subdivision of a headquarters, i.e., forward echelon, rear echelon.

l Separate level of command. As compared to a regiment, a division is a higher echelon, a battalion is a lower echelon.

l A fraction of a command in the direction of depth to which a principal combat mission is assigned; i.e., attack echelon, support echelon, reserve echelon.

l A formation in which its subdivisions are placed one behind another, with a lateral and even spacing to the same side.

echeloned displacement. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Movement of a unit from one position to another without discontinuing performance of its primary function. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) Normally, the unit divides into two functional elements (base and advance); and, while the base continues to operate, the advance element displaces to a new site where, after it becomes operational, it is joined by the base element.

economic action. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The planned use of economic measures designed to influence the policies or actions of another state, e.g., to impair the war-making potential of a hostile power or to generate economic stability within a friendly power.

economic analysis. [DSMC] A systematic approach to a given program, designed to assist the manager in solving a problem of choice. The full problem is investigated. Objectives and alternatives are searched out and compared in light of their benefits and costs through the use of an appropriate analytical framework.

economic life. [DSMC] The period of time over which the benefits to be gained from a system may reasonably be expected.

economic lot size. [DSMC] The number of units of material or a manufactured item that can be purchased or produced within the lowest unit cost range. Its determination involves reconciling the decreasing trend in preparation unit costs and the increasing trend in unit costs of storage, interest, insurance, depreciation, and other costs incident to ownership, as the size of the lot is increased.

economic mobilization. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The process of preparing for and carrying out such changes in the organization and functioning of the national economy as are necessary to provide for the most effective use of resources in a national emergency.

economic order quantity. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That quantity derived from a mathematical technique used to determine the optimum (lowest) total variable costs required to order and hold inventory.

economic ordering quantity (EOQ). [DSMC] The most economical quantity of parts to order at one time, considering the applicable procurement and inventory costs.

economic potential. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The total capacity of a nation to produce goods and services.

economic potential for war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That share of the total economic capacity of a nation that can be used for the purposes of war.

economic production rate. [DSMC] The most economically feasible rate at which an end item can be manufactured.

economic retention stock. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of the quantity of an item excess of the approved force retention level that has been determined will be more economical to retain for future peacetime issue in lieu of replacement of future issues by procurement. To warrant economic retention, items must have a reasonably predictable demand rate.

economic warfare. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Aggressive use of economic means to achieve national objectives.

economies of scale. [DSMC] Reductions in unit cost of output resulting from the production of additional units stem from increased specialization of labor as volume of output increases; decreased unit costs of materials; better utilization of management; acquisition of more efficient equipment; and greater use of by-products.

economy of force theater. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Theater in which risk is accepted to allow a concentration of sufficient force in the theater of focus. See also theater of focus.

edible structural material (ESM). This was proposed for the Lunar Module, the moon landing craft of the Apollo missions. ESM would have been made of powdered milk, corn starch, wheat flour, hominy grits, and banana flakes, baked at high pressure. It could be machined and drilled and had 300 calories per gram. Its use was not adopted.

effective competition. [DSMC] A marketplace condition that results when two or more manufacturing sources are acting independently of each other.

effective damage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That damage necessary to render a target element inoperative, unserviceable, nonproductive, or uninhabitable.

effective US control (EUSC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Merchant ships, majority owned by US citizens or corporations that are operated under Liberian, Panamanian, Honduran, Bahamian, and Marshall Islands registries. These ships are considered requisitionable assets available to the US Government in time of national emergency and therefore under the effective control of the US Government. See also Military Sealift Command.

effectiveness. 1[DSMC] The extent to which the goals of the system are attained, or the degree to which a system can be elected to achieve a set of specific mission requirements. 2[DSMC] An output of the cost effectiveness analysis.

efficiency factor. [DSMC] The ratio of standard performance time to actual performance time, usually expressed as a percentage.

ejection. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Escape from an aircraft by means of an independently propelled seat or capsule.

l In air armament, the process of forcefully separating an aircraft store from an aircraft to achieve satisfactory separation.

ejection systems. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l command ejection system. A system in which the pilot of an aircraft or the occupant of the other ejection seat(s) initiates ejection resulting in the automatic ejection of all occupants.

l command select ejection system. A system permitting the optional transfer from one crew station to another of the control of a command ejection system for automatic ejection of all occupants.

l independent ejection system. An ejection system which operates independently of other ejection systems installed in one aircraft.

l sequenced ejection system. A system which ejects the aircraft crew in sequence to ensure a safe minimum total time of escape without collision.

electro-explosive device. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An explosive or pyrotechnic component that initiates an explosive, burning, electrical, or mechanical train and is activated by the application of electrical energy.

electro-optical intelligence (ELECTRO-OPTINT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Intelligence other than signals intelligence derived from the optical monitoring of the electromagnetic spectrum from ultraviolet (0.01 micrometers) through far infrared (1,000 micrometers). See also intelligence; laser intelligence.

electro-optically (EO). Missile guidance systems and similar equipment which can see. The most primitive systems steer on contrasting objects, e.g., a dark ship at the horizon. Sometimes a full-TV link is used.

electro-optics. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The technology associated with those components, devices and systems which are designed to interact between the electromagnetic (optical) and the electric (electronic) state.

electrode sweep. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a magnetic cable sweep in which the water forms part of the electric circuit.

electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The ability of systems, equipment, and devices that utilize the electromagnetic spectrum to operate in their intended operational environments without suffering unacceptable degradation or causing unintentional degradation because of electromagnetic radiation or response. It involves the application of sound electromagnetic spectrum management; system, equipment, and device design configuration that ensures interference-free operation; and clear concepts and doctrines that maximize operational effectiveness. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electronic warfare; spectrum management.

electromagnetic deception. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The deliberate radiation, reradiation, alteration, suppression, absorption, denial, enhancement, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner intended to convey misleading information to an enemy or to enemy electromagnetic-dependent weapons, thereby degrading or neutralizing the enemy's combat capability. Among the types of electromagnetic deception are:

l manipulative electromagnetic deception. Actions to eliminate revealing, or convey misleading, electromagnetic telltale indicators that may be used by hostile forces.

l simulative electromagnetic deception. Actions to simulate friendly, notional, or actual capabilities to mislead hostile forces.

l imitative electromagnetic deception. The introduction of electromagnetic energy into enemy systems that imitates enemy emissions.

See also electronic warfare.

electromagnetic environment (EME). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The resulting product of the power and time distribution, in various frequency ranges, of the radiated or conducted electromagnetic emission levels that may be encountered by a military force, system, or platform when performing its assigned mission in its intended operational environment. It is the sum of electromagnetic interference; electromagnetic pulse; hazards of electromagnetic radiation to personnel, ordnance, and volatile materials; and natural phenomena effects of lightning and p-static.

electromagnetic environmental effects (E3). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The impact of the electromagnetic environment upon the operational capability of military forces, equipment, systems, and platforms. It encompasses all electromagnetic disciplines, including electromagnetic compatibility/ electromagnetic interference; electromagnetic vulnerability; electromagnetic pulse; electronic protection, electromagnetic radiation hazards to personnel, ordnance, and volatile materials; and natural phenomena effects of lightning and p-static.

electromagnetic hardening. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Action taken to protect personnel, facilities, and/or equipment by filtering, attenuating, grounding, bonding, and/or shielding against undesirable effects of electromagnetic energy. See also electronic warfare.

electromagnetic interference (EMI). 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) Any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the effective performance of electronics/ electrical equipment. It can be induced intentionally, as in some forms of electronic warfare, or unintentionally, as a result of spurious emissions and responses, intermodulation products, and the like. 2[DSMC] Engineering term used to designate interference in a piece of electronic equipment caused by another piece of electronic or other equipment. Sometimes refers to interference caused by nuclear explosion.

electromagnetic intrusion. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The intentional insertion of electromagnetic energy into transmission paths in any manner, with the objective of deceiving operators or of causing confusion. See also electronic warfare.

electromagnetic jamming. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The deliberate radiation, reradiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy for the purpose of preventing or reducing an enemy's effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum, and with the intent of degrading or neutralizing the enemy's combat capability. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electronic warfare; spectrum management.

electromagnetic pulse (EMP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The electromagnetic radiation from a nuclear explosion caused by Compton-recoil electrons and photoelectrons from photons scattered in the materials of the nuclear device or in a surrounding medium. The resulting electric and magnetic fields may couple with electrical/electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. May also be caused by non-nuclear means.

electromagnetic pulse generators. [TP 525-5] A device used to generate electromagnetic radiation; the resulting electric and magnetic field may couple with electrical/electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges.

electromagnetic radiation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Radiation made up of oscillating electric and magnetic fields and propagated with the speed of light. Includes gamma radiation, X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation, and radar and radio waves.

electromagnetic radiation hazards. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Hazards caused by a transmitter/antenna installation that generates electro-magnetic radiation in the vicinity of ordnance, personnel, or fueling operations in excess of established safe levels or increases the existing levels to a hazardous level; or a personnel, fueling, or ordnance installation located in an area that is illuminated by electromagnetic radiation at a level that is hazardous to the planned operations or occupancy. These hazards will exist when an electromagnetic field of sufficient intensity is generated to:

l Induce or otherwise couple currents and/or voltages of magnitudes large enough to initiate electroexplosive devices or other sensitive explosive components of weapon systems, ordnance, or explosive devices.

l Cause harmful or injurious effects to humans and wildlife.

l Create sparks having sufficient magnitude to ignite flammable mixtures of materials that must be handled in the affected area.

electromagnetic spectrum. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from zero to infinity. It is divided into 26 alphabetically designated bands. See also electronic warfare.

electromagnetic spectrum allocation request. An allocation request to use portions of the electromagnetic spectrum for a new system.

electromagnetic vulnerability (EMV). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The characteristics of a system that cause it to suffer a definite degradation (incapability to perform the designated mission) as a result of having been subjected to a certain level of electromagnetic environmental effects.

electronic attack (EA). [TP 71] That division of electronic warfare involving the use of electromagnetic, directed energy, or antiradiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability. See electronic warfare.

electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM). [DSMC] The division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to insure friendly effective use of the electromagnetic, optical, and acoustic spectra despite the enemy's use of electronic warfare to include high power microwave techniques.

electronic countermeasures (ECM). That division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to prevent or reduce an enemy’s effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum.

electronic deception. The deliberate radiation, rerediation, alteration, suppression, absorption, denial, enhancement, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner intended to convey misleading information and to deny valid information to an enemy or to enemy electronics-dependent weapons. Among the types of electronic deception are: manipulative electronic deception, simulated electronic deception; and imitative deception.

electronic guide. [TR 350-70] A type of electronic publication that provides information, instruction, or help.

electronic imagery dissemination. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The transmission of imagery or imagery products by any electronic means. This includes the following four categories:

l primary imagery dissemination system. The equipment and procedures used in the electronic transmission and receipt of unexploited original or near-original quality imagery in near-real time.

l primary imagery dissemination. The electronic transmission and receipt of unexploited original or near-original quality imagery in near-real time through a primary imagery dissemination system.

l secondary imagery dissemination system. The equipment and procedures used in the electronic transmission and receipt of exploited non-original quality imagery and imagery products in other than real or near-real time.

l secondary imagery dissemination. The electronic transmission and receipt of exploited nonoriginal quality imagery and imagery products in other than real or near-real time through a secondary imagery dissemination system.

electronic jamming. The deliberate radiation, radiation, or reflection of the electromagnetic energy for the purpose of disrupting enemy use of electronic devices, equipment, or systems.

electronic line of sight. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The path traversed by electro-magnetic waves that is not subject to reflection or refraction by the atmosphere.

electronic masking. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The controlled radiation of electro-magnetic energy on friendly frequencies in a manner to protect the emissions of friendly communications and electronic systems against enemy electronic warfare support measures/signals intelligence, without significantly degrading the operation of friendly systems.

Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS). [TR 350-70] An integrated electronic environment that is available to and easily accessible by each user and is structured to provide immediate, individualized access to the full range of information, software, guidance, advice and assistance, data, images, tools, as well as assessment and monitoring systems to permit performance with minimal support and intervention by others. EPSS can also be considered a type of job performance aid.

electronic probing. Intentional radiation designed to be introduced into the devices or systems of potential enemies for the purpose of learning the functions and operational capabilities of the devices or systems.

electronic protect (EP). [DSMC] The division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, or equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly capability.

electronic protection (EP). [TP 71] That division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability. See electronic warfare.

electronic publication. [TR 350-70] A document, prepared in a digital form on a suitable medium, for electronic-window display to an end user. Two examples of electronic publications are electronic guides and interactive electronic technical manuals (IETMs).

electronic reconnaissance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The detection, identification, evaluation, and location of foreign electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than nuclear detonations or radioactive sources.

electronic record. [TP 25-71] Electronic record means any information that is recorded in a form that requires a computer to process and satisfies the definition of a record in 36 CFR, Part 1234.

electronic security (ELSEC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from their interception and study of noncommunications electro-magnetic radiations; for example, radar.

electronic testing. [TR 350-70] A general term used to encompass all methods for applying computers in the assessment of human attributes, knowledge, and skills. Many forms of computer based testing adapt the sequence, content, or difficulty of test items to the responses of the person being tested. As the individual is being tested the computer presents test items in response to the individual’s actions. The electronic testing method utilizes branching to select test items based on the answers given while the test is being administered.

electronic training media. Devices utilized in the application of computer and communications technologies to automate and support the free exchange of digitized technical data in support of the development, delivery, and maintenance of training materials.

electronic warfare (EW). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Military action involving the use of electromagnetic energy to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent hostile use of the electromagnetic spectrum and action which retains friendly use of electromagnetic spectrum. These actions include:

l electronic attack (EA). That division of electronic warfare involving the use of electromagnetic or directed energy to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability. EA includes actions taken to prevent or reduce an enemy's effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as jamming and electromagnetic deception, and employment of weapons that use either electromagnetic or directed energy as their primary destructive mechanism (lasers, radio frequency weapons, particle beams).

l electronic protection (EP). That division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability.

l electronic warfare support (ES). Those actions tasked by an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition. Thus, ES provides information required for immediate decisions involving electronic warfare operations and other tactical actions such as threat avoidance, targeting, and homing. ES data can be used to produce signals intelligence (SIGINT), both communications intelligence (COMINT), and electronics intelligence (ELINT).

See also command and control warfare; communications intelligence; directed energy; directed-energy device; directed-energy warfare; directed-energy weapon; electromagnetic compatibility; electromagnetic deception; electromagnetic hardening; electromagnetic jamming; electromagnetic spectrum; electronics intelligence; frequency deconfliction; intelligence; signals intelligence; spectrum management; suppression of enemy air defenses.

electronic warfare support. See electronic warfare.

electronics intelligence (ELINT). Technical and geolocation intelligence derived from foreign noncommunications electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than nuclear detonations or radioactive sources. See also electronic warfare; intelligence; signals intelligence; telemetry intelligence.

electronics security. The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from their interception and study of noncommunications electromagnetic radiations, e.g., radar.

element. [DSMC] A complete, integrated set of subsystems capable of accomplishing an operational role or function, such as navigation. It is the configuration item delivered by a single contractor.

element of resupply. See improvised early resupply; initial early resupply.

elements of national power. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All the means that are available for employment in the pursuit of national objectives.

elevated causeway system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An elevated causeway pier that provides a means of delivering containers, certain vehicles, and bulk cargo ashore without the lighterage contending with the surf zone. See also causeway; system.

elevation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The vertical distance of a point or level on or affixed to the surface of the Earth measured from mean sea level. See also altitude; height.

elevation guidance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) IInformation which will enable the pilot or autopilot of an aircraft to follow the required glide path.

elevation tint. See hypsometric tinting.

elevator. In air intercept, a code meaning, "Take altitude indicated" (in thousands of feet, calling off each 5,000-foot increment passed through).

elevator. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Take altitude indicated" (in thousands of feet, calling off each 5,000-foot increment passed through).

elicitation (intelligence). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Acquisition of information from a person or group in a manner that does not disclose the intent of the interview or conversation. A technique of human source intelligence collection, generally overt, unless the collector is other than he purports to be.

eligible traffic. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Traffic for which movement requirements are submitted and space is assigned or allocated. Such traffic must meet eligibility requirements specified in Joint Travel Regulations for the Uniformed services and publications of the Department of Defense and military departments governing eligibility for land, sea, and air transportation, and be in accordance with the guidance of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

embarkation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The process of putting personnel and/or vehicles and their associated stores and equipment into ships and/or aircraft. See also loading.

embarkation and tonnage table. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A consolidated table showing personnel and cargo, by troop or naval units, loaded aboard a combat-loaded ship.

embarkation area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An area ashore, including a group of embarkation points, in which final preparations for embarkation are completed and through which assigned personnel and loads for craft and ships are called forward to embark. See also mounting area.

embarkation element (unit) (group). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard the ships of one transport element (unit) (group). It is dissolved upon completion of the embarkation. An embarkation element normally consists of two or more embarkation teams: a unit, of two or more elements; and a group, of two or more units. See also embarkation organization; embarkation team.

embarkation officer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An officer on the staff of units of the landing force who advises the commander thereof on matters pertaining to embarkation planning and loading ships. See also combat cargo officer.

embarkation order. [JP 1-02] (DoD) [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An order specifying dates, times, routes, loading diagrams, and methods of movement to shipside or aircraft for troops and their equipment. See also movement table.

embarkation organization. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard amphibious shipping. See also embarkation element (unit) (group); embarkation team.

embarkation phase. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, the phase which encompasses the orderly assembly of personnel and materiel and their subsequent loading aboard ships and/or aircraft in a sequence designed to meet the requirements of the landing force concept of operations ashore.

embarkation plans. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The plans prepared by the landing force and appropriate subordinate commanders containing instructions and information concerning the organization for embarkation, assignment to shipping, supplies and equipment to be embarked, location and assignment of embarkation areas, control and communication arrangements, movement schedules and embarkation sequence, and additional pertinent instructions relating to the embarkation of the landing force.

embarkation team. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A temporary administrative formation of all personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard one ship. See also embarkation element (unit) (group); embarkation organization.

embedded computer resources. [DSMC] Computer system physically incorporated (not necessarily within) into a larger system whose function is not data processing. Resources can be stand-alone, but still integral to a larger system, and used for other purposes provided the primary function is to support weapon systems. A subset of mission critical computer resources. See mission critical computer resources (MCCR).

embedded training. 1[TR 350-70] Training this is provided by capabilities designed to be built into or added onto operational systems to enhance and maintain the skill proficiency necessary to operate and maintain that equipment end item. 2[TR 350-32] Training that is delivered by capabilities built into an operation system in addition to the primary function. The training is made available by components of the equipment that take advantage of the overall system capabilities. It can train individual, operator, crew, functional, and force level tasks. Typical applications of embedded training are in computerized systems that run a software program to assist in the system training. The training can range from a simple help screen to assist in system operation to a full simulation environment built into the system to provide a realistic training scenario.

emergency anchorage. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An anchorage, which may have a limited defense organization, for naval vessels, mobile support units, auxiliaries, or merchant ships. See also advanced fleet anchorage; assembly anchorage; holding anchorage; working anchorage.

emergency barrier. See aircraft arresting barrier.

emergency burial. A burial, usually on the battlefield, when conditions do not permit either evacuation for interment in a cemetery or burial according to national or international legal regulations.

emergency essential employee. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A Department of Defense civilian employee whose assigned duties and responsibilities must be accomplished following the evacuation of non-essential personnel (including dependents) during a declared emergency or out break of war. The position occupied cannot be converted to a military billet because it requires uninterrupted performance so as to provide immediate and continuing support for combat operations and/or combat systems support functions. See also evacuation.

emergency interment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An interment, usually on the battlefield, when conditions do not permit either evacuation for interment in an interment site or interment according to national or international legal regulations. See also mortuary affairs; temporary interment; trench interment.

emergency locator beacon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A generic term for all radio beacons used for emergency locating purposes. See also personal locator beacon; crash locator beacon.

emergency marshal. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A marshal established by air operations control center, helicopter direction center, or carrier air traffic control center and given to each pilot before launch with an altitude and an emergency expected approach time. The emergency marshal radial will have a minimum of 30 degree separation from the primary marshal. See also air operations center; helicopter direction center.

emergency priority. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A category of immediate mission request that takes precedence over all other priorities, e.g., an enemy breakthrough. See also immediate mission request; priority of immediate mission requests.

emergency relocation site. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A site located where practicable outside a prime target area to which all or portions of a civilian or military headquarters may be moved. As a minimum, it is manned to provide for the maintenance of the facility, communications, and data base. It should be capable of rapid activation, of supporting the initial requirements of the relocated headquarters for a predetermined period, and of expansion to meet wartime requirements of the relocated headquarters.

emergency repair. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The least amount of immediate repair to damaged facilities necessary for the facilities to support the mission. These repairs will be made using expedient materials and methods (such as AM-2 aluminum matting, cold-mix asphalt, plywood scabs, temporary utility lines, emergency generators). Modular or kit-type facility substitutes would be appropriate if repairs cannot be made in time to meet mission requirements. See also facility substitutes.

emergency resupply. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A resupply mission that occurs based on a predetermined set of circumstances and time interval should radio contact not be established or, once established, is lost between a special operations tactical element and its base. See also automatic resupply; on-call resupply.

emergency risk (nuclear). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A degree of risk where anticipated effects may cause some temporary shock, casualties and may significantly reduce the unit's combat efficiency. See also degree of risk (nuclear); moderate risk (nuclear); negligible risk (nuclear).

emergency scramble. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Carrier(s) addressed immediately launch all available fighter aircraft as combat air patrol." If all available are not required, numerals and/or type may be added.

emergency substitute. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A product which may be used, in an emergency only, in place of another product, but only on the advice of technically qualified personnel of the nation using the product, who will specify the limitations.

emission control (EMCON). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The selective and controlled use of electromagnetic, acoustic, or other emitters to optimize command and control capabilities while minimizing, for OPSEC, detection by enemy sensors, to minimize mutual interference among friendly systems, or to execute a military deception plan. See also electronic warfare.

emission control orders. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Orders, referred to as EMCON orders, used to authorize, control, or prohibit the use of electronic emission equipment. See also control of electromagnetic radiation.

emission security (EMSEC). EMSEC is that component of COMSEC which results from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value which might be derived from intercept and analysis of compromising emanations from crypto equipment and telecommunications systems.

empirically based revision. [course] Revision based on the results of test data and the collection of other types of quantitative information.

emplacement. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A prepared position for one or more weapons or pieces of equipment, for protection against hostile fire or bombardment, and from which they can execute their tasks.

l The act of fixing a gun in a prepared position from which it may be fired.

employment. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) The strategic, operational, or tactical use of forces. See also employment planning. 2[DSMC] The manner of action of using. For example, in the Air Force the phrase "air employment," "employment of the air arm," "employment of aircraft," or "employment of air power" are doctrinal phrases, connoting a manner of use. Proper employment of aircraft implies their use in such a way as to take full advantage of their capabilities, both positive and passive in a variety of situations.

employment planning. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Planning that prescribes how to apply force/forces to attain specified military objectives. Employment planning concepts are developed by combatant commanders through their component commanders. See also employment.

employment procedures for soldier publications. [TR 350-70] The fifth level of the doctrinal literature publication hierarchy. These address soldiers’ duties and specific systems. Doctrinal and training publications in this category address specific MOS, officer career fields, duty positions, and systems. For example, doctrinal or training publications pertaining to the employment of a Patriot Air Defense System are in this category. In addition, and doctrine or training publication specific to the performance of an occupational specialty or duty position is in this category. Doctrinal publications may also describe a specific system’s operation, employment, and maintenance. However, detailed maintenance procedures are published in technical manuals by the materiel developer. Training publications in this category focus on tasks, conditions, and standards performed by individuals. Doctrinal and training publications in this category consist primarily of techniques and procedures.

empty battlefield. [TP 525-5] Describes the perception that a soldier is virtually alone on the battlefield; describes the changed appearance of the battlefield when soldiers begin dispersing and seeking cover in response to increasing lethality of weapon systems.

emulation. Mimicking the operation or characteristics of another system.

emulator. [TR 350-70] Software or hardware that allows one computer to perform the functions of or execute the programs designed for another type of computer or computing system.

enabling learning objective (ELO). [TR 350-70] A learning objective that supports the terminal learning objective. It must be learned or accomplished to learn or accomplish the terminal learning objective. It consists of an action, condition, and standard. Enabling objectives are identified when designing the lesson. A terminal learning objective does not have to have enabling objectives, but it may have more than one.

enabling mine countermeasures. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Countermeasures designed to counter mines once they have been laid. This includes both passive and active mine countermeasures. See also mine countermeasures.

enabling skills and knowledges. [TR 350-70] Those skills and knowledges required for the performance of a task performance step. They are identified during task analysis.

enactment. [DSMC]

l Action by the Congress on the President's budget. Includes hearings, budget resolution, authorizations and appropriations acts. Result is appropriations (funding) for Federal Government.

l Second of four phases in the DoD resource allocation process.

encipher. [JP 1-02] (DoD) To convert plain text into unintelligible form by means of a cipher system.

encrypt. [JP 1-02] (DoD) To convert plain text into unintelligible forms by means of a cryptosystem. Note: The term encrypt covers the meanings of encipher and encode. See also cryptosystem.

end item. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A final combination of end products, component parts, and/or materials that is ready for its intended use, e.g., ship, tank, mobile machine shop, aircraft.

end of mission. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, an order given to terminate firing on a specific target.

end of test report. [DSMC] Formally documents the results, conclusions, and recommendations as a result of each phase of development testing/operational testing.

end state. [JP 1-02] (DoD) What the National Command Authorities want the situation to be when operations conclude--both military operations, as well as those where the military is in support of other instruments of national power. See also National Command Authorities.

end-of-course test. [TR 350-70] A test designed to evaluate students' accomplishment of all learning objectives presented in the course.

endurance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The time an aircraft can continue flying, or a ground vehicle or ship can continue operating, under specified conditions, e.g., without refueling. See also endurance distance.

endurance distance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Total distance that a ground vehicle or ship can be self-propelled at any specified endurance speed.

endurance loading. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The stocking aboard ship for a period of time, normally covering the number of months between overhauls, of items with all of the following characteristics: low price; low weight and cube; a predictable usage rate; and nondeteriorative. See also loading.

enduring battlefield functions. [TP 71] Enduring battlefield functions are the following functions which are not expected to change.

l battle command and leadership. Decisionmaking and providing leadership. Dynamic process that occurs wherever the commander is located.

l maneuver. Movement of dismounted, mounted, and aviation combat forces to gain positional advantage.

l fires. Application of combat power beyond visual range to impair an adversary’s freedom of operations and/or inflict casualties.

l maneuver support. Those actions taken to husband combat power and provide the force freedom of movement.

l sustainment. Action required to provide for the support and maintenance of the force.

enemy capabilities. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those courses of action of which the enemy is physically capable, and that, if adopted, will affect accomplishment of our mission. The term capabilities includes not only the general courses of action open to the enemy, such as attack, defense, or withdrawal, but also all the particular courses of action possible under each general course of action. Enemy capabilities are considered in the light of all known factors affecting military operations, including time, space, weather, terrain, and the strength and disposition of enemy forces. In strategic thinking, the capabilities of a nation represent the courses of action within the power of the nation for accomplishing its national objectives throughout the range of military operations.

energy dependent materiel. Any system, vehicle, weapon, or equipment that needs energy to perform its function.

engage. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air defense, a fire control order used to direct or authorize units and/or weapon systems to fire on a designated target. See also cease engagement; hold fire.

engagement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air defense, an attack with guns or air-to-air missiles by an interceptor aircraft, or the launch of an air defense missile by air defense artillery and the missile's subsequent travel to intercept.

engagement control. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air defense, that degree of control exercised over the operational functions of an air defense unit that are related to detection, identification, engagement, and destruction of hostile targets.

engineering and manufacturing development (EMD). [DSMC]

l The third phase in the acquisition process, following Milestone II. The system/equipment and the principal items necessary for its support are fully developed, engineered, designed, fabricated, tested, and evaluated. The intended output is, as a minimum, a preproduction system which closely approximates the final product, the documentation necessary to enter the production phase, and the test results which demonstrate that the production product will meet stated requirements.

l A category of funds in the research, development, test and evaluation appropriation. May be referred to in short-hand terms as "6.4" funding.

engineering and manufacturing development (Research and Development Budget Activity 6.5). [TP 71] Includes those projects in engineering and manufacturing development for service use. This area is characterized major line item projects and program control will be exercised by review of individual projects. Includes engineering and manufacturing development projects as described in DoDD 5000.1, and may include operational test and evaluation (Milestone II).

engineering change proposal (ECP). Proposal to change design or engineering features of materiel under development or production. ECPs include proposed engineering changes and documentation describing these changes.

engineering cost estimate. [DSMC] Estimate derived by summing detailed cost estimates of the individual work packages and adding appropriate burdens. Usually determined by a contractor's industrial engineering, price analysts, and cost accountants.

engineering development. Research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDTE) funding category that includes development programs being engineered for service use but not yet approved for procurement or operation. It uses 6.4 RDTE funds.

engineering development model (EDM). [DSMC] A production representative system used during the Engineering and Manufacturing Development phase to resolve design deficiencies, demonstrate maturing performance, and develop proposed production specifications and drawings. May also be used for initial operational test and evaluation.

English-as-a-second-language. [TR 350-70] This is an education center program to provide English language instruction to soldiers whose primary language is other than English. Eligibility for instruction is determined through commander's referrals and testing.

Enlisted Master File (EMF). A file which contains personal record data on every active duty enlisted individual. From this file breakouts of ASVAB scores and associated data can be obtained for every soldier in a given MOS.

enlisted terminal attack controller (ETAC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Tactical air party member who assists in mission planning and provides final control of close air support aircraft in support of ground forces. See also close air support; mission; terminal.

ensuring freedom of navigation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operations conducted to demonstrate US or international rights to navigate air or sea routes.

enterprise. An integrated, purposeful activity that usually leads to accomplishment of a goal. The importance of an enterprise is that it is purposeful and relevant to the student. This motivates the learning behavior necessary to complete the component tasks.

entry behavior. The knowledge and skills a student has when they enter a course of instruction.

entry level training. [TR 350-70] Training given on initial entry into the Army which provides an orderly transition from civilian to military life. For enlisted soldiers it includes traditional basic combat training, advanced individual training, one station unit training, or other individual training needed to prepare them for initial duty assignments. Officer entry level training includes MQS I and MQS II (officer basic courses) to prepare them for their first duty assignment. Note: MQS products will be phased out upon replacement by OFS products.

entry skills. [TR 350-70] Specific measurable behaviors determined to be basic to learning material presented in the course. See prerequisite.

entry skills test. [TR 350-70] A pre-test designed to determine if a student possesses prerequisite skills or knowledges before undertaking new instruction.

entry test. [TR 350-70] A test on the objectives that the intended students must have mastered in order to begin the course. Note the distinction between entry test and entry skills test.

envelopment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An offensive maneuver in which the main attacking force passes around or over the enemy's principal defensive positions to secure objectives to the enemy's rear. See also turning movement.

environment. 1Used as a general reference, environment includes the generic natural environment; e.g., weather, climate, ocean conditions, terrain, vegetation, etc. Modified environment can refer to specific induced environments; e.g., dirty battlefield environment, nuclear-chemical-biological environment, etc. Environment includes those conditions observed by the system during operational use, standby, maintenance, transportation, and storage. 2The physical conditions and surroundings in which a job is performed, or in which learning takes place.

environment, operating. [DSMC] Used as an operational reference, environment includes the generic natural environment; e.g., weather, climate, ocean conditions, terrain, vegetation, electromagnetic, etc. Modified environment can refer to specific induced environments; e.g., dirty battlefield environment, nuclear-chemical-biological environment, etc. Environment includes those conditions observed by the system during operational use, stand-by, maintenance, transportation, and storage.

environmental assessment/environmental impact statement (EA/EIS). The EA contains an estimate of a proposed system’s adverse effects on the environment or environmental controversy. If either condition is true, an EIS is prepared.

environmental considerations. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The environmental factors, concerns, and regulations that must be taken into account when conducting task analysis, designing training, and/or implementing training.

environmental impact statement (EIS). [DSMC] Detailed description of the effects, impacts, or consequences associated with designing, manufacturing, testing, operating, maintaining, and disposing of weapon or automated information system systems.

envrionmental operations. [TP 525-5] The use of environmental services (various combinations of scientific, technical and advisory activities) required to acquire, produce, and supply information on the past, present, and future states of space, atmospheric, oceanographic, and terrestrial surroundings for use in military planning and decision-making processes or to modify those surroundings to enhance military operations.

environmental services. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The various combinations of scientific, technical, and advisory activities (including modification processes, i.e., the influence of manmade and natural factors) required to acquire, produce, and supply information on the past, present, and future states of space, atmospheric, oceanographic, and terrestrial surroundings for use in military planning and decision making processes, or to modify those surroundings to enhance military operations.

Ephemeris. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A publication giving the computed places of the celestial bodies for each day of the year or for other regular intervals.

equipment. 1A part of a system or subsystem for which operation and maintenance can be performed. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) In logistics, all nonexpendable items needed to outfit or equip an individual or organization. See also assembly; component; subassembly; supplies.

equipment operationally ready. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The status of an item of equipment in the possession of an operating unit that indicates it is capable of fulfilling its intended mission and in a system configuration that offers a high assurance of an effective, reliable, and safe performance.

equipment scheduling and loading. [DSMC] The effective and efficient loading of machines according to their capabilities to perform defined operations utilizing their maximum capability to assure attainment of the manufacturing schedule.

equivalent focal length. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The distance measured along the optical axis of the lens from the rear nodal point to the plane of best average definition over the entire field used in a camera. See also focal length.

error of halo. Occurs when an observer sometimes allows his/her rating of performance to be influenced by his/her general impression of a person.

errors of logic. Occur when two or more traits are being rated. It is present if an observer tends to give similar ratings to traits which do not necessarily go together. The traits are related only in the mind of the person making the error.

errors of standard. Occur when observers tend to rate performers too high or too low because of differences in their standards.

escalated dollars. [DSMC] See current-year dollars, then-year dollars.

escalation. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) An increase in scope or violence of a conflict, deliberate or unpremeditated. 2[DSMC] Use of a price index to convert past to present prices or of converting present to future prices; increase due to inflation and outlay rates for the type of equipment being acquired and the branch or the service involved.

escape line. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A planned route to allow personnel engaged in clandestine activity to depart from a site or area when possibility of compromise or apprehension exists.

escape route. See evasion and escape route.

escapee. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any person who has been physically captured by the enemy and succeeds in getting free. See also evasion and escape.

escort.

l [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A combatant unit(s) assigned to accompany and protect another force or convoy.

l Aircraft assigned to protect other aircraft during a mission.

l An armed guard that accompanies a convoy, a train, prisoners, etc.

l An armed guard accompanying persons as a mark of honor.

l [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l To convoy.

l A member of the Armed Forces assigned to accompany, assist, or guide an individual or group, e.g., an escort officer.

escort.

l [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A combatant unit(s) assigned to accompany and protect another force or convoy.

l Aircraft assigned to protect other aircraft during a mission.

l An armed guard that accompanies a convoy, a train, prisoners, etc.

l An armed guard accompanying persons as a mark of honor.

l [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l To convoy.

l A member of the Armed Forces assigned to accompany, assist, or guide an individual or group, e.g., an escort officer.

escort forces. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Combat forces of various types provided to protect other forces against enemy attack.

espionage. 1Actions directed toward the acquisition of information through clandestine operations. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) The act of obtaining, delivering, transmitting, communicating, or receiving information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation. See also counterintelligence.

espionage against the United States. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Overt, covert, or clandestine activity designed to obtain information relating to the national defense with intent or reason to believe that it will be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of a foreign nation. For espionage crimes see Chapter 37 of Title 18, United States Code.

essential chemicals. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In counterdrug operations, compounds that are required in the synthetic or extraction processes of drug production, but in most cases do not become part of the drug molecule. Essential chemicals are used in the production of cocaine or heroin.

essential communications traffic. Transmissions (record/ voice) of any precedence which must be sent electrically in order for the command or activity concerned to avoid a serious impact on mission accomplishment or safety or life.

essential elements of friendly information (EEFI). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Key questions about friendly intentions and military capabilities likely to be asked by opposing planners and decision makers in competitive circumstances.

essential elements of information (EEI). The critical items of information regarding the enemy and the environment needed by the commander by a particular time to relate with other available information and intelligence in order to assist in reaching a logical decision.

essential industry. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any industry necessary to the needs of a civilian or war economy. The term includes the basic industries as well as the necessary portions of those other industries that transform the crude basic raw materials into useful intermediate or end products, e.g., the iron and steel industry, the food industry, and the chemical industry.

essential secrecy. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The condition achieved from the denial of critical information to adversaries.

establishment. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An installation, together with its personnel and equipment, organized as an operating entity. 2(NATO) The table setting out the authorized numbers of men and major equipment in a unit/formations; sometimes called table of organization or table of organization and equipment. See also activity; base; equipment.

estimate. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l An analysis of a foreign situation, development, or trend that identifies its major elements, interprets the significance, and appraises the future possibilities and the prospective results of the various actions that might be taken.

l An appraisal of the capabilities, vulnerabilities, and potential courses of action of a foreign nation or combination of nations in consequence of a specific national plan, policy, decision, or contemplated course of action.

l An analysis of an actual or contemplated clandestine operation in relation to the situation in which it is or would be conducted in order to identify and appraise such factors as available and needed assets and potential obstacles, accomplishments, and consequences. See also intelligence estimate.

l In air intercept, a code meaning, "Provide a quick estimate of the height/depth/range/size of designated contact," or "I estimate height/depth/range/size of designated contact is __________________________."

estimated cost at completion (EAC). [DSMC] Actual direct costs, plus indirect costs or allocable to the contract, plus the estimate of costs (direct and indirect) for authorized work remaining.

estimated time value (ETV). Estimated manpower hours needed to perform a training development process or develop a product. It is based on organizational functions measured in the 1983 TRADOC TD Manpower Staffing Standards System (MS-3) Study.

evacuation. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The process of moving any person who is wounded, injured, or ill to and/or between medical treatment facilities.

l The clearance of personnel, animals, or materiel from a given locality.

l The controlled process of collecting, classifying, and shipping unserviceable or abandoned materiel, US or foreign, to appropriate reclamation, maintenance, technical intelligence, or disposal facilities.

l The ordered or authorized departure of noncombatants from a specific area by Department of State, Department of Defense, or appropriate military commander. This refers to the movement from one area to another in the same or different countries. The evacuation is caused by unusual or emergency circumstances and applies equally to command or non-command sponsored family members.

See also evacuee; noncombatant evacuation operations.

evacuation control ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In an amphibious operation, a ship designated as a control point for landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and helicopters evacuating casualties from the beaches. Medical personnel embarked in the evacuation control ship effect distribution of casualties throughout the attack force in accordance with ship's casualty capacities and specialized medical facilities available, and also perform emergency surgery.

evacuation convoy. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A convoy which is used for evacuation of dangerously exposed waters. See also evacuation of dangerously exposed waters.

evacuation of dangerously exposed waters. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The movement of merchant ships under naval control from severely threatened coastlines and dangerously exposed waters to safer localities. See also dangerously exposed waters.

evacuation of port equipment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The transfer of mobile/movable equipment from a threatened port to another port or to a working anchorage.

evacuation policy. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Command decision indicating the length in days of the maximum period of noneffectiveness that patients may be held within the command for treatment. Patients who, in the opinion of responsible medical officers, cannot be returned to duty status within the period prescribed are evacuated by the first available means, provided the travel involved will not aggravate their disabilities.

l A command decision concerning the movement of civilians from the proximity of military operations for security and safety reasons and involving the need to arrange for movement, reception, care, and control of such individuals.

l Command policy concerning the evacuation of unserviceable or abandoned materiel and including designation of channels and destinations for evacuated materiel, the establishment of controls and procedures, and the dissemination of condition standards and disposition instructions.

evacuation policy. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Command decision indicating the length in days of the maximum period of noneffectiveness that patients may be held within the command for treatment. Patients who, in the opinion of responsible medical officers, cannot be returned to duty status within the period prescribed are evacuated by the first available means, provided the travel involved will not aggravate their disabilities.

l A command decision concerning the movement of civilians from the proximity of military operations for security and safety reasons and involving the need to arrange for movement, reception, care, and control of such individuals.

l Command policy concerning the evacuation of unserviceable or abandoned materiel and including designation of channels and destinations for evacuated materiel, the establishment of controls and procedures, and the dissemination of condition standards and disposition instructions.

evacuee. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A civilian removed from a place of residence by military direction for reasons of personal security or the requirements of the military situation. See also displaced person; expellee; refugee.

evader. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any person isolated in hostile or unfriendly territory who eludes capture.

evaluation. 1[TR 350-70]

l The cornerstone of quality training.

l One of the five phases of the Army’s TD process, i.e., the systems approach to training (SAT). As such, it is a dynamic process that can occur as formal internal and external evaluations or informal feedback between the student and instructor as well as between the field commander or combat training center (CTC) and the proponent school.

l Seven major functional areas:

l SAT process.

l Individual training and education process/program.

l products.

l personnel.

l training institutions/facilities

l needs assessment.

l unit training

2[JP 1-02] (DoD) In intelligence usage, appraisal of an item of information in terms of credibility, reliability, pertinency, and accuracy. Appraisal is accomplished at several stages within the intelligence cycle with progressively different contexts. Initial evaluations, made by case officers and report officers, are focused upon the reliability of the source and the accuracy of the information as judged by data available at or close to their operational levels. Later evaluations, by intelligence analysts, are primarily concerned with verifying accuracy of information and may, in effect, convert information into intelligence. Appraisal or evaluation of items of information or intelligence is indicated by a standard letter-number system. The evaluation of the reliability of sources is designated by a letter from A through F, and the accuracy of the information is designated by numeral 1 through 6. These are two entirely independent appraisals, and these separate appraisals are indicated in accordance with the system indicated below. Thus, information adjudged to be "probably true" received from a "usually reliable source" is designated "B-2" or "B2," while information of which the "truth cannot be judged" received from a "usually reliable source" is designated "B-6" or "B6."Reliability of Source Accuracy of Information A--Completely reliable 1--Confirmed by other sources B--Usually reliable 2--Probably true C--Fairly reliable 3--Possibly true D--Not usually reliable 4—Doubtful E--Unreliable 5—Improbable F--Reliability cannot be judged 6--Truth cannot be judged.

Reliability codes are:

A - completely reliable 1 - confirmed by other sources
B - usually reliable 2 - probably true
C - fairly reliable 3 - possibly true
D - not usually reliable 4 - doubtful
E - unreliable 5 - improbable
F - reliability cannot be judged 6 - truth cannot be judged

See also intelligence cycle; operational evaluation; technical evaluation.

evaluation agent. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That command or agency designated in the program directive to be responsible for the planning, coordination, and conduct of the required evaluation. The evaluation agent, normally the joint doctrine center, J-7, identifies evaluation criteria and the media to be used, develops a proposed evaluation directive, coordinates exercise-related evaluation requirements with the sponsoring commands, and provides required evaluation reports to the director, J-7. See also joint doctrine; joint tactics, techniques, and procedures; joint test publication.

evaluation criteria. [DSMC] Standards by which accomplishments of required technical and operational effectiveness and/or suitability characteristics or resolution of operational issues may be assessed. See source selection plan (SSP).

evaluation guide. The section of the task summary in the soldier's manual which lists the pass/fail performance measures for evaluating the soldier's performance of the task.

evaluation information. That information collected for the purpose of assessing performance of students, conduct of instruction, support of instruction, or any other aspect of the instructional process.

evaluation instrument. A test or other measuring device used to determine achievement (go and no-go) or the relative standing of an individual or group or a test objective (i.e., attitude, behavior, performance objective, and other attributes). Evaluation instruments include tests, rating forms, inventories, and standard interviews.

evaluation phase. A major phase in the training development process that assesses how effectively training objectives are achieved to standard by units and soldiers and how well they can meet job performance and mission requirements. This phase provides feedback to the other phases of the training development process to improve effectiveness and efficiency.

evaluation plan. A set of procedures that will be used to gather data and information for the purpose of assessing a course of instruction or other training product.

evaluation program. A schedule for the coordinated, systematic, and continuous assessment of the efficiency and effectiveness of the training system, its processes and products.

evasion. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process whereby individuals who are isolated in hostile or unfriendly territory avoid capture with the goal of successfully returning to areas under friendly control. See also evasion and recovery.

evasion aid. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In evasion and recovery operations, any piece of information or equipment designed to assist an individual in evading capture. Evasion aids include, but are not limited to, blood chits, pointee-talkees, evasion charts, barter items, and equipment designed to complement issued survival equipment. See also blood chit; evasion; evasion and recovery; evasion chart; pointee-talkee; recovery; recovery operations.

evasion and escape. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The procedures and operations whereby military personnel and other selected individuals are enabled to emerge from an enemy-held or hostile area to areas under friendly control.

evasion and escape intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Processed information prepared to assist personnel to escape if captured by the enemy or to evade capture if lost in enemy-dominated territory.

evasion and escape net. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The organization within enemy-held or hostile areas that operates to receive, move, and exfiltrate military personnel or selected individuals to friendly control. See also unconventional warfare.

evasion and escape route. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A course of travel, preplanned or not, that an escapee or evader uses in an attempt to depart enemy territory in order to return to friendly lines.

evasion and recovery. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The full spectrum of coordinated actions carried out by evaders, recovery forces, and operational recovery planners to effect the successful return of personnel isolated in hostile territory to friendly control. See also evader; evasion; hostile; recovery force.

evasion chart. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Special map or chart designed as an evasion aid. See also evasion; evasion aid.

evasion plan of action (EPA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A course of action, developed before executing a combat mission, which is intended to improve a potential evader's chances of successful evasion and recovery by providing recovery forces with an additional source of information that can increase the predictability of the evader's actions and movement. See also course of action; evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery force.

event-based contracting. [DSMC] Supports event-driven acquisition strategy by linking specific contractual events to the exit criteria for the acquisition phase, or to intermediate development events established for the acquisition strategy.

event driven acquisition strategy. [DSMC] An acquisition strategy that links program decisions to demonstrated accomplishments in development, testing, and production.

evolutionary acquisition (EA). [DSMC] An acquisition strategy approach in which a core capability is fielded, with a system design that has a modular structure and provisions for future upgrades and changes as requirements are refined. An EA strategy is well suited to high technology and software intensive programs where requirements beyond a core capability can generally, but not specifically, be defined.

evolutionary requirements definition. [DSMC] Mission needs are first expressed in broad operational capability terms, then progressively evolved to system specific performance requirements. See mission need statement (MNS) and operational requirements document (ORD).

exaggerated stereoscopy. See hyperstereoscopy.

examination. A procedure to obtain information.

exceptional transport. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In railway terminology, a load whose size, weight, or preparation entail special difficulties vis-à-vis the facilities or equipment of even one of the railway systems to be used.

excess property. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The quantity of property in possession of any component of the Department of Defense that exceeds the quantity required or authorized for retention by that component.

exclusion zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A zone established by a sanctioning body to prohibit specific activities in a specific geographic area. The purpose may be to persuade nations or groups to modify their behavior to meet the desires of the sanctioning body or face continued imposition of sanctions, or use or threat of force.

exclusive (non-exclusive) license. [DSMC] A license covering a patent(s), technical or proprietary data, technical assistance, know-how, or any combination of these, granted by a U.S. firm to a foreign firm or government to produce, co-produce, or sell a defense article or service within a given sales territory without competition from any other licenses or from the licenser. A nonexclusive license is a license as described as above, except that competition may be permitted with other licensees and/or the licenser.

executable program. [DSMC] A program is executable if the program manager has adequate near-term approved funding.

execute order. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l An order issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, by the authority and at the direction of the Secretary of Defense, to implement a National Command Authorities decision to initiate military operations.

l An order to initiate military operations as directed.

executing commander (nuclear weapons). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A commander to whom nuclear weapons are released for delivery against specific targets or in accordance with approved plans. See also releasing commander (nuclear weapons).

execution. [DSMC] The operation of carrying out a program as contained in the approved budget. Often referred to as budget execution.

execution planning. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The phase of the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System crisis action planning process that provides for the translation of an approved course of action into an executable plan of action through the preparation of a complete operation plan or operation order. Execution planning is detailed planning for the commitment of specified forces and resources. During crisis action planning, an approved operation plan or other National Command Authorities-approved course of action is adjusted, refined, and translated into an operation order. Execution planning can proceed on the basis of prior deliberate planning, or it can take place in the absence of prior planning. See also Joint Operation Planning and Execution System.

executive agency. Executive agency means an executive department, a military department, or any independent establishment within the meaning of 5 U.S.C. 101, 102, and 104(1), respectively, and any wholly owned Government corporation within the meaning of 31 U.S.C. 9101.

executive agent (EA). 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) A term used in Department of Defense and Service regulations to indicate a delegation of authority by a superior to a subordinate to act on behalf of the superior. An agreement between equals does not create an executive agent. For example, a Service cannot become a Department of Defense Executive Agent for a particular matter with simply the agreement of the other Services; such authority must be delegated by the Secretary of Defense. Designation as executive agent, in and of itself, confers no authority. The exact nature and scope of the authority delegated must be stated in the document designating the executive agent. An executive agent may be limited to providing only administration and support or coordinating common functions, or it may be delegated authority, direction, and control over specified resources for specified purposes. See also agent. 2[TR 350-70] An organization or member of an organization assigned sole responsibility and delegated authority for specific actions otherwise exercised by a higher level organization or executive.

Executive Branch. [DSMC] The principal acquisition participants within the Executive Branch, including the President, the DoD, the Office of Management and Budget, the Department of State, and the National Security Council. Their perspective is to formulate, direct, and execute national security policy.

executive direction. [DSMC] Authority and guidance for defense acquisition from the Executive Branch in the form of executive orders and national security directives from the President, and regulations from cabinet level departments and other Federal agencies.

executive service. [DSMC] See lead Component/Service.

exercise. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A military maneuver or simulated wartime operation involving planning, preparation, and execution. It is carried out for the purpose of training and evaluation. It may be a combined, joint, or single-service exercise, depending on participating organizations. See also field exercise; maneuver. 2[TR 350-70] Collective task training designed to develop proficiency and crew teamwork in performing the task to the established standard. It also provides practice for performing supporting individual critical tasks. Exercises may be conducted in units and resident training.

Exercise types:

l command field exercise (CFX). A field training exercise with reduced troop and vehicle density, but with full command, control, and service support elements.

l command post exercise (CPX). An exercise in which the forces are simulated. It may be conducted from garrison locations or between participating headquarters in the unit.

l decision making exercise (DMX). Exercise used to brainstorm rough contingency courses of action in response to conditions which could arise during an operation. It is intended to improve dialog, understanding, and teamwork between commanders, subordinate commanders, and staffs.

l field training exercise (FTX). A scenario driven tactical exercise used to train and evaluate critical collective and supporting individual tasks in a collective environment which simulates the stress and sounds of wartime conditions. It is conducted in an austere field environment through all weather conditions and during night and day. The FTX should guide soldiers through a series of events exposing them to the rigors of duty performance during wartime operations. It combines combat arms, combat support, and combat service support.

l fire coordination exercise (FCX). Trains the combined arms team chain of command and related fire control elements to rapidly synchronize fires on the battlefield.

l lane training exercise (LTX).

l live fire exercise (LFX). An exercise designed to allow a unit/team to engage targets with its organic weapons and support.

l logistical coordination exercise (LCX). Provides leaders with a hands-on opportunity to deal with combat related challenges such as transportation, maintenance, and graves registration.

l map exercise (MAPEX). Portrays military situations on maps and overlays. A training tool used before conducting other, more costly exercises.

l mobilization exercise. An exercise involving, either completely or in part, the implementation of mobilization plans.

l situational training exercise (STX). A short scenario driven mission-oriented tactical exercise that trains a group of closely related collective tasks and drills together. STXs provide preconstructed, bite-sized, short-term exercises that are central to sustainment training for tactical mission proficiency.

l tactical exercise without troops (TEWT). An exercise conducted on actual terrain with unit leaders and staff without troops.

exercise directing staff. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A group of officers who by virtue of experience, qualifications, and a thorough knowledge of the exercise instructions, are selected to direct or control an exercise.

exercise filled mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a mine containing an inert filling and an indicating device. See also explosive filled mine; mine.

exercise incident. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An occurrence injected by directing staffs into the exercise which will have an effect on the forces being exercised, or their facilities, and which will require action by the appropriate commander and/or staff being exercised.

exercise mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a mine suitable for use in mine warfare exercises, fitted with visible or audible indicating devices to show where and when it would normally fire. See also drill mine; mine; practice mine.

exercise specifications. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The fundamental requirements for an exercise, providing in advance an outline of the concept, form, scope, setting, aim, objectives, force requirements, political implications, analysis arrangements, and costs.

exercise sponsor. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The commander who conceives a particular exercise and orders that it be planned and executed either by the commander's staff or by a subordinate headquarters.

exercise study. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An activity which may take the form of a map exercise, a war game, a series of lectures, a discussion group, or an operational analysis.

exercise term. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A combination of two words, normally unclassified, used exclusively to designate a test, drill, or exercise. An exercise term is employed to preclude the possibility of confusing exercise directives with actual operations directives.

exfiltration. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The removal of personnel or units from areas under enemy control.

existence load. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Consists of items other than those in the fighting load that are required to sustain or protect the combat soldier. These items may be necessary for increased personal and environmental protection and are not normally carried by the individual. See also fighting load.

exit criteria. Program specific accomplishments that must be satisfactorily demonstrated before an effort or program can progress further in the current acquisition phase or transition to the next acquisition phase. Exit criteria may include such factors as critical test issues, the attainment of projected growth curves and baseline parameters, and the results of risk reduction efforts deemed critical to the decision to proceed further. Exit criteria supplement minimum required accomplishments and are specific to each acquisition phase.

exoatmosphere. See nuclear exoatmospheric burst.

expedition. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A military operation conducted by an armed force to accomplish a specific objective in a foreign country.

expeditionary force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An armed force organized to accomplish a specific objective in a foreign country.

expellee. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A civilian outside the boundaries of the country of his or her nationality or ethnic origin who is being forcibly repatriated to that country or to a third country for political or other purposes. See also displaced person; evacuee; refugee.

expendable property. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Property that may be consumed in use or loses its identity in use and may be dropped from stock record accounts when it is issued or used.

expendable supplies and material. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Supplies which are consumed in use, such as ammunition, paint, fuel, cleaning and preserving materials, surgical dressings, drugs, medicines, etc., or which lose their identity, such as spare parts, etc. Also called consumable supplies and material.

expenditure. [DSMC] A charge against available funds, evidenced by voucher, claim, or other document, approved by a competent authority. Expenditure represents the actual payment of funds.

expense. [DSMC] Limitation The financial authority issued by a claimant to an intermediate level of command is an expense limitation. Amounts therein are available for issuance of operating budgets to responsibility centers.

expenses. [DSMC] Expired costs that are deducted from revenue for a given period. Cost of operation and maintenance of activities on the accrual basis over time, as distinguished from costs of acquisition of property.

experiential learning. A learning activity having a behavioral based hierarchy that allows the student to experience and practice job related tasks and functions during a training session.

expired appropriation. [DSMC] An appropriation which is no longer available for new obligations because the time available for incurring such obligations has expired. Expired appropriations are maintained by fiscal year (FY) identity for 5 years. During this 5-year period, obligations may be adjusted if otherwise proper and outlays made from these accounts. Unobligated balances may not be withdrawn from expired accounts. After the 5-year period has elapsed, all obligated and unobligated balances are canceled and the expired account is closed.

exploder. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device designed to generate an electric current in a firing circuit after deliberate action by the user in order to initiate an explosive charge or charges.

exploitation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Taking full advantage of success in battle and following up initial gains.

l Taking full advantage of any information that has come to hand for tactical, operational, or strategic purposes.

l An offensive operation that usually follows a successful attack and is designed to disorganize the enemy in depth.

exploitation process reengineer study (EXPRS). A CIO study to examine training implications and problems of new system acquisition.

Exploratory Development (Research and Development Budget Activity 6.2). [TP 71] This activity translates promising basic research into solutions for broadly defined military needs, short of major development projects, with a view to developing and evaluating technical feasibility. This type of effort may vary from fairly fundamental applied research to sophisticated bread-board hardware, study, programming, and planning efforts that establish the initial feasibility and practicality of proposed solutions to technological challenges. It would thus include studies, investigation, and development effort. The dominant characteristic of this category of effort is that it be pointed toward specific military needs with a view toward developing and evaluating the feasibility and practicability of proposed solutions and determining their parameters. Program control of the Exploratory Development element will normally be exercised by general level of effort. Exploratory Development precedes the system specific research described in DoDD 5000.1.

exploratory hunting. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a parallel operation of search sweeping, in which a sample of the route or area is subjected to mine hunting procedures to determine the presence or absence of mines.

explosive filled mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In mine warfare, a mine containing an explosive charge but not necessarily the firing train needed to detonate it. See also exercise filled mine; fitted mine.

explosive ordnance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) All munitions containing explosives, nuclear fission or fusion materials and biological and chemical agents. This includes bombs and warheads; guided and ballistic missiles; artillery, mortar, rocket, and small arms ammunition; all mines, torpedoes, and depth charges; demolition charges; pyrotechnics; clusters and dispensers; cartridge and propellant actuated devices; electro-explosive devices; clandestine and improvised explosive devices; and all similar or related items or components explosive in nature.

explosive ordinance disposal (EOD). 1An Army Materiel Command (AMC) program to provide the capability to Army EOD field personnel to neutralize unexploded or damaged explosive ordinance which presents a threat to operations, installations, personnel, or materiel. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The detection, identification, on-site evaluation, rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of unexploded explosive ordnance. It may also include explosive ordnance which has become hazardous by damage or deterioration.

explosive ordnance disposal incident. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The suspected or detected presence of unexploded explosive ordnance, or damaged explosive ordnance, which constitutes a hazard to operations, installations, personnel or material. Not included in this definition are the accidental arming or other conditions that develop during the manufacture of high explosive material, technical service assembly operations or the laying of mines and demolition charges.

explosive ordnance disposal procedures. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Those particular courses or modes of action taken by explosive ordnance disposal personnel for access to, diagnosis, rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of explosive ordnance or any hazardous material associated with an explosive ordnance disposal incident.

l access procedures. Those actions taken to locate exactly and gain access to unexploded explosive ordnance.

l diagnostic procedures. Those actions taken to identify and evaluate unexploded explosive ordnance.

l render safe procedures. The portion of the explosive ordnance disposal procedures involving the application of special explosive ordnance disposal methods and tools to provide for the interruption of functions or separation of essential components of unexploded explosive ordnance to prevent an unacceptable detonation.

l recovery procedures. Those actions taken to recover unexploded explosive ordnance.

l final disposal procedures. The final disposal of explosive ordnance which may include demolition or burning in place, removal to a disposal area, or other appropriate means.

explosive ordnance disposal unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Personnel with special training and equipment who render explosive ordnance safe (such as bombs, mines, projectiles, and booby traps), make intelligence reports on such ordnance, and supervise the safe removal thereof.

explosive train. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A succession of initiating and igniting elements arranged to cause a charge to function.

exportable training. A training program or course that is portable.

exposure dose. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The exposure dose at a given point is a measurement of radiation in relation to its ability to produce ionization. The unit of measurement of the exposure dose is the roentgen.

exposure station. See air station (photogrammetry).

extended communications search (EXCOM). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In search and rescue operations, consists of contacting all possible sources of information on the missing craft, including physically checking possible locations such as harbors, marinas, and airport ramps. An extended communications search is normally conducted after a preliminary communications search has yielded no results and when the mission is upgraded to the alert phase. See also preliminary communications search; search and rescue incident classification.

extended planning annex (EPA). A document providing program guidance for ten years beyond that contained in the original program.

extension course. [TR 350-70] A course developed by a service school as part of the individual training plan but conducted in locations other than TRADOC service schools or Army training centers.

extension training. [TR 350-70] Individual or collective training which is structured, developed, and supported by the service schools, but normally conducted in other than institutionalized settings. See correspondence course and distance learning.

extension training materials. [TR 350-70] This refers to all training products available from the proponent. This includes training extension courses (TEC), Army Correspondence Course Program (ACCP) courses, training devices, simulators, and resident materials sent to units.

extent of a military exercise. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The scope of an exercise in relation to the involvement of NATO and/or national commands. See also intra-command exercise.

extent of damage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The visible plan area of damage to a target element, usually expressed in units of 1,000 square feet, in detailed damage analysis and in approximate percentages in immediate-type damage assessment reports; e.g., 50 percent structural damage.

external audience. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All people who are not part of the internal audience of U.S. military members and civilian employees and their immediate families. See also internal audience; public.

external cues. Signals for action that exist outside of the student (conditions, features, or characteristics of the job environment that trigger action).

external evaluation. External (field) evaluation is the process of gathering and analyzing data from outside the training environment in order to determine how well recent graduates are meeting job performance requirements. This evaluation activity relies primarily on input from the field to determine how well graduates are performing. However, in some cases, external evaluation data is gathered and provided to the organization by inspection and evaluation teams, consultants, advisory bodies, Board of Visitors, accrediting agencies, and professional certification groups.

external reinforcing force. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A reinforcing force which is principally stationed in peacetime outside its intended area of operations.

extraction parachute. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An auxiliary parachute designed to release and extract and deploy cargo from aircraft in flight and deploy cargo parachutes. See also gravity extraction.

extraction zone. A specified drop zone used for the delivery of supplies and/or equipment by means of an extraction technique from an aircraft flying very close to the ground.

extrapolation. A sublevel of the comprehension level of learning in which students develop sufficient understanding to estimate trends or predict outcomes based upon the subject matter under study.

extrapolation from actual costs. [DSMC] Extrapolation method requires prototype or preproduction actual cost data on the system considered. Primarily used in estimating the production cost of system hardware, and assumes a relationship (technical, performance) between cost of prototypes and production units. See cost estimating methodologies.